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of various materials. The series of op- by the skill of the operator, produces erations termed cutting give the surface nearly all the figures seen upon the surits brilliant iridescent appearance, which face of modern cut-glass ware, although is superior to any of the other designs the designs are almost innumerable, the that have thus far been manufactured. fashions changing from time to time like In fact, the cut glass is as superior to the those of the modiste and the milliner. pressed and acid

Wrought iron and treated material as

copper are the iron wrought by

principal materials hand is superior to

used in the roughmachine-made ar

ing wheels. The ticles of the same

iron wheels are metal.

called “millers” in Before cutting

the English works. the figures to be

In making shallow worked

upon
the

cuts, stone and dish, the surface of

wooden wheels are the latter is divided

occasionally used ; into equal sections

but the metal with some adhesive

wheels are princicomposition insolu

pally depended ble in water. Usu

upon for the first ally a mixture of

process. A wheel resin, turpentine,

with rounded and oxide of red

edge is used for lead is employed.

fluting and hollowIf the design is

ing. The deep and very intricate, as is

fine cutting is of sometimes the case,

course done with it may be traced

narrow wheel, upon the surface

termed a “splitter." with a steel point;

The edge of the but the glass cutter

split wheel, slightly is usually such an

flattened, performs expert that he can

what is called panel fashion the leaf,

work; but most of diamond, or star,

the ornamentation depending almost

is done by miter entirely upon his

wheels, which, in eye and memory,

the hands of a the lines traced

skilled workman, with the pigment

create really marserving merely to

velous patterns. assure proper Showing Diamond, Star, and Other Designs

Taking the model measurement,

as it comes from that all the proportions will be exact. the annealing oven, the cutter applies it Roughing

to the surface of the wheel, which traces Cutting glass is really “roughing" it, vertical, horizontal, and diagonal lines for the material is eaten away by apply- upon it almost as rapidly as a scroll saw ing it to the rapidly revolving metal cuts ornamental outlines in the thin patwheels, the edges of which are covered tern in the hands of the woodworker. with moistened sand. Water from above Merely additional pressure of the surface constantly drips upon the wheels from a to the wheel produces a deeper cutting, reservoir, to cool them — on the same while rocking the model slightly from principle as when a farmer moistens his side to side broadens the opening at its grindstone.

outer edge to suit the particular deThe size of the roughing wheels, aided sign.

The diamond pattern

fa

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a

CUT-GLASS FLOWER Vase.

in the Pattern,

SO

SO

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miliar to admirers of cut glass, is pro while the square-cut stars as well as diaduced with the miter, while prisms are monds, each having three to eight sides, formed by applying the glass to its sides. are completed by merely moving the These in turn become the edges of facets piece of glass

piece of glass in various directions in the diamond by another movement; against the miter. Buds are produced by

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INITIAL PROCESS OF CUTTING BY APPLICATION TO THE ROUGHING WHEEL

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Machine FOR TESTING DUCTILITY OF FLUX

BY EXPANSION.

Smoothing, Polishing, and finishing

After leaving the roughing department, the dish contains the design; but the surface is of a dull color, and only the expert could distinguish it from common glass. To give it the brilliancy and luster so much desired, it must be smoothed and then polished. In this process, stone and wooden wheels are used, also revolving at a high rate of speed. Great Britain furnishes the best stone so far discovered for the treatment of glass, the Yorkshire, Newcastle, and Craigleith districts being the principal sources of supply. Roughly hewn into shape, the stones are purchased by the glass manufacturers, and “trued” to the proper edge by abrasion. Then, mounted upon axles, they are driven by shafting and belting. The contact of the stone

PLACING PLAIN DISHES IN THE ANNEALING OVEN.

gives the surface of the glass its smooth finish, although great care has to be taken lest too much of the material should be cut away and the dish thus destroyed; in fact, a very straight and "true” eye is required for the work of roughing and smoothing. A notch a quarter or an eighth of an inch out of the way, might destroy the most costly vessel, for, as is well known, the finest cuttings are the deepest. The stone wheels are mitered and of other shapes, to correspond with the patterns to be finished.

Wooden wheels for finishing and polishing have been largely supplanted in recent years by revolving brushes, and also by wheels having a felt surface, or “buffers," as they are sometimes termed. The

[graphic]
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CUTTING A DESIGN ON A VASE,

wood preferred is willow, elder, or cherry, as these varieties give a very lustrous appearance, and do not leave any imperfections upon the surface if the polishing is properly done. The finishing of the dish is a process which involves much care, but cut glass owes its popularity as an ornament very largely to the manner in which this process is carried

FINISHING AN INTRICATE PATTERN WITH THE

MITER WHEEL.

As already stated, each year brings setting of the dinner table, with the exnew fashions in designs of glass; con ception of the cutlery and plates, can be sequently an opportunity is given the completely composed of glass, for even artisan to display ingenuity as well as meat and vegetable dishes, in addition to skill. The size of some of the dishes and tumblers, carafes, pitchers, dessert plates, other articles which are produced is sur salad bowls, and bread trays, are proprising. They have been manufactured duced from it. from masses weighing 100 pounds. The popularity of cut glass has led Probably the largest ever finished was a to the establishment of a number of impunch bowl which was presented to portant industries in the United States. President McKinley. The bowl, and the Not only is the product sold in this counpedestal by which it was supported, try, but large quantities have been sent weighed no less than 75 pounds. In ad abroad, where the use of cut glass made dition to this form of ware, however, so in America is becoming more and more many shapes are manufactured that the extensive.

[graphic]

The Sun is Always Shinin', an' the

Sky is Always Blue

By WILLIAM EBEN SCHULTZ

W"

HEN you go to gettin' troubled, an' the world seems upside down,

When misfortune stares upon you with an awful-lookin' frown,
There's a cheerfulness in knowin', when its dark for me an' you,
That the sun is always shinin', an' the sky is always blue.

When the clouds appear the thickest an' the daylight seems withdrawn,
An' the hopeful joy o’ livin' seems to be entirely gone,
Just remember, when the darkest, just a little distance through,
That the sun is always shinin', an' the sky is always blue.

So there ain't no use in frettin' at the hardships that we meet,
For the birds are still a-singin', an' the flowers are just as sweet;
An' behind the deepest shadow there's a heap o' promise, too,
For the sun is always shinin', an' the sky is always blue.

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