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AN INTERESTING BIPOLAR CON Capable of giving tension of --i.OOO volts
pere, under tensions ranging between 20,000 and 25,000 volts, at an angular speed ranging between 600 and 700 revolutions, is excited by means of a small exciting machine mounted on the end of the shaft and supplying current at a tension of no volts.
The problem solved in connection with both these machines was a rather difficult one, as the highest tensions so far obtained with continuous current hardly attained 10.000 volts.
The latter machine, as pictured herewith, is a bipolar dynamo resembling externally a modern radial pole alternator. The inductor, being made of laminated iron, rotates in the interior of a ring consisting of two pieces and constituting the armature ; the latter, accordingly, is fixed. The armature coils, numbering 48, are fitted into an equal number of slots in the ring, being insulated by means of a
TINUOUS-CURRENT DYNAMO, at normal speed of 600 revolutions.
metallic brushes, sliding in the interior of its surface. In order to avoid any risk of arcs being produced between the segments of the collector on account of the high-potential difference between each two of them (500 volts as an average), a small blowing device has been provided, mounted at the end of the shaft of the pulley controlling the exciting machine. By means of two nozzles directed towards the brushes, strong air currents are made to blow out any arcs produced between the segments. As, however, with any higher intensity, there would still be a risk of short circuits, a condenser was branched off in shunt between each plate of the collector; this arrangement, which has given most satisfactory results, was patented by the company.
The exciting current, as above said, is supplied by a small dynamo as in the case of an ordinary alternator; this
sufficient for giving a tension of 23,000 volts at the normal speed of 600 turns.
While in the first machine of this type the tension was during some minutes raised up to 23,000 volts, a tension as high as 25,000 volts was readily obtained with the dynamo constructed for the Vienna High School.
The internal bore of the armature is 58 centimeters. The peripheral speed of the inductor, with 600 revolutions, is, accordingly, 18.22 meters per second, which is a rather low figure.
The machine is driven by a 440-volt 70- to 80-ampere electro-motor, a special feature of which is the fact that its speed may be varied within wide limits so as to allow of different periods in the alternator.
will be forthcoming in the near future.— Dr. A. Gradenwitz.
Electrically Operated Theater Curtain
IN CHICAGO the extraordinary safety precautions resulting from the Iroquois fire have brought forth a combination steel and asbestos theater curtain, as staunch and fireproof as the proscenium wall itself, which has to be operated by electric power because of its excessive weight. The power apparatus for raising and lowering the curtain has proved so efficient and convenient that theater managers now wonder how they ever tolerated the old system of hand-power curtains.
The illustration shows the method of operation. It represents a section of a theater stage, looking toward the audience. B is a curtain suspended through the cables II, passing over the sheaves I and J to the counterweight K. The electrical hoisting machine is in the basement, and is shown at A. Attached to the lower end of the weight K is the cable L, passing around the sheave S to the drum A. The two cables are attached to the bottom of the curtain, and, after passing downward over the sheaves N and O, are joined through P to the cable Q, passing around the winding drum A. When one of the cables is wound on the drum the other is unwound. The drum is rotated by means of an electric motor, controlled by the operation of the handle C of the controller.
By a pull of the cable T through the lever D, located on the stage floor, the drum A of the winding mechanism is released and allowed to revolve freely about its shaft. The curtain is slightly under counterweighted, so that, when in its uppermost position, if the drum A is released, it will descend because of its excessive weight.
The curtain is released by the first pull of the lever D. Another pull presses brake shoes on the inside of the drum A, so that the descent may be controlled as to its speed or stopped. A safeguard against the failure of the electric power
is thus formed by the releasing of the drum.
In addition there is a system of pushbutton control. The curtain may be sent down by merely pressing the button F, which operates the solenoid switch E. The operation of the switch E connects the motor of the machine so as to rotate the drum A in a direction to lower the curtain at its greatest speed, the motor being automatically cut out of the circuit when the curtain has reached the stage floor. The conduit W carries the electric connection between the controller and the switch E. In case of a failure of the house current, a switch G automatically connects the hoisting motor with an outside station or storage battery plant.
To prevent tampering by irresponsible persons, the push buttons F are inclosed in a box X which has an easily perforated front. When the buttons F are operated, inconspicuous pilot lights glow, giving a silent warning to theater attaches to be on the alert. When the curtain is sent down by means of the push buttons, a bell or buzzer E E is operated through an attachment F F, giving warning to those on the stage to avoid the lowering curtain. The solenoid C C is connected in circuit with the push button F, as is also the solenoid A A, so that in case of an emergency the pushing of the button F will instantly open the ventilator and the door B B.
F. Augustus Heinze
By HENRY M. HYDE
Editorial Writer on the Chicago Tribune
AT THE AGE of thirty-seven worth $20,000,000 ; recognized as one of the most dangerous rivals the great copper "trust" and the Standard Oil mining interests have ever had to face ; head of one of the two great factions which have kept the politics of Montana in a turmoil for years ; owner of immense smelters and extremely rich mines; hiding behind a smooth-shaven, almost boyish face, a tremendous power over thousands of men—surely these are qualities which make the life story of F. Augustus Heinze of intense interest to every ambitious young man.
It is impossible to admire or to endorse some of the tactics which Heinze has adopted in his fight with the giants of the financial world. But he would plead, in excuse or extenuation, that he has been In the thick of a life or death battle, and that it has been necessary for him to fight the devil with fire.
At any rate it should be interesting to see if one can lay his hands on the secret of Heinze's power. To him who reads the story intelligently, that bottom secret is not far to seek. It really is not a secret at all. It is the same quality which is to be found at the bottom of so many stories of great success that it has become almost a commonplace.
In 1867 Fritz Augustus Heinze was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., the son of a retired business man in comfortable circumstances. He attended the public schools. One day he came home mad.
"Mother," he said, "I am going to call myself Augustus after this."
"Why?" she asked, smiling.
"Because the bovs all call me 'Dutch Fritz,' and I don't like it."
So that trivial, boyish incident explains why it has been F. Augustus ever since.
Heinze's parents were able to give their son the best educational advantages.
He graduated from the Columbia School of Mines and Mining in 1889, and the same year he turned up in Butte, Montana, looking for work in the line of his profession. Butte was then in its infancy as a mining camp. The great deposits of copper which have since made the district one of the richest and most prosperous in the world, were just beginning to be tapped in a small way. It was a wonderful opportunity for a young man who knew how to use his eyes, and who had the requisite technical knowledge behind them.
Heinze got a job as surveyor with one of the mining companies. His work took him all over the mining district, but he did much more than carry a chain and drive stakes to mark the boundaries of mining claims. He saw and he stored away in his mind impressions of the fabulous and undeveloped riches hidden under the rocky soil. Wages were fairly high in those times—Heinze drew $5 a day—but that promised little prospect of getting together enough money to start in business for himself. But, all the while, the ambition to put his knowledge to his own use was burning within him.
Finally, when he had been working as a surveyor for two years, and had acquired a thorough, first-hand knowledge of most of the mining country about Butte, his grandmother died, and left him a legacy of $50,000. Here, then, was an opportunity to start a mining company on his own account. But Heinze did not take it—at least not directly and immediately. There were men and companies in Butte already who had much more capital and as good a general knowledge of conditions. If he was to meet them in competition on anywhere near an even basis, he must get an advantage over them in some other direction. He was already a graduate of the Columbia School of Mines; but he knew that in certain German schools some of the processes of reducing ores had been recently carried to a still higher state of perfection. If he could learn these processes, and so produce metal more economically than the other Butte copper miners, the disadvantage caused by his smaller capital might be more than made up.
So Heinze bade Butte good-bye for a time, and sailed for Germany. There he took a complete course in engineering and metallurgy; and when he came back, he felt himself ready for the battle which he knew would follow his invasion of the Butte field. He hunted up some of his old fellow-students at the Columbia School of Mines—it would do no harm to have as much technical knowledge as possible—and among them they organized a mining company with a capital of $250,000. Heinze put in his own $50.000 ; his associates added what they could control; and they were able to interest outside capital, which was impressed with the story of the young man's thorough preparation for the coming struggle.
Then Heinze invaded Butte for a second time. First of all. he built a big reducing plant for the handling of copper ore. lie put into this plant all the new "tricks of the trade" which he had learned in Germany, together with others which he and his fellow mining engineers had studied out. One of them was a new method of roasting copper ore, which has since been adopted by all the plants in Butte. Starting with these advantages in the way of economical production, the new mill was a paying investment from the start.
Then Heinze began to look around for mines which looked like good purchases. In this work his expert knowledge of conditions, acquired during his service as a surveyor around the camp, proved extremely valuable. A good many men had sunk a lot of money in trying to develop mines, and had failed to make them pay, because of the lack of this very firsthand knowledge which Heinze possessed. He bought several of these abandoned properties, and, one after the other, almost without exception, he made them pay. That naturally aroused the anger of his less successful rivals. They thought
there was something almost magical about the young man's operations. There wasn't. He knew his business, from the ground up and all the way through. That was all.
All this time Heinze and his company were making much money and making it rapidly. Presently he cast his eyes over into British Columbia, where hundreds of thousands of dollars had been sunk in a vain effort to develop valuable mines. He took his keen observation and his technical skill across the border, and bought a lot of the abandoned claims. The claims held rich ore and Heinze knew it. lie built a reducing mill, started to open up the mines, started to construct a railroad to haul his ore to market or to where it could reach a through railroad line. Then the Canadians became badly scared. They were not willing that this young Yankee should come over and rob them of their mineral wealth. They offered him a big price for his holdings. Heinze accepted, and his company cleared a huge profit on the undertaking.
He came on back to Butte, where his enterprises were still growing rapidly. There were plenty of opportunities and plenty of work to be done there, anyhow. Marcus Daly was then, as he remained until the end of his life, one of the copper kings of Butte. He had poured many thousands into a hole in the ground, and had found nothing worth while. Heinze had been down in that hole himself: and he knew more about its prospects than even Daly, shrewd as the latter was. Daly was anxious to sell. Heinze was ready to buy. The deal was made, with the proviso that, if the abandoned claim finally proved profitable, Heinze was to pay Daly back the money he had spent in opening it up.
Within two weeks after he took control of the Daly claim, Heinze had struck one of the three richest deposits of copper in the world. Daly rushed into court with a petition asking that the sale be set aside and that the control and possession of the mine be turned over to him. Heinze. of course, fought it, and so he became entangled in a web of litigation which has ever since spread its coils over the State of Montana and has caused innumerable scandals. These scandals have involved