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steam from the boilers will be super- in municipal railway affairs. He built heated. The boilers represent about most of the Chicago street-car lines, and 1,200 horse-power each.
he is adopting the same system of avoidIn the north side of the building are ing congestion of traffic in Londo
ing congestion of traffic in London which the turbine and generator sets. There he so successfully employed in the westwill be eight turbines working eight gen- ern metropolis. erator sets in all, and space will be left for two more to be put in later. They have a capacity of 5,000 kilowatts each, Proposed Endless Street-Car and are by far the most powerful in England. These 40,000 kilowatts, together
A CONTINUOUS TRAIN OF
SEATS on a moving sidewalk has with an auxiliary plant for condensers and exciter sets, will represent in all in
been suggested as the method of solving driving power some 600,000 horse-power.
the transportation problem of New York The electric pressure at the station will
and Chicago. The device is something be 11,000 volts, alternating current,
of an endless street-car which the passenwhich will be subdued by rotary convert
ger can enter anywhere he desires. It ers and transformers to 100 volts, direct is proposed to use the system in New current, at the different substations.
York in connecting the Manhattan ter
minals of the three great bridges over the The enormous stators in the generating East River with one another, and with sets weigh 50 tons each. All were built the subway and elevated railroads. as by the Westinghouse Company. Four
well as with the principal surface lines were made at Pittsburg and four at Traf
running north and south. The moving ford Park, Manchester. Inside the seats are simply an improvement on the stators, motors revolve at a tremendous
moving sidewalks and continuous trains pace, and the current is collected on three of the Chicago World's Fair and Paris slip rings. Above the turbine level are
Two "stepping" platforms switchboard galleries for high tension,
run alongside the train platform. The and at the east end of the turbine level
first moves at a rate of about three miles similar galleries for “exciter" sets and station lighting and for low-tension stators and motors.
In the construction nearly 20,000 tons of steel have been used. The foundations have been sunk to 40 feet below the land level, and consist of brick lying on concrete, which in its turn lies on the blue clay.
Outside the building is a large basin constructed beside the river especially for barges bringing coal to the station. The basin accommodates eight of these barges. A temporary conveyor will carry the coal from the barges to the great con
ENDLESS STREET Car. veyor built of laced steel against the main Consisting of Train of Seats on Moving Sidewalk building, which will take the coal to the bunkers in the roof of the station. By an hour, and the other at six miles an means of these same conveyors, all ashes hour. The passenger steps from the will be taken back to other barges. Close ground to the slower platform; then to by the docks are water filters in brick
the one moving at six miles an hour; and towers, their object being to treat the finally to the platform containing the water used and thus prevent "furring" of seats, which is moving at nine miles an boilers.
hour. The seats are designed to hold Mr. Yerkes is a Chicagoan, and it was three persons, and are placed three feet in Chicago that he received his schooling apart.
An Interesting Continuous-Current
Electrique et Mécanique, Geneva,
built an interesting dynamo to be used in the tests of the aërial power transmission line between Saint Maurice and Lausanne, this machine enabling tensions as high as 23,000 volts to be attained with continuous current.
Now a similar machine has been constructed by the same company, for the Vienna (Austria) Polytechnical High School. This machine, which is able to yield currents of an intensity of i am
special lined paper. Each individual coil includes 500 silk-insulated copper-wire windings, one-half millimeter in diameter. There are, accordingly, 24,000 armature windings, the resistance of which during operation is 705 ohms, and which are capable of yielding a current intensity of i ampere in normal working order. These coils are readily fixed in position or withdrawn from the grooves of the armature.
The collector, comprising 96 segments separated by an air gap, is fixed, in oppoSition to the general practice with ordinary dynamos. The continuous current is collected lụy means of two small
AN INTERESTING BIPOLAR CONTINUOUS-CURRENT DYNAMO.
Capable of giving tension of 23,000 volts at normal speed of 600 revolutions. pere, under tensions ranging between metallic brushes, sliding in the interior of 20,000 and 25,000 volts, at an angular its surface. In order to avoid any risk speed ranging between 600 and 700 revo- of arcs being produced between the seglutions, is excited by means of a small ments of the collector on account of the exciting machine mounted on the end of high-potential difference between each the shaft and supplying current at a ten two of them (500 volts as an average), a sion of 110 volts.
small blowing device has been provided, The problem solved in connection with mounted at the end of the shaft of the both these machines was a rather difficult pulley controlling the exciting machine. one, as the highest tensions so far ob- By means of two nozzles directed totained with continuous current hardly at- wards the brushes, strong air currents tained 10,000 volts.
are made to blow out any arcs produced The latter machine, as pictured here between the segments. As, however, with, is a bipolar dynamo resembling ex- with any higher intensity, there would ternally a modern radial pole alternator. still be a risk of short circuits, a conThe inductor, being made of laminated denser was branched off in shunt between iron, rotates in the interior of a ring con- each plate of the collector; this arrangesisting of two pieces and constituting the ment, which has given most satisfactory armature; the latter, accordingly, is fixed results, was patented by the company. The armature coils, numbering 48, are The exciting current, as above said, fitted into an equal number of slots in is supplied by a small dynamo as in the the ring, being insulated by means of a case of an ordinary alternator; this
SECTION OF STAGE, LOOKING TOWARD AUDIENCE. sufficient for giving a tension of 23,000 will be forthcoming in the near future.volts at the normal speed of 600 turns. Dr. A. GRADENWITZ.
While in the first machine of this type the tension was during some minutes raised up to 23,000 volts, a tension as
Electrically Operated Theater Curtain high as 25,000 volts was readily obtained with the dynamo constructed for the
N CHICAGO the extraordinary Vienna High School.
safety precautions resulting from The internal bore of the armature is 58 1 the Iroquois fire have brought forth centimeters. The peripheral speed of the a combination steel and asbestos inductor, with 600 revolutions, is, accord- theater curtain, as staunch and fireproof ingly, 18.22 meters per second, which is as the proscenium wall itself, which has a rather low figure.
to be operated by electric power because The machine is driven by a 440-volt of its excessive weight. The power ap70- to 80-ampere electro-motor, a special paratus for raising and lowering the curfeature of which is the fact that its speed tain has proved so efficient and conmay be varied within wide limits so as venient that theater managers now wonto allow of different periods in the al der how they ever tolerated the old systernator.
tem of hand-power curtains.
The illustration shows the method of operation. It represents a section of a theater stage, looking toward the audience. B is a curtain suspended through the cables H, passing over 'the sheaves I and J to the counterweight K. The electrical hoisting machine is in the basement, and is shown at A. Attached to the lower end of the weight K is the cable L, passing around the sheave S to the drum A. The two cables are attached to the bottom of the curtain, and, after passing downward over the sheaves N and O, are joined through P to the cable Q, passing around the winding drum A. When one of the cables is wound on the drum the other is unwound. The drum is rotated by means of an electric motor, controlled by the operation of the handle C of the controller.
By a pull of the cable T through the lever D, located on the stage floor, the drum A of the winding mechanism is released and allowed to revolve freely about its shaft. The curtain is slightly under counterweighted, so that, when in its uppermost position, if the drum A is released, it will descend because of its excessive weight.
The curtain is released by the first pull of the lever D. Another pull presses brake shoes on the inside of the drum A, so that the descent may be controlled as to its speed or stopped. A safeguard against the failure of the electric power
is thus formed by the releasing of the drum.
In addition there is a system of pushbutton control. The curtain may be sent down by merely pressing the button F, which operates the solenoid switch E. The operation of the switch E connects the motor of the machine so as to rotate the drum A in a direction to lower the curtain at its greatest speed, the motor being automatically cut out of the circuit when the curtain has reached the stage floor. The conduit W carries the electric connection between the controller and the switch E. In case of a failure of the house current, a switch G automatically connects the hoisting motor with an outside station or storage battery plant.
T o prevent tampering by irresponsible persons, the push buttons F are inclosed in a box X which has an easily perforated front. When the buttons F are operated, inconspicuous pilot lights glow, giving a silent warning to theater attachés to be on the alert. When the curtain is sent down by means of the push buttons, a bell or buzzer E E is operated through an attachment F F, giving warning to those on the stage to avoid the lowering curtain. The solenoid C C is connected in circuit with the push button F, as is also the solenoid A A, so that in case of an emergency the pushing of the button F will instantly open the ventilator and the door B B.
F. Augustus Heinze
By HENRY M, HYDE
Editorial Writer on the Chicago Tribune
T THE AGE of thirty-seven He graduated from the Columbia School worth $20,000,000; recognized as of Mines and Mining in 1889, and the one of the most dangerous rivals same year he turned up in Butte, Mon
the great copper “trust" and the tana, looking for work in the line of his Standard Oil mining interests have ever profession. Butte was then in its inhad to face; head of one of the two great fancy as a mining camp. The great defactions which have kept the politics of posits of copper which have since made Montana in a turmoil for years; owner of the district one of the richest and most immense smelters and extremely rich prosperous in the world, were just bemines; hiding behind a smooth-shaven, ginning to be tapped in a small way. It almost boyish face, a tremendous power was a wonderful opportunity for a young over thousands of men-surely these are man who knew how to use his eyes, and qualities which make the life story of F. who had the requisite technical knowlAugustus Heinze of intense interest to edge behind them. every ambitious young man.
Heinze got a job as surveyor with one It is impossible to admire or to endorse of the mining companies. His work took some of the tactics which Heinze has him all over the mining district, but he adopted in his fight with the giants of the did much more than carry a chain and financial world. But he would plead, in drive stakes to mark the boundaries of excuse or extenuation, that he has been in mining claims. Ile saw and he stored the thick of a life or death battle, and away in his mind impressions of the that it has been necessary for him to fight fabulous and undeveloped riches hidden the devil with fire.
under the rocky soil. Wages were fairly At any rate it should be interesting to high in those times—Heinze drew $5 a see if one can lay his hands on the secret day—but that promised little prospect of of Heinze's power. To him who reads getting together enough money to start the story intelligently, that bottom secret in business for himself. But, all the is not far to seek. It really is not a secret while, the ambition to put his knowledge at all. It is the same quality which is to to his own use was burning within him. be found at the bottom of so many stories Finally, when he had been working as of great success that it has become almost a surveyor for two years, and had aca commonplace.
quired a thorough, first-hand knowledge In 1867 Fritz Augustus Heinze was of most of the mining country about born in Brooklyn, N. Y., the son of a re- Butte, his grandmother died, and left him tired business man in comfortable cir- a legacy of $50,000. Here, then, was an cumstances. He attended the public opportunity to start a mining company schools. One day he came home mad. on his own account. But Heinze did not
"Mother," he said, "I am going to call take it—at least not directly and immedimyself Augustus after this."
ately. There were men and companies "Why?" she asked, smiling.
in Butte already who had much more "Because the boys all call me 'Dutch capital and as good a general knowledge Fritz,' and I don't like it."
of conditions. If he was to meet them in So that trivial, boyish incident explains competition on anywhere near an even why it has been F. Augustus ever since. basis, he must get an advantage over them
IIeinze's parents were able to give in some other direction. He was already their son the best educational advantages. a graduate of the Columbia School of