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Stars and Stripes received their preliin- almost absoiutely upon the Navy for its inary training as British tars.

food supply. The densely populated isl

ands never have in reserve more than The First Line of Defense

six weeks' food supply; and thus, after For a proper appreciation of the im- all, it is primarily as a safeguard against portance that attaches to the training of famine that John Bull maintains at the British bluejacket, it is necessary enormous expense a fleet of about half to bear in mind that for Great Britain a thousand warships, manned by more with her world-wide possessions, and than 110,000 officers and men, and in

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BRITISH RECEIVING SHIPS, WITH RECRUITS. The vessel moored in the foreground is the old line-of-battle ship Marlborough.- Her amidships and forward decks

are housed over for permanent shelter.

dependent, as she is, upon foreign com volving an annual expense of fully $115,merce—the Royal Navy constitutes a 000,000 for maintenance and for the "first line of defense." For this mari new construction necessary to preserve time nation, the sea is not merely a water preëminence in naval equipment. highway from one country to another, Notwithstanding the immense force but is in addition a dominion to be of enlisted men necessary to keep in compoliced, patrolled,-and guarded. The in mission a fleet of this size, there has tegrity of Britannia's widely scattered never been a lack of seafaring men to colonial empire, the security of the meet the requirements of the Navy. Percommerce which is the backbone of her haps this is due in part to the fact that prosperity, and, finally, the safety of the the emoluments, while not comparable three exposed islands comprising the with those of the American Navy, are United Kingdom, all depend upon the nevertheless quite liberal in comparison mastery of the sea.

with the general British wage scale. The The matter is brought home to every young man entering the British Navy British citizen, moreover, by the fact that has almost as much chance of promotion the country depends, in the last resort, as the lad in the American service.

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Trained from Boyhood

"leading seaman.” Hard work will win Beginning his naval career on board promotion to the rank of "petty officer, one of the training ships stationed at second class.” The rank of "petty offPortsmouth, Portland, Devonport, Fal cer, first class” is the next step in his mouth, or Queensferry, the young Brit advance; and after that, the young man, isher qualifies as a "first-class boy;" and if he has the requisite energy, ambition, is subsequently drafted, after a six and ability, will successively occupy the weeks' cruise on a training brig and a positions of "warrant officer," "chief six months' course on a depot ship, to boatswain,” and “chief gunner. a coveted place on a sea-going training The British naval policy requires that ship. Here begins his real career in the new recruits shall enter the service Navy. If he progresses advantageously, earlier in life than is obligatory in the the young

goes in succession United States Navy. No boy, no matter through the different grades of "ordi- how promising physically intelnary seaman," "trained seaman," and lectually, is received into the British



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Navy after he has passed his sixteenth on the naval training ships, no end of year; and each lad binds himself to con attention is devoted to making the lads tinue in the service for twelve years, physically fit. Boxing and other atha much longer term of enlistment than letics are encouraged in every possible prevails in the American service. The manner. In the British, as in the Amerijuvenile British tar, as has been ex can Navy, the theory obtains that the plained, is likewise more poorly paid than training of the old-time sailor is the best his American cousin. Indeed, his wages in the world for giving to his twentiethfor a considerable time after he goes century successor a quickness and acaboard the old wooden man-of-war curacy of hand and eye, and steadiness which serves as a training ship, amount of nerve and foot. Accordingly, the young to only a few cents per day, in addition, men on the ships flying the Union Jack of course, to board and clothing.

are taught all manner of work with rope In the British Navy, and particularly and canvas; learn to make sail and to

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on the

take hand-lead and deep-sea soundings; to a colonial or foreign station, and set miaster the knack of steering into and be up a sailors' lodging house or some other fore the wind; accustom themselves to

business enterprise. manning, lowering, and pulling boats; British officers are wont to claim tliat and, in short, acquire the all-round seamen who have passed through the knowledge that constituted the stock-in regulation course of training in His trade of the all-round seaman

Majesty's Navy are the superiors of any fighting craft of the old days.

other men of their class in actual seaWhen a young man in the British manship; but this is by no means conNavy has advanced to the rank of "first ceded by other nationalities, particularly class boy," he receives twenty cents per the Americans. It must be admitted, day in addition to board, lodging, cloth however, that the British tars take more ing, and medical attendance. The amount kindly than do the Yankees to the dirty, seems small in comparison with the sum unpleasant, and exhausting work of feed


MEN OF THE ROYAL NAVAL DEPOT SHIPS AT PORTSMOUTH. Five Thousand Men in Line.- A typical scene in the event of a sudden crisis, such as the recent tension with Russia

over the North Sea incident, showing England's naval preparedness. paid for corresponding service in the ing fuel to the furnaces in the hold of American Navy; but nevertheless a a naval vessel, and of coaling warships. young Englishman who is apt and alert To be sure, they do not do this kind of can work his way up to a very profitable work with as good grace as the Germans position in the service of his country, and Scandinavians; but withal they will such, for instance, as the post of chief carry the work through with only a modgunnery instructor on a battleship, where erate amount of grumbling-a tribute, the pay is nearly $70 per month—the perhaps, to the stricter discipline prevailequivalent of $70 net profit, since the ing in the British Navy. seaman has no expenses save those for One feature in which the British amusements. Marriage for the men who methods of naval training are conare working their way up in the British spicuously deficient in comparison with Navy, is not discouraged to the extent the American, is found in the instruction that it is in the American military and in gunnery. As is well known, this is naval service. There are few petty offi made a specialty in the Navy of the cers, even of the second class, who have United States. On the other hand, some not wives at the home station; while not of the British ships yet carry the old 10a few helpmates follow their husbands inch muzzle-loading guns; and on all the

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Part of crew of H. M. S. Vernon.

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GUN DRILL ON BRITISH BATTLESHIP ANDROMEDA. A 6-inch gun in action.-Wounded gunner being removed to ship's hospital on stretcher,

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