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never have unearthed or put into effect. valuable check and a means of exhaustive

Running, as the government powder research and scientific experimentation, plant does, night and day, year in and private enterprise has in no way been inyear out, still the output is but a modest jured, and the welfare of the nation is the part of the total quantity of powder an better safeguarded against the day of nually consumed in target practice. The stress and conflict. vast bulk of the propellant used is manu It is hard to believe that in the snowy factured by the great powder works of wealth of our peaceful cotton fields lies the country. The result is, that, while in potentiality the dreadful blast of our the government plant has become an in mighty ordnance.

The Best of Life

TOT till life's heat is cooled,

The headlong rush slowed to a quiet pace,
And every purblind passion that has ruled

Our noisier years, at last
Spurs us in vain, and, weary of the race,
We care no more who loses or who wins-
Ah! not till the best of life seems past,

The best of life begins.

To toil for only fame,

Handicappings, and the fickle gusts of praise,
For place or power or gold to gild a name

Above the grave whereto
All paths will bring us, were to lose our days,
We, on whose ears youth's passing bell has tolled,

Forgetting we grow old.

But the world widens when

Such hope of trivial gain that ruled us lies
Broken among our childhood's toys; for then

We win to self-control,
And mail ourselves in manhood; and there rise

Upon iis, from the vast and windless height,
Those clearer thoughts that are unto the soul
What stars are to the night.

-The Spectator.

Possibilities of the Gas Engine

A Comparison of the Steam and Internal-Combustion Engine as to

Economy and Efficiency,



N the recent evolution of various as the efficiency of an ordinary hightypes of machines for the develop- grade condensing steam engine is seldom ment of power, it is questionable if found to be more than 12 or 13 per cent.

even electricity or compressed air- As modern gas processes have been or even the much-talked-of steam turbine brought to such a state of efficiency that -has aroused greater interest among

80 or 85 per cent of the original heat value mechanical and economic experts than of coal appears in producer gas, whereas the gas engine as manufactured to-day. a boiler efficiency of 70 per cent is reWhile found in more common use in garded as high in steam practice, the Europe than in America because of the basic superiority of the gas engine over high cost of steam fuel, this type of me the steam engine in high fuel economy chanism has been sufficiently tested by may readily be appreciated. The gas practical operation in the United States engine's special advantages are notalonea to prove its great value. In fact, such minimum fuel and heat consumption, and has been the progress made in this coun

the elimination of boilers, steam pumps, try in designing gas engines, that ma condensers, return traps, and other chines of this type are now manufactured steam plant auxiliaries, and of the heat which develop no less than 4,000 brake losses and leakage from such auxiliaries, horse-power.

both when the steam engine is in operaThe gas engine does away entirely tion and when it is shut down. It has with the boiler house, and transforms special fields of service, also, in the efover 25 per cent of the heat energy of

fective utilization for power purposes of gas into useful work at the shaft; where millions of horse-power of blast-furnace






Some of the most advanced types of gas engines operate on what is known as the four-stroke cycle. The piston draws in a mixture of gas and air on the forward stroke, and compresses it to a high degree within the clearance space on the return stroke, whereupon it is ignited by an electric spark.

. The pressure resulting from the expansive force of the rapidly burning gas mixture drives the piston forward, and the exhaust valves open at the end of the stroke for the escape of the burned gas; while the piston, upon


stroke, completely cleans

the cylinder, thus preparing gas daily going to waste in the mills of

for a new charge of gas and air. the world, or consumed to poor advan

This cycle of operations is repeated in tage in the production of steam power; each cylinder. In single-acting engines, in the operation of high-pressure water

pressure is exerted upon only one side pumping systems for city fire service, of the piston; in double-acting engines, wherein

it is not economically practicable it is exerted upon both sides. The doubleto maintain constant steam pressure, with acting arrangement is peculiarly adapted service required at only rare intervals; in the equipment of central electric lighting especially alternating-current generators

to the driving of large electric generators, plants operated in connection with large working in synchronism upon the same gas works; and in general power applica- supply circuit. tion wherever natural gas is abundant.

The accompanying views are of some As already intimated, the efficiency and

of the more interesting types of Westingeconomy of this type of power generator have been demonstrated beyond question.

house gas engines which were in service

at the World's Fair. One is a doubleOne series of tests may be cited as an

acting engine having a rated capacity of illustration:

200 brake horse-power, while the other is A two-cylinder vertical engine of 65 horse

a three-cylinder engine. It will be noted power was kept in operation for 1,157 hours that the double-acting engine has its two without stopping, and then it was shut off to cylinders arranged tandem with a compermit replacing a broken belt. Out of a

mon piston-rod, so that the engine gives period of 8,472 hours, it was in motion 8,230 hours. During the time when work was sus

one power impulse at each forward and pended, necessary repairs were made; but these

backward stroke, as in a steam engine. It were so slight as to require but 40 hours in all. operates at a speed of 200 revolutions

In another instance, the performance of a a minute. The cylinders are 1412 inches 1,250-horse-power steam station having com in diameter and the length of stroke 22 pound-condensing engines, and a gas engine station of 650 brake horse-power, was

inches, the maximum diameter of the

compared. The coal used was purchased at the

shaft being 934 inches and the diameter rate of $4 per ton for both stations. It was at the bearings 77/2 inches. The length found that the gas engines, which were of of the unit over all is 27 feet 472 inches; the Westinghouse pattern, could be operated at a saving of 45 per cent in the cost of fuel

and the width, 13 feet 3 inches. The alone compared with steam, yet performing engine is 7 feet wide, and 8 feet 2 inches the same service.

high, the fly-wheel diameter being 8 feet

9 inches. Ignition may be by storage sure of the expanding gases. A longbattery, primary battery, or motor-gen trunk piston is, therefore, employed, erator set. Because of the tandem ar thus dispensing with the cross-head. rangement of the cylinders, the fly wheel The distinguishing characteristic of of the double-acting engine is lighter than the vertical engine is its self-conthat necessary in the single-acting type. tained construction,

all the main Piston and piston-rods are hollow in moving parts being enclosed in a castorder that cooling water may be cir- iron casing, which is filled with oil up to culated through them, the water entering the shaft, the cranks during their revoluat the cross-head through a telescopic tion dipping into this oil and furnishing joint, and emerging through the tail rod” splash lubrication to all internal parts, at the rear of the engine. The starting including connecting rods, pins, and cam is a simple matter, readily accomplished shaft, the latter also being mounted inby one attendant; and as soon as the en side the crank case. gine is fairly started, the combustion cy The performance of the vertical engine cle begins in the forward cylinder, the is approximately the same as that of the air is shut off, and the rear cylinder is horizontal type, when proper considerathrown into service. Lubrication of the tion is given to the difference in size and internal working parts, one of the most construction, the same working cycle bedifficult problems of the internal-combustion engine, is automatically performed by small-power oil-pumps driven from the cam lever.

The three-cylinder vertical gas engine has a rated capacity of 125 brake horse-power, and operates at a speed of 265 revolutions per minute. The cylinders are 13 inches in dianieter; and the length of stroke, 14 inches. The maximum diameter of shaft is 772 inches, the diameter at bearings being 612 inches, and at outboard bearings 574 inches. The length of the unit over all, including fly wheel, is 17 feet 378 inches; and the width 6 feet 9 inches. The engine is 4

feet 4 inches wide, over all ; and 10 feet 434 inches high, the fly-wheel diameter being 6

A 125-H. P. SINGLE-ACTING Gas Engine, Westinghouse Design. feet.

The principal difference in construc ing employed in both types. The gention from that of the horizontal engine, erator, which was direct-connected to the apart from the different arrangement of vertical engine, had a rated capacity of cylinders, is in the employment of the 75 kilowatts, direct current, at 125 volts. single-acting principle, in which only the It had six field poles, compound-wound; upper side of the piston receives the pres and weighed 8,350 pounds.




[graphic][merged small]

Its Manufacture as Carried on at the Plant of the Bethlehem Steel Company

South Bethlehem, Pa.



NE of the largest manufacturing five furnaces 70 feet high, with 10-foot plants in the U. S. where armor hearths and 16-foot boshes. Horizontalplate is made is that of the Beth- compound blowing engines are provided,

lehem Steel Company at South capable of blowing a pressure of 20 lbs. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The works of air, these engines being supplied with cover an area of nearly 200 acres, and steam by boilers fired with the waste include blast furnaces, puddling mills, gases from the furnaces. The furnaces Bessemer steel converters, open hearth are provided with fire brick regenerative furnaces, and hydraulic forge press shops, as well as tempering and treating departments, all of which are equipped with the latest labor-saving devices.

The storage plant for the blast furnaces covers a very large area, and is served by an enormous traveling cantilever crane electrically operated. The ore, coal, and coke are delivered by the railroad cars to this crane, the material being dumped from the car through chutes into the bucket, and then simply stored in piles until required at the furnaces. The storage capacity of the

NICKEL-STEEL SIDE ARMOR-PLATES OF RUSSIAN plant is about a third of a million tons.


Height, 7 ft. 8 in.; thickness, 16 in., tapered to 8 inches; The blast-furnace equipment comprises

weight, 140.04 tons.

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