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patient in a room to which only red light and rendering the light cool by passing it is admitted. This results in the preven through blue water. This treatment was tion of suppuration, the most dangerous continued for one or two hours each day and the most painful stage of the dis for six months, by which time the cure ease, and effects recovery without the was complete. Within a month, Finsen appearance of scars.

was offered room in the grounds of the This paper brought Finsen recognition


Hospital of Copenhagen, and support, so that from this time on he where he continued his experiments on was able to de

a larger scale vote his entire

and with more strength to

help. At first working in his

he depended on chosen field,


and photo - ther

the work was apy. He soon

carried on

in discovered that

one of the garthe chemical

dens of the rays kill bac

hospital. He téria, and

applied himself hence conclud

to increasing ed that they

the penetrating should be of

power of the value in treat

rays, for at the ing skin dis

best they enter ease of bacter

the body only ial origin. He

fraction of made his first

an inch.

He test in 1895 on

found that the Niel Morgen

rays penetrated sen, an engi

farther if the neer of Copen

skin were renhagen who was

dered white suffering with

and bloodless lu p us. This

by pressure. disease is

This he proved caused by the


ing experisis bacterium

ment. He exbecoming ac Under this lamp, with its four tubes, four patients can be treated at posed a piece tive in the

the same time.

of sensitive paskin, instead of

per behind the in some inter

A-Lens in end of tube. B-Spout in tube into which distilled

water is inserted. C-Compressors. D-Rubber tubes supplying com ear of his wife, nal organ, as it pressors with cold running water. E-Body of lamp frame. F-Braces suspending frame from ceiling. G-Iron pipe conveying cold running

concen usually does in

water to supply lenses at distal end of tubes. H-Upper carbon holder. trating the blue America

I-Large wires conveying electric power to operate lamp. j-Upper
and lower carbons. K-Large rubber tubes conveying running water

light upon the con su m p

from pipes G, which supply water to the lenses at distal end of tubes. ear. The paper

GG-Iron pipe carrying away cold water after being used in the lamp. tion, for in

was not blackstance, being

ened after five the case where the tuberculosis bac minutes. On squeezing the blood out of teria become active in the lungs. the ear, the paper was blackened in twenLupus is quite common in the northern ty seconds. He also began to use clear in countries and is the cause of much suf place of blue water for removing heat fering. Morgensen had undergone many rays, and adopted quartz lenses to absorb operations; but still the disease spread. fewer chemical rays. He found the elec

Finsen went to work concentrating the tric arc light much richer in these rays sunlight upon the sore by means of a than the sun. He adopted all of hand lens, first removing the red rays these improvements, and enlarged the



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lamp until the arc was of 40,000 candle- lamps in use there, and the rooms were power and required a current of 80 am aglow with a red light. Under each lamp peres. He was stopped here only by the might be found a group of eight people, fact that it was impossible to cool the four patients and four nurses, laughing light from a stronger are sufficiently to and chatting keep it from burning the patient. The Fin The patients, who are of all ages, lie sen light, as finally used, consisted of an on cots, while the nurses direct the tubes 80-ampere arc light carrying four tele so that the rays are focused upon the scope-like tubes which contain the quartz diseased spots, and at the same time condensing lenses and the water for cool press the spot with a water-filled glass, ing. This enables four patients to be which serves to drive out the blood and treated at one time from one lamp. help cool the light. The treatment lasts

In a short time the Danish Government for one and one-quarter hours each day. recognized the value of the work, and the The cost for the treatment in the Institute Finsen Medical Light Institute is sixty kroners ($17.00) a month for started in Rosenvaengel, a pretty suburb poor patients, and 100 kroners ($28.00)


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of Copenhagen. Here Professor Finsen for those who are in better circumstances. lived and did his work. Though himself Finsen was a poor man, and gave the suffering from a complication of dis results of his experiments freely to the eases, he devoted all his energy to ex world. He lived on the $1,200 salary perimenting and to attending his patients. which was paid by the Government. One Mr. Jacob Riis, who was an intimate cause of much regret to him was the friend of Finsen, says:

$4,000 debt still due on the Institute, "I came to look with a kind of reverential

which he was unable to lift. Mr. Riis awe upon this patient, silent man whose every says: thought was for his suffering fellows, while "I learned from his own lips the story of he calmly counted the hours to his own re

his great temptation-how, when he had lease from racking pain."

finally made his discovery, he lay awake one The Institute was unlike most hospi

whole night debating with himself whether to tals. The buildings were situated among

turn it to account in private practice (Finsen

is a poor man) or to give it and his life to the fine flower gardens and trees. They con world. He chose poverty, and the world is sisted of the Laboratory, Prof. Finsen's richer for his sacrifice." house, and a long, white, two-story build The Institute is visited by many foring, the gift of the Danish Government eigners. In 1898 the Empress of Russia for Danish patients. There were seven visited it, and then sent a party of Rus

sians over to Copenhagen to investigate then, the Institute at Copenhagen alone the method and make a report. As a re

has treated thousands of cases. Out of sult, a Finsen lamp was installed in St. the first six hundred cases, there was Petersburg. Queen Alexandra of En- practically no failure due to a fault in the gland, who visited the Institute at the treatment, though a few cases were so same time, on her return to London pre far advanced and had run so long that sented a Finsen lamp to the London Hos a cure was impossible. Cases of forty pital. Thus the treatment spread to other years' standing were cured in a countries. America was rather slow in months or years, while cases taken early adopting the treatment, partly because of were cured in a few treatments. The the scarcity of lupus in this country; but sores heal up, and in the lighter cases now there are many lamps in use here hardly leave a scar. There has not yet also. Many modifications, both in the been sufficient time to say positively that method and in the light, have been pro the cure is absolute, although it appears posed, in the attempt to render the treat to be. Many of the modified lamps are ment more effective, cheaper, and easier not strong enough to cure entirely in the to apply; but the Finsen light is still re worst cases, and so are causing reports garded as the most effective.

of failure; but the Finsen light appears Professor Finsen used these rays for to do all that its originator claimed for the cure of many other diseases—such it. The Finsen light and the X-ray are as the small surface form of cancer, bald held in about equal regard at present, ness due to bacteria, acne, erysipelas, and the X-ray being more penetrating, but many minor eruptions. Together with not so healing, nor so harmless, as the the X-rays, the Finsen light has been Finsen light. used with quite good success in treating It is a pleasure to know that only last deeper-seated cancers.

December the Norwegian Parliament The world pays tribute to Professor awarded to Professor Finsen the Nobel Finsen, both for removing many of the Medical Prize, thus recognizing the imterrors of smallpox and also for an ap portance of his discovery during his lifeparent cure for lupus. Up to 1895, when time. His death at the early age of 43 Finsen first applied his method, there was is a great loss to his profession, and no known method of curing or even his life may well serve as an example checking the ravages of lupus. Since and inspiration for others.

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American Territory Acquired by Recent Boundary Decision and Tapped

by the Alaskan Cable, is the Wonder of Tourists






XTENSION of States. The mildness of the climate is

the recently attributable to its proximity to the ocean completed

and to the warm Japan return current Alaskan tele which sweeps the Alaskan coast. graph cable into the The part of tliis country most Porcupine District noted for its peculiarities, comes into west of Lynn Canal, America's undisputed possession through has brought to light a the recent boundary decision. All of strange new land of Glacier Creek becomes part of Alaska, as Uncle Sam's possession. In that far northern latitude, a climate has been found nearly as mild as Chicago's. In the spring and summer

the ground is covered with heavy foliage, including flowers of rich hue, vines, and

grasses. Explorers and early settlers have grown gardens of many kinds of

vegetables, all of which

remarkable for their rare flavor. Fruit trees planted there have made good progress; and it is believed the land may be made to produce apples, peaches, berries, and other fruits indigenous to the United






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does the rich tributary territory. Adven- carved from a solid log of wood of enorturous Americans have already gone on mous length, and contain the bodies of many exploring expeditions into the new animals or birds emblematic of the parcountry, and each party has something ticular tribe. The animals carved on the new to relate regarding the land's pecu- poles are held as objects of veneration liarities. There has been considerable by the Indians. It was of the totem pole gold prospecting here; but as yet no re builders among the North American Inmarkable finds have been made, and the dians, that Longfellow wrote:

"And they painted on the grave-posts
“Of the graves yet unforgotten,
"Each his own ancestral totem,
“Each the symbol of his household;
"Figures of the bear and reindeer,
“Of the turtle, crane, and beaver."

Study of these newly found totem poles leads to the conclusion that the explanation of the crests and emblems of the now disrupted tribes and clans of our own



country seems destined to notoriety through other claims to attractiveness.

The region is inhabited by a strange pecple of whom the Canadians knew little and the Americans knew less until the land passed finally under Uncle Sam's control. These inhabitants, while now in a low stage of intelligence, show evidences of a former relatively high civilization. They are among the few extant tribes of builders of totem poles, and the skill they display in this work is phenomenal. The poles are generally


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