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Thus Mr. Willey, in his instructive ar- points the way to a solution of the transit ticle on the cut-glass industry in this problem for all large cities. But it takes number, tersely explains the distinction unity of interests, and a wonderful debetween glasses. It is rare that anything termination—to say nothing of moneyso recent in its origin attains the artistic to do what New York has done. The distinction that has been accorded to cut subway with its equipment cost $75,000,glass. It is generally the antique wares, 000. It had to pass under the big skywoods, and stones, that hold the admira- scrapers and the heaviest buildings in tion of the fastidious to the exclusion of the city. Much of it had to be cut all new applicants for honors. Several of through the solid rock, and treacherous these ancient arts long ago became ex- and loose soil was encountered to add to tinct, and the world mourned as if the difficulties of the engineer. Changes nothing to take their place could ever be had to be made in the city's sewer sysdevised. It seemed for a long time that tem. There were underground wires and nothing new could ever again attain rec- innumerable other obstacles. For three ognition in the artistic world. Therefore years and seven months while the tunnel it is gratifying to note the éclat with was building, the public had to put up which cut glass has entered the circle of with many inconveniences. But they the super-excellent. Cut-glass might be waited patiently, and now New Yorkers said to have become one of the classics. can boast of the finest subway in the In ceramic or decorative art the cut-glass world. It will carry 100,000 passengers bowl occupies a place alongside the every hour. Not only does it provide for Delft vase, the Dresden coffee-pot, the genuine rapid transit, but at every point Venetian Millefiori glass, the Wedgwood guards the safety of passengers. New pitcher, the Chinese vase, the Majolica York is to be commended on the fact plate, the Japanese Satsuma bowl, the that the great object was successfully Royal Worcester plate, the Rookwood carried out without any political scandal, jar, the Henry II. flagon, and other trading of franchises, or injury to other products of artistic handicraft.

interests. The city, the capitalists, the Still more gratifying is it to note the contractors, the engineers, the workmen, prominence the United States has at- and the public seemed to work harmotained in the manufacture of cut glass. niously toward the one object of making At first there was a disposition to deny the tunnel a success. And this they did. us recognition as producers of the genu- It is doubtful if a better method than ine article in this as in other prod- New York's, of avoiding congestion of ucts, Americans having carned an unen- traffic, can be devised. Chicago alone has viable reputation abroad as manufactur- a scheme that is being rapidly put into ers only of imitations; but now our cut execution, which it believes is superior glass is going to the homes of European to the New York system. This is to royalty in preference to their own prod- carry the freiglit underground, and reucts; and the imported cut glass which serve the light and air of the streets for once met with such a market here—as the people. But before Chicago's freight we, too, distrusted the genuineness of tunnel is completed, there is talk of buildour products-has now sunk into dis- ing another subway on top of it for pasfavor, the American glass being every sengers, the freight tunnel being deep where given the preference.

enough underground to permit of the two-story arrangement. It is Chicago's

idea to do away with the heavy trucks Rapid Transit Problem

and teams in the business center of the

city, and to have the freight hauled by NEW YORK'S great achievement in means of electric cars in the tunnels.

successfully building a 35-mile sub- Chicago's method solves the freight way extending from the down-town dis- traffic problem ; but that of passenger trict to the remotest suburban districts, traffic remains a puzzle.

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SIBLEY COLLEGE OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, N. Y. Immediately back of this building is the beautiful Fall Creek gorge, furnishing water power for hydraulic experiments.

Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

VIBLEY COLLEGE of Mechanical so that his energies are guided wisely in

Engineering and the Mechanic the direction of his own specialty.
Arts was founded in 1870, and re Sibley College now includes seven de-

ceived its name from the late partments — namely, Mechanic Arts, Hiram Sibley of Rochester, who gave a Machine Design, Experimental Engilarge amount of money toward its en- neering, Steam Engineering, Electrical dowment and equipment. Mr. Hiram Engineering, Marine Engineering and W. Sibley has since given very liberally Naval Architecture, and Railway Metoward later additions and improve- chanical Engineering. ments. The College is organized, as its The Freshman, Sophomore, and Junname suggests, as a technical and profes- ior years are practically the same for all sional college ; and its aim is to prepare courses, including instruction in pure young men who expect to follow me- mathematics, physics, and chemis chanical engineering as a profession. It given, as already said, outside the Colis recognized, however, that the modern lege in corresponding departments of the engineer's success is measured in a great University ; and instruction in the Dedegree by his general culture as well as partments of Mechanic Arts, Machine by his professional ability; and students Design, Experimental Engineering, and in Sibley College are urged to acquire Electrical Engineering, which is preas broad and liberal a training as possible scribed for all students up to the Senior before taking up the strictly technical year. In the Senior year the student work, and to obtain as much culture as may specialize in either Electrical, Mepossible from the Academic Department chanical, Marine, or Railway Mechanical during their four college years.

Engineering, taking, however, certain The general entrance requirements to prescribed courses in the Departments Sibley College include History, English, of Experimental and Steam Engineering. Plane and Solid Geometry, Advanced Al- The latter part of the Senior year is degebra, Plane and Spherical Trigonome- voted to the preparation of a thesis, try, French, and German. These re- which each student must present for a quirements insure a liberal foundation on degree. All of these departments are which to build a technical education. well equipped for the special work in

The student of Sibley College is taught teaching required of them, and this large chemistry, pure mathematics, and physics equipment is being continually increased in the corresponding departments of the as the needs of teaching and the growth general University. He is thus brought of the art require. into close contact with the University teachers outside of his own college, and

Department of Mechanic Arts receives the benefit of the best instruc- In this department, which represents tion of these well-organized departments. the practical side of technical education, He here receives the necessary mental an effort is being made to impress on the training which fits him for the work in student the great importance of a knowlengineering mathematics which he re- edge of shop processes and methods, not ceives in the College of Civil and Me- only as regards the actual working of chanical Engineering. Special attention metals, but also as regards general shop is paid to the wants of engineering stu- systems. The college shop of the past dents in these various allied departments, laid all stress on manual training; and as a result, students went forth wholly In the earlier portion of his work, he ignorant of many things of great impor- makes drawings of machine parts, and tance to an engineer, a knowledge of from these drawings makes patterns in which would have greatly decreased his the pattern shops, moulds these patterns period of probation in practice. While in the foundry, and machines the castmanual training is and must always re- ings in the machine shop. These exermain the backbone of such a shop course, cises give him an opportunity to become much less stress is laid on it than for- familiar with the relation of the drawing merly. Particular attention is paid to system to actual work in the shop. giving the student an insight into the In the Junior and Senior years, he reprinciples underlying economic produc- ceives the more advanced instruction in

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tion, the duplication of parts, cost, wage Machine Design, and the application of systems, and kindred subjects, without the principles acquired by lectures and which the engineer can never attain his recitations to the design of more compligreatest usefulness.

cated machines. This course culminates

in the Senior year with the complete deDepartment of Machine Design

sign of a steam engine or other equally Recognizing the great importance to important machine. Throughout the the engineer of an ability to make and whole course, an effort is made to bring read good commercial drawings, the in- before the student modern methods and struction in drawing is given under the systems of drafting-room practice. direction of this department to all students, from the Freshman up to the Jun

Department of Steam Engineering ior year, thus insuring a logical and con The work of this department begins structive treatment of the subject and en- with the Junior year, when a course in abling the student to work under a well- steam machinery is given. This course defined system during his entire course. treats of the elementary theory of heat

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