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engines and boilers of various forms and types. There is also a very finely equipped laboratory for testing strength of materials. A fine assortment of gas and oil engines furnish opportunity for testing and research in this line; and elaborate apparatus has been provided for making almost all other kinds of tests. Here students are instructed in the use of all kinds of measuring instruments used in commercial test
ing and in the making of Dynamo LABORATORY.
actual test runs. AdDepartment of Electrical Engineering.
vanced students have engines, and describes the general design many opportunities to go out on comof different types of steam engines, treat- mercial tests made by the department ing such subjects as valve gearing, crank for manufacturing concerns. The scope effort, fly wheels, and other problems of of the work in this department is of great detail connected with design and opera- importance to the engineer. Special attion. In the senior year a course is given tention is paid to research, and a very which takes up quite fully elementary considerable output of this class of work thermodynamics, the theory of heat en- has come from this department. Progines, heat engines and boilers, refrig- vision has recently been made for elecerating machinery, air compressors, and trical experimental work on a much pumping machinery. This course also broader basis than heretofore, and this includes consideration of the design of special line of work will be operated in the modern power house, having in view conjunction with the regular courses the economics of the problem. The aim which are offered in the Department of is to give the student a working knowl- Electrical Engineering. edge. Experimental Engi
neering To enumerate and discuss the equipment of this most important department, would make a long article in itself, and mention of a few important features must suffice. There is a large triple - expansion Corliss engine built and equipped especially for testing purposes; a De Laval and a Parsons steam turbine, the latter direct-connected to a generator ; and many other steam
SMALL ENGINE LABORATORY. EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING.
Department of Electrical Engineering ical Laboratory, is the electrical-experi
Since the art of Electrical Engineer- mental work, which is expected to ining has its greatest root in the science crease greatly the value of the course. of physics, students in this course receive There are many interesting power plants particularly strong instruction in this in the near vicinity of Ithaca which afsubject in the Department of Physics be- ford excellent opportunity for inspection. fore taking up the engineering work Among the best of these are the Uniproper. The facilities and instruction of versity power plant and the interesting the Department of Physics at Cornell, are and economical plant of the local lighting of the very best, and particular attention and railway company, where much of the is paid to the wants of the student in waste heat of the exhaust steam is reElectrical Engineering. The work in claimed in the manufacture of salt from engineering proper, which is under the brine pumped from the great salt bed direction of Sibley College, is carried on underlying this region. by men who are experts in their various Advanced students here, as in Me
departments; and close attention is given chanical Engineering, have ample facilto the branches of engineering closely al- ities for obtaining experience in comlied with the growth of the country. mercial testing, which forms a very imSpecial attention has been given to such portant part of the curriculum ; while rematters as Electric Railway Engineer- search work is encouraged and provided ing; and apparatus illustrative of this for by the equipment of the Department. and similar branches of engineering has been provided in abundance.
Department of Naval Architecture The laboratories and class-rooms are
and Marine Engineering equipped with a profusion of instruments The work in this department is of and apparatus providing facilities for in- course intended for students who expect struction in all branches of Electrical to specialize; and, while fully equal in engineering.
value from an educational standpoint to A recent addition to the College, men- that given in the regular Mechanical and tioned in connection with the Mechan- Electrical courses, aims to familiarize the
other railway apparatus. In addition, provision is made for more advanced work and for research. An effort is being made here, as in the other departments, to bring before the student engineering as it actually is in practice.
student with this particular branch of engineering and thus enable him to adjust himself more quickly to his surroundings after graduation. The practical application of the first two years is therefore directed along the lines which the student expects to follow after graduation. Facilities are at hand for research work, among which may be mentioned an experimental tank 450 feet long, in which experiments on propellers, etc., are conducted. Graduate courses are also provided for more advanced students and for those returning from practice for further study and research. Department of Railway Mechanical
Engineering As in the course in Naval Architecture students are trained for a special purpose, so in this department provision is made for those who have chosen this branch of engineering as a life work. Students in this course can begin to specialize in the drafting room in their Sophomore year. In the Senior year about one-half of their time is devoted to railway subjects. Special arrangements are made for inspection tours to railway shops, and also for summer work in these and other shops. Opportunities are
Among other interesting features connected with Sibley College are the extensive collections in the Museum, and the modern hydro-electric power plant now nearing completion on the University's property, erected at a cost of $70,000, for the purpose of supplying power for the shops and laboratories and for lighting purposes.
The various departments enumerated above are all headed by men who are not only informed on the technical side of their specialty, but who have also had wide practical experience in their profession, as only such men can intelligently direct the instruction in the efficient way the engineering student of to-day requires.
While it is possible in Sibley College to specialize in any one of the departments, yet the degree given to all students on the completion of the four
Indispensable Aids to Circulation in Steam and Hot-Water Heating Systems
Information of Value to All Housekeepers
N all systems of steam and hot-water heating, it is necessary to provide means for allowing the air to escape.
Air is niuch lighter than water, and will gather in any bends that are convex upward, and in the upper part of radiators filled with water. Unless this air is removed from the radiator, it will always cause trouble and reduce efficiency by preventing circulation.
For freeing the radiators of air, valves of various kinds are used. Those which are known as "air-valves” are usually made of 14-inch or 18-inch pipe size, varying in design from very simple forms
ical end. D is a strip composed of a layer of iron or steel and one of brass soldered or brazed together. The action is as follows:
When the radiator is cold and filled with air, the valve stands as shown in the cut. When steam is turned on, the air is driven out through the opening B. As soon as this is expelled and steam strikes the strip D, the two prongs spring apart, owing to the unequal expansion of the two metals due to the heat of the
Fig. 1. SIMPLE Air-Valve.
opened by hand to complicated automatic valves. It is claimed for some of these valves, in addition to merely freeing the radiator from air, that, with suitable adjustment, the temperature of the radiator will be automatically maintained at any desired point. This is brought about by
D a mixture of air and steam in the required proportion. The simplest type of air-valve is that shown in Fig. I, which
Fig. 2. Automatic AIR-VALVE. is operated by hand. The more desirable
Works by expansion of metal. kinds are those which operate automatically.
steam. This raises the spindle C, and closes Of the latter type, Fig. 2 illustrates an the opening so that no steam can escape. example. It consists of a shell which If air should collect in the valve and the is attached to the radiator. B is a small metal strip become cool, it would conopening which may be closed by the tract, and the spindle would drop and spindle C, which is provided with a con- allow the air to escape through B as be