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The Technical World

Published Monthly by the American School of Correspondence

at Armour Institute of Technology

Chicago, Ill., U. S. A.

C A wise girl is known by the company she doesn't keep. ( Habit may be a man's best friend or his worst enemy.

Expert testimony depends upon who employs the expert. ( Nearly all commuters imagine Hades is a suburb of Heaven.

A gentleman is a man who agrees with you; a crank is one who doesn't.

Love is a serious matter the first time a young man bumps into it. ( If the average girl doesn't play the harp in the next world any better than she plays the piano in this, there's going to be trouble. ( If people would only give as much thought to governing themselves as they do to the government of the nation, the welfare of all would be assured.

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C Occasionally a man who runs for an office wins in a walk. QA brick manufacturer needs the earth in his business.

Some society women have better clothes than manners.

If a man makes no enemies, he has but few friends. ( Intellectuality is the cause of baldness. So says a baldheaded scientist. Q A thousand-dollar boy with a ten-thousanddollar education is over-capitalized.

Don't get gay. It is easier to keep the lid on than it is to put it back on again. ( The next time Russia wants a war loan, she might apply to the St. Louis hotel men.

( The trouble with many a young man is that he spends his fortune before he makes it. ( Sometimes a man loses his job because he doesn't know enough, and sometimes because he knows too much. a People often make the excuse that they have bad memories, when the truth is, they

hey are too slovenly to use their brains.

One of the greatest mistakes that a man can make is to sit down at a desk and worry himself sick over business and then call it a day's work.

Our Commercial Ad.

vance THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 1904, marks the best all-round business year in the history of the United States. The exports of American manufactures were larger than in any preceding year, and the exports of domestic products exceeded those of any other country. This, in a single sentence, is the record of the year's commerce just announced by the Department of Commerce and Labor through the Bureau of Statistics.

The United Kingdom is, next to the United States, the world's largest exporter of domestic products, and, until within recent years, surpassed the United States in its total. During the past few years, however, the United States has rapidly gained upon and finally overtaken the United Kingdom in the race for supremacy as an exporter of domestic products.

The Electrifying Proc.

CSS THE RECENT DELIVERY to the 1 New York Central Railroad of seyeral 85-ton electric locomotives capable of hauling heavy trains at the rate of 75 miles an hour, for use on the 44-1nile run between Croton and the Grand Central station in New York City, is the


uith Sectric

tors, which, up to distances of 40 miles or so, they certainly are. Thus the absorption movement is bound to continue, and we may look for more and more consolidation until the time comes, prophesied by the late Jay Gould, when we shall be face to face with the problem whether the railways shall run the government, or the government shall have to run the railways. The issues are serious, but not beyond the power of the American public to work out an intelligent solution.

practical answer to the old-time objection that the electric system was too costly, and the perfection of the electric locomotive too remote, to constitute a practical commercial issue. Taken in conjunction with the proposed electric equipment of the leased South Shore line, which parallels the New York Central to Buffalo, and the proposed creation of a gigantic system of trolley transportation throughout the State by the absurption of all electric roads that interfere with local traffic, in order to make them feeders of the main line—an absorption already far advanced—this incident calls attention to one of the most significant developments of our industrial life today.

All over the more populous parts of this continent, the “electrifying" process has, during the past five or six years, been working a revolution in the relations of men to one another. First Ohio, then Indiana, then Illinois and Iowa, and now New York, have been paralleling their railroads with trolley lines. In the Middle States, perhaps, are found the largest contiguous reaches of fertile soil in the world, which not only yield rich crops at small cost of cultivation, but which are almost all underlain by coal or petroleum within easy reach ; and nowhere are there fewer obstacles to line construction than on those prairieseither in the way of physical difficulties, or of indisposition to grant a riglat of way on the part of the intelligent farming communities who will be served. In all cases these lines have developed, almost from the start, a' paying business which grows from year to year at a surprising rate; and—a feature even more remarkable--the traffic on the steam lines has also increased. The trolleys, running at brief intervals from point to point, and starting from the heart of the cities and towns, have simply created their own business and set people moving about who otherwise would have remained as inert as the proverbial snail.

As these electric lines become connected endwise in longer and longer stretches, fouting the railroads every where, it is not to be wondered at if the steam companies should wish to have them as feeders, rather than as competi

Need of a Parcel Post IN GERMANY a package weighing

four pounds may be sent by mail to any part of the country for a postage of four cents. To mail a similar package in the United States would cost 64 cents. A parcel may be mailed from England to Canada for three-quarters the postage it would cost to send the same parcel a dozen miles in this country.

One of our greatest public needs is a parcel post. Education in Business, in discussing the subject says: “The immense advantages of the parcel post system—to which any well-informed traveler will bear witness—are being denied us because of the power of the great private corporations, the Express Companies, in our legislative halls.

JHEN ROGUES fall out, the devil

V is to pay.” But then, it almost seems, as Mr. Barnum once said, that the American people "like to be humbugged," and it is an admitted fact that substantial and meritorious enterprises will often “go begging" for the sinews of strength, while the wildest of wildcat schemes-provided only they hold out the promise of "easy money” and “big money”-have little difficulty in imposing themselves upon a confiding public.

Mr. Lawson's alleged “inside” history of the Amalgamated Copper deal, to which he was himself a party, is—if it be not to be taken with a grain of saltmerely one more eye-opener to the methods of stock manipulation which in recent years have made serious inroads upon the hard-earned funds of small and sorrowful investors. It is a common thing for stocks, based on properties of relatively small or even of no value, to be offered to the public as safe and profitable investments, and to be sold at enormous profit for the promoters at the expense of the sanguine investor who is allured by the Midas touch of the “most honorable men” on the directorate. This method of getting other people's money is more respectable than asking them for it on a dark night at a pistol's point. It is also far safer, for it seems to be covered within the law. But does it not seem rather anomalous to send to jail a "bunco steerer" for selling a gilded brick to an unsophisticated rustic, while another who sells a fellow a finely engraved certificate, of exactly similar value, should be merely expected to give a small fraction of his gains to philanthropic purposes ?

Neither business reaction, nor tight money, nor politics will explain the persistent stubbornness of the people in refusing to flock back to the stock market. They have seen the long list of receiverships with their unsavory revelations, reduced dividends, and unexplained slumps in stocks of other companies, and naturally look askance at all stocks with which the names of the manipulating “Napoleons" of finance, however exalted and pious, are associated. They suspect that the gambling is going on with loaded dice, and will invest only when they have a tip that the dice are loaded on their side. The whole business thus becomes immoral.

A greater man than Mr. Lawson once sang of the “damned lust for gold;" the “Story of Amalgamated" is the solo obligato of the financial chorus.

fect that the craving for alcoholic stimulants is caused mainly by a derangement of the intimate and delicate relations of the optic nerve to the system.

Of course it is only natural to smile at such an idea, and whisper softly “crank.” In view of the fact, however, that medical specialists often put eyeglasses on their patients to cure headaches and nervous dyspepsia, it would seem well to reserve our decision. An editorial discussing Dr. Prentice's paper, says: “If we once concede that a failure of the eyes to ‘focus' properly upon an object produces a nervous irritation which in turn produces an abnormal appetite, and that the patient acquires the habit of trying to satisfy this appetite with alcoholic stimulants, is it unreasonable to assume that a correction of the ocular difficulty would restore natural conditions ?”

We look forward with much interest to the discussion of Dr. Prentice's paper in the scientific journals.

Wireless Telegraphy

and Exploration ARCONI, in discussing the progress 1 of wireless telegraphy, calls attention to its value in exploration. It will not be necessary in the future for arctic explorers to die from starvation because they are lost from civilization. By means of wireless telegraphy it will be very easy for an exploring party to keep in daily communication with their home people. llereafter every arctic expedition, probably, will be equipped with a wireless telegraphic outfit. The explorer can tell his friends at just what point he stands. If he is in need of supplies he can direct low these shall be forwarded to him and of what they shall consist, and he can direct his rescuers how to reach him.

All that applies to the arctic explorer applies with equal truth to the explorer in the jungles in the interior of Africa and Australia. Had the wireless telegraph been invented in Dr. Livingstone's time, it would not have been necessary to send Henry M. Stanley to Lake Tanganyika to find him. Ile would have been able to wire for help when he first fell a victim to the jungle fever.

A New Cure for Intem.

perance AT TIIE OPTICIANS' CONVENA TION held recently in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Dr. Prentice of Chicago, in a paper read before the delegates, stated that in properly fitted eyeglasses lay a possible cure for alcoholism. This statement is based on observations to the ef


THE ENTHUSIASTIC AVA- burring it over the plate by hammering.

TEUR who has succeeded in This makes good contact, without solderproducing some of the beauti- ing, which is to be avoided. The next

fully artistic work of which the requisite is a rather deep, flat-bottomed, lathe is capable, or who has in his pos- circular, well-glazed, earthenware dish. session a coin or medallion from which A soup-plate will answer very well, unhe requires to take a duplicate, will be less the objects to be copied are very pleased, and agreeably surprised, by the large, in which case one of the square charming results that can be obtained by white earthen dishes used by photogreproducing these in copper, by electro- raphers wherein to wash their prints may deposition. The process is at once simple be used. Two or three yards of No. 18 and inexpensive, and, by a little modifica- or No. 20 bare copper wire will also be tion, can be used to give reproductions required for the purpose of connecting either precisely similar to the original, or up the wooden ornamental turned work ones in which the reliefs and depressions to the negative pole of the dry cell. are reversed. As the latter, in orna Being provided with the above necesmental turned work, are very effective, saries, the operator selects the turned we shall describe the method of obtaining work which he desires to reproduce in these first.

copper, and brushes over the worked surReversed Duplicates

face with a paste made of good fine The operator will provide himself with plumbago (black lead) and a little water. two or three good "dry cells." A con- The brush made use of must not be so venient size measures 6 in. by 2 in. He hard as to mark or in any wise deface will also require a saturated solution of the delicate tracery of the original; but, sulphate of copper (blue vitriol), which on the other hand, it must be sufficiently he can make by pouring one quart of firm to enable the operator to get boiling water on one pound of sulphate brilliant, metallic-looking surface like of copper, stirring frequently with a stick that of a well-polished stove. For conor glass rod until cold. The solution venience of future reference we shall call should be made up in a glazed earthen this blackleaded surface the "front" of vessel. When quite cold, about one and the mould (technically termed the a-half fluid ounces of oil of vitriol should

"cathode”). The purpose of performing te added to the blue fluid. in a fine this operation is to render the wood, stream, with constant stirring. The ad- which would not otherwise conduct elecdition of the oil of vitriol will cause the tricity, conductive on this surface. It solution to get hot. It must be allowed must be borne in mind that wherever the to cool, when it may be placed in a stop- black lead has been applied, there wi pered bottle, ready for use. Several copper be deposited. Hence to prevent discs of thin sheet copper (about 1-16 in. waste of battery power, copper, and time, thick) of varving diameters, according care must be taken not to carry the blackto the size of the work to be reproduced, leading too far up the sides of the work. will also be needed; and to the edge of A little way up, it must reach, so as to each of these (which are called enable good contact to be made with the "anodes”) is to be attached a wire by wire, which will afterwards serve to condrilling a little hole near the edge of the nect the work to the negative pole of the disc, and inserting therein one end of a dry cell. The best way to effect this is 10-in. length of No. 16 copper wire, and to take a strip of paper, and roll it tightly

round the sides of the work, leaving about 14 in. bare all round near the front

Reprinted by special arrangement, from The Engineering World, London, Eng.

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of the mould. Holding this tightly in so bent that the front of the mould is the left hand, it will be easy to blacklead immersed in the solution as far as the and polish the edge as well as the front wire binding extends, or, say, for a without encroaching too far up the sides. depth of about 14 in. The work should When this has been satisfactorily ef- lie perfectly horizontal, facing, but not fected, the paper strip, which served as a touching, the anode, at a distance of guard, can be removed. Now, taking a about 34 in. to 1 in. from its surface. In piece of the No. 18 or No. 20 bare cop- immersing the mould, care must be taken per, and gripping one end in the vice, he to avoid air bubbles, and this can be done will wind it two or three times round by letting down the front of the mould, the blackleaded edge of the work, so as somewhat tilted, so as to allow any air to grip it firmly and make good electrical bubbles to escape; the wire can aftercontact with the black lead under it. The wards be straightened to cause it to lie extremities of this wire are brought to horizontally. Great care must be taken gether and twisted tightly, so that the that good metallic contact is made becoils may not loosen. The wire should tween the two wires and their respective now be cut off at a distance of about 10 dry-cell terminals; and also that no

chance contact occurs, either between these two wires on the one hand, or between the mould and the anode on the other. After thus connecting up, the front of the mould should be allowed to remain in the solution for about fifteen minutes. It should then be examined in order to judge of the success of the work.

If the binding wire shows that it has

received a rosy-pink deposit, beginning 10 to extend to the edge and creeping round

to the front of the mould, all is going D, Dry Cell; P. Wire to Positive Terminal; N. Wire to well—the current is of the right Negative Terminal: M, Mould or Cathode; A, Anode; O, Dish.

strength; and if the mould be carefully

replaced in the solution, the terminal conin. from the work, and bent upwards at tacts being maintained tight and good, right angles to the front of the mould. it will be found that after ten or twelve An anode is now selected, having hours' immersion the entire surface of a diameter as nearly as possible the mould will have received a delicate that of the front of the mould. coating of copper. To get a layer 1-16 (This wire, so far as it will be in. thick it may be needful to continue immersed in the copper sulphate solution, the operation for three or even four days, must be painted over with a little Bruns- or even to replace the dry cell by a fresh wick black, otherwise it will be eaten one, according to the size of the mould. through by the solution.) The other end But if, on examination, it is found that of this wire must then be clamped under the surface of the binding wire and of the terminal affixed to the carbon (or the front of the mould are coated with positive) pole of the dry cell, and then a ruddy brownish mud, tending to fall bent twice at right angles in such a man- to the bottom of the dish, and especially ner that the anode can lie flat at the bot- if bubbles of gas form on and round tom of the dish, which must be placed about the mould, it is a sign that the near the dry cell. The dish should now current is too strong. In this case it will be filled to a height of about 1 to 114 in. be necessary to remove the anode farther from the bottom, with the copper sulph- away from the front of the work, or even ate solution prepared as directed. The to insert a "resistance” in the shape of work to be copied is now attached, by a foot or two of No. 36 iron wire beits slinging wire, to the zinc (or nega- tween the anode and the carbon terminal tive) pole of the dry cell, and the wire of the dry cell. When it is considered

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