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steam from the boilers will be super in municipal railway affairs. He built heated. The boilers represent about most of the Chicago street-car lines, and 1,200 horse-power each.

he is adopting the same system of avoidIn the north side of the building are

ing congestion of traffic in London which the turbine and generator sets.

There he so successfully employed in the westwill be eight turbines working eight gen

ern metropolis. erator sets in all, and space will be left for two more to be put in later. They have a capacity of 5,000 kilowatts each, Proposed Endless Street-Car and are by far the most powerful in England. These 40,000 kilowatts, together A CONTINUOUS TRAIN OF with an auxiliary plant for condensers

SEATS on a moving sidewalk has and exciter sets, will represent in all in

been suggested as the method of solving driving power some 600,000 horse-power.

the transportation problem of New York The electric pressure at the station will

and Chicago. The device is something be 11,000 volts, alternating current,

of an endless street-car which the passenwhich will be subdued by rotary convert

ger can enter anywhere he desires. It ers and transformers to 400 volts, direct

is proposed to use the system in New current, at the different substations.

York in connecting the Manhattan ter

minals of the three great bridges over the The enormous stators in the generating East River with one another, and with sets weigh 50 tons each. All were built

the subway and elevated railroads, as by the Westinghouse Company. Four

well as with the principal surface lines were made at Pittsburg and four at Traf

running north and south. The moving ford Park, Manchester. Inside the

seats are simply an improvement on the stators, motors revolve at a tremendous

moving sidewalks and continuous trains pace, and the current is collected on three

of the Chicago World's Fair and Paris slip rings. Above the turbine level are

Exposition. Two "stepping" platforms switchboard galleries for high tension,

run alongside the train platform. The and at the east end of the turbine level

first moves at a rate of about three miles similar galleries for "exciter" sets and station lighting and for low-tension stators and motors.

In the construction nearly 20,000 tons of steel have been used. The foundations have been sunk to 40 feet below the land level, and consist of brick lying on concrete, which in its turn lies on the blue clay.

Outside the building is a large basin constructed beside the river especially for barges bringing coal to the station. The basin accommodates eight of these barges. A temporary conveyor will carry the coal from the barges to the great conveyor built of laced steel against the main Consisting of Train of Seats on Moving Sidewalk. building, which will take the coal to the bunkers in the roof of the station. By

an hour, and the other at six miles an means of these same conveyors, all ashes hour. The passenger steps from the will be taken back to other barges. Close

ground to the slower platform; then to by the docks are water filters in brick the one moving at six miles an hour; and towers, their object being to treat the

finally to the platform containing the water used and thus prevent “furring” of seats, which is moving at nine miles an boilers.

hour. The seats are designed to hold Mr. Yerkes is a Chicagoan. and it was three persons, and are placed three feet in Chicago that he received his schooling apart.

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An Interesting Continuous-Current special lined paper. Each individual coil Dynamo

includes 500 silk-insulated copper-wire HE Compagnie de ľ Industrie windings, one-half millimeter in diameter. Electrique et Mécanique, Geneva, There are, accordingly, 24,000 armature Switzerland,

time ago windings, the resistance of which during built an interesting dynamo operation is 705 ohms, and which are to be used in the tests of the aërial power capable of yielding a current intensity transmission line between Saint Maurice of i ampere in normal working order. and Lausanne, this machine enabling ten These coils are readily fixed in position sions as high as 23,000 volts to be at or withdrawn from the grooves of the tained with continuous current.

armature. Now a similar machine has been con The collector, comprising 96 segments structed by the same company, for the separated by an air gap, is fixed, in oppoVienna (Austria) Polytechnical High Sition to the general practice with orSchool. This machine, which is able to dinary dynamos. The continuous curyield currents of an intensity of i am rent is collected by means of two small



Capable of giving tension of 23,000 volts at normal speed of 600 revolutions. pere, under tensions ranging between metallic brushes, sliding in the interior of 20,000 and 25,000 volts, at an angular its surface. In order to avoid any risk speed ranging between 600 and 700 revo of arcs being produced between the seglutions, is excited by means of a small ments of the collector on account of the exciting machine mounted on the end of high-potential difference between each the shaft and supplying current at a ten two of them (500 volts as an average), a sion of 110 volts.

small blowing device has been provided, The problem solved in connection with mounted at the end of the shaft of the both these machines was a rather difficult pulley controlling the exciting machine. one, as the highest tensions so far ob By means of two nozzles directed totained with continuous current hardly at wards the brushes, strong air currents tained 10,000 volts.

are made to blow out any arcs produced The latter machine, as pictured here between the segments. As, however, with, is a bipolar dynamo resembling ex with any higher intensity, there would ternally a modern radial pole alternator. still be a risk of short circuits, a conThe inductor, being made of laminated denser was branched off in shunt between iron, rotates in the interior of a ring con each plate of the collector ; this arrangesisting of two pieces and constituting the ment, which has given most satisfactory arınature; the latter, accordingly, is fixed. results, was patented by the company. The armature coils, numbering 48, are The exciting current, as above said, fitted into an equal number of slots in is supplied by a small dynamo as in the the ring, being insulated by means of a case of an ordinary alternator; this

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SECTION OF STAGE, LOOKING TOWARD AUDIENCE. sufficient for giving a tension of 23,000 will be forthcoming in the near future.volts at the normal speed of 600 turns. DR. A. GRADENWITZ.

While in the first machine of this type the tension was during some minutes raised up to 23,000 volts, a tension as

Electrically Operated Theater Curtain high as 25,000 volts was readily obtained with the dynamo constructed for the

N CHICAGO the extraordinary Vienna High School.

safety precautions resulting from The internal bore of the armature is 58 the Iroquois fire have brought forth centimeters. The peripheral speed of the

a combination steel and asbestos inductor, with 600 revolutions, is, accord theater curtain, as staunch and fireproof ingly, 18.22 meters per second, which is as the proscenium wall itself, which has a rather low figure.

to be operated by electric power because The machine is driven by a 440-volt

of its excessive weight. The power ap70- to 80-ampere electro-motor, a special paratus for raising and lowering the curfeature of which is the fact that its speed tain has proved so efficient and may be varied within wide limits so as venient that theater managers now wonto allow of different periods in the al der how they ever tolerated the old systernator.

tem of hand-power curtains.


The illustration shows the method of is thus formed by the releasing of the operation. It represents a section of a drum. theater stage, looking toward the audi In addition there is a system of pushence. B is a curtain suspended through button control. The curtain may be sent the cables H, passing over the sheaves down by merely pressing the button F, I and J to the counterweight K. The which operates the solenoid switch E. electrical hoisting machine is in the base The operation of the switch E connects ment, and is shown at A. Attached to the motor of the machine so as to rotate the lower end of the weight K is the cable the drum A in a direction to lower the L, passing around the sheave S to the curtain at its greatest speed, the motor drum A. The two cables are attached to being automatically cut out of the circuit the bottom of the curtain, and, after pass when the curtain has reached the stage ing downward over the sheaves N and O, floor. The conduit W carries the electric are joined through P to the cable Q, connection between the controller and the passing around the winding drum A. switch E. In case of a failure of the When one of the cables is wound on the house current, a switch G automatically drum the other is unwound. The drum connects the hoisting motor with an outis rotated by means of an electric motor, side station or storage battery plant. controlled by the operation of the handle To prevent tampering by irresponsible C of the controller.

persons, the push buttons F are inclosed By a pull of the cable T through the in a box X which has an easily perforated lever D, located on the stage floor, the front. When the buttons F are operated, drum A of the winding mechanism is inconspicuous pilot lights glow, giving a released and allowed to revolve freely silent warning to theater attachés to be about its shaft. The curtain is slightly on the alert. When the curtain is sent under counterweighted, so that, when in down by means of the push buttons, a its uppermost position, if the drum A is bell or buzzer E E is operated through released, it will descend because of its ex an attachment F F, giving warning to cessive weight.

those on the stage to avoid the lowering The curtain is released by the first pull curtain. The solenoid C C is connected of the lever D. Another pull presses

in circuit with the push button F, as is brake shoes on the inside of the drum A, also the solenoid A A, so that in case of so that the descent may be controlled as an emergency the pushing of the button to its speed or stopped. A safeguard F will instantly open the ventilator and against the failure of the electric power the door B B.


F. Augustus Heinze


Editorial Writer on the Chicago Tribune


T THE AGE of thirty-seven He graduated from the Columbia School worth $20,000,000; recognized as of Mines and Mining in 1889, and the one of the most dangerous rivals same year he turned up in Butte, Mon

the great copper “trust" and the tana, looking for work in the line of his Standard Oil mining interests have ever profession. Butte was then in its inhad to face; head of one of the two great fancy as a mining camp. The great defactions which have kept the politics of posits of copper which have since made Montana in a turmoil for years; owner of the district one of the richest and most immense smelters and extremely rich prosperous in the world, were just bemines; hiding behind a smooth-shaven, ginning to be tapped in a small way. It almost boyish face, a tremendous power was a wonderful opportunity for a young over thousands of men-surely these are man who knew how to use his eyes, and qualities which make the life story of F. who had the requisite technical knowlAugustus Heinze of intense interest to edge behind them. every ambitious young man.

Heinze got a job as surveyor with one It is impossible to admire or to endorse of the mining companies. His work took some of the tactics which Heinze has him all over the mining district, but he adopted in his fight with the giants of the did much more than carry a chain and financial world. But he would plead, in drive stakes to mark the boundaries of excuse or extenuation, that he has been in mining claims. He saw and he stored the thick of a life or death battle, and away in his mind impressions of the that it has been necessary for him to fight fabulous and undeveloped riches hidden the devil with fire.

under the rocky soil. Wages were fairly At any rate it should be interesting to high in those times-Heinze drew $5 a see if one can lay his hands on the secret day—but that promised little prospect of of Heinze's power. To him who reads getting together enough money to start the story intelligently, that bottom secret in business for himself. But, all the is not far to seek. It really is not a secret while, the ambition to put his knowledge at all. It is the same quality which is to to his own use was burning within him. be found at the bottom of so many stories Finally, when he had been working as of great success that it has become almost a surveyor for two years, and had aca commonplace.

quired a thorough, first-hand knowledge In 1867 Fritz Augustus Heinze was of most of the mining country about born in Brooklyn, N. Y., the son of a re Butte, his grandmother died, and left him tired business man in comfortable cir a legacy of $50,000. Here, then, was an cunstances.

Ile attended the public opportunity to start a mining company schools. One day he came home mad. on his own account. But Heinze did not

"Mother,” he said, “I am going to call take it—at least not directly and immedimyself Augustus after this.'

ately. There were men and companies "Why?" she asked, smiling.

in Butte already who had much more "Because the bovs all call me 'Dutch capital and as good a general knowledge Fritz,' and I don't like it."

of conditions. If he was to meet them in So that trivial, bovish incident explains competition on anywhere near an even why it has been F. Augustus ever since. basis, he must get an advantage over them

Heinze's parents were able to give in some other direction. Ile was already their son the best educational advantages. a graduate of the Columbia School of

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