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to Alaska under Act of Congress of May about 2,000 acres. On an average, the 26, 1900. This system connects Fort St. mill pumps 350,000 gallons of wate" Michael, on the south shore of Norton every 24 hours. Of course, ocean water Sound, with Fort Davis and Nome City, is not pumped, as this would damage or on the north shore ; and, running easterly entirely destroy flowers, grass, and from St. Michael to the valley of the shrubs; but a great well has been sunk, Yukon, passes up that valley to Fort Gibbon and Rampart. From Fort Gibbon it passes up the Tanana and Good Pasture to Fort Egbert and Eagle City, and thence southerly across the divide through the Copper river country to Valdes. A separate cable, 120 miles long, connects Skagway, at the head of Lynn Canal, with Juneau. Thus there is cable communication between Seattle, Skagway, and Juneau ; and in northwestern Alaska there is a complete cable system connecting all important points with Valdes, on the southern coast. There is, however, no connection between Valdes and Sitka.

Though the Alaskan cable system is very important as it stands, its value would be quadrupled by the construction of a line to Valdes. Not only would it be of importance with Alaska itself in mind, but also with the growing commerce following the line of the northern route to the Orient. Soon ports on the Aleutian islands, and on the southern coast of Alaska, will become enriched Colossal WINDMILL NEAR GOLDEN GATE PARK, from this new commerce and will grow

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. rapidly in population and wealth. Somewhere on the southern Alaskan coast a

which furnishes an unfailing supply of great commercial city is bound to arise. fresh water. After being pumped up, This will result from the development of the water is driven through a 14-inch the interior of Alaska, as well as through main nearly two miles long, to a large our increasing Pacific commerce. Es reservoir located near the center of the sential to this development is a thorough Park, from which it is distributed telegraph and cable system enabling all through pipes. Alaska to talk with all the world.

The round, wooden tower is about 120 feet high, and nearly 50 feet in diameter at the base, gradually tapering upward.

Near the top, the arms or "blades" are A Colossal Windmill attached by massive iron fastenings,

These four giant arms describe a circle W HAT is undoubtedly the largest of over 160 feet, each wing being 82 feet

windmill in the United States, if long. The tower is so constructed that not in the world, has very recently been the huge wheel can be adjusted to any constructed near San Francisco, Cal. It point of the compass, according to the is located on the ocean beach, not far direction of the wind. from the famous “Seal Rocks," and quite At the top and bottom are beveled near the beautiful Golden Gate Park. gears through which the power deIts purpose is to augment the water sup- veloped by the revolving wheel is utilized ply required for the irrigation and culti- for driving the powerful pumps. The vation of this immense public garden of power, of course, varies with the force

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of the wind; but the maximum strength trestle has been gradually extended until developed is about 200 indicated horse- to-day it juts out seaward nearly two power, which is ample for driving the miles. Rocks have been dumped from pumps at good speed. During the dry the cars for that entire distance, and still season it is necessary to keep the mill the work progresses. constantly pumping, to maintain the sup- A large pile-driver is the advance ply. During very heavy gales of wind, guard of the work. Along the trestle at the mill is temporarily closed down. intervals are giant cranes, by which the

great ragged rocks are picked up and dropped at the proper places. These

rocks weigh from eight to ten tons each. San Pedro Breakwater During the past year, 1,609,369 tons of

rock have been placed along the great DERHAPS the most gigantic enter- sea wall, on the substructure and super

prise ever undertaken by the general structure. Government on the Pacific Coast, is now Another vast improvement is being in active progress at San Pedro, on the made to San Pedro Bay itself. The plan southern seaboard of California. The is to increase the depth of the present purpose of the Government is to make inner harbor to 25 feet at low tide, and San Pedro Bay a safe harbor at all times, materially enlarge the area. The estiwhich it has heretofore been only during mated cost of this additional work is calm weather.

$2,000,000. When it is completed, the To this end the sum of $3,000,000 has bay will have a channel 400 feet wide and been appropriated by Congress. This a mile long. At the upper end, the inner means the construction of a sea wall be- two-thirds of a mile will be dredged to a ginning at a point two-thirds of a mile mean depth of thirty feet, to enable vesoff Point Firmin, and extending outward sels to turn about. The inner harbor, a long distance.

when dredged and widened, will have an This wall is to be 14 feet above sea- area of about 1,200 acres—sufficient level at low tide ; it is to be six and four- space for the navies of the world to ride tenths feet high, 190 feet wide at the at anchor in safety. base, and 20 feet across at the top. The The San Pedro harbor improvements bottom is of very rough rock, while the exceed in magnitude and cost the great top is to have a superstructure of well-. canal and locks at the Cascades of the smoothed rocks, laid regularly but with- upper Columbia, or the immense jetty at out mortar.

the mouth of that river, both of which In constructing this gigantic break- were completed some years ago. water, it was necessary to build out an San Pedro lies about 400 miles south immensely long trestle, on which a rail- of San Francisco by sea. Between the road track was laid. This double-track two ports there is no adequate harbor of

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DROPPING STONES IN CONSTRUCTION OF SAN PEDRO BREAKWATER, CALIFORNIA.

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FIG. 1. PITTSBURG COMPRESSED-AIR ENGINE, AT YEZO COAL MINES, JAPAN.

safety. The improvements now in progress at the former noint are of vast importance to the shipping interests of the entire Pacific Coast.

American Engines in

Northern Japan THE principal coal mines worked in the

Japanese empire are located on the island of Yezo lying to the north of Nippon, the principal island of the Japanese group. It is an interesting fact that the mines are lighted by electric lamps made in the United States, and the current for lighting and power is generated by American dynamos. The mines are connected with the seacoast by a railroad laid out by American engineers

and provided with American-made rails. In the principal mines, however, the cars of coal from the chambers are hauled to the mine elevators by compressed air, used by American locomotives also. The photograph here reproduced (Fig. 1) shows a type of one of these engines employed at the Yubari group of mines. It was manufactured in Pittsburg especially for the industry referred to, and has been in service several years. The Japanese also employ some American engines on the steam railway which connects the mines with the shipping ports. As will be seen (Fig. 2), these are of the eight-driver type. They weigh about forty tons, including the water tank, carried beside the boiler, and were built especially to develop tractive force as they are in service on heavy grades.

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FIG. 2. PITTSBURG LOCOMOTIVE USED AT THE LARGEST COAL MINES IN JAPAN.

Tapping Trolley Wires Putnam. in the American Machinist, to

have a scratch on the tailstock spindle IN several cities of the United States the

electric current from the trolley wire is utilized in a variety of ways besides operating the street-cars. The accompanying illustration is of a portable welding machine used for bonding the ends of rails. The current is taken from the

FINDING Center Of Shaft. and also on the front of the headstock, just the height of the center.

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World's Largest Pulley
TWO HUNDRED and forty inches in

diameter, 50 inches face, and mounted on a 12-inch shaft, a gigantic pulley—the largest ever constructed—which was exhibited at the St. Louis World's Fair by the Reeves Pulley Company proved one of the most attractive sights to machinists at the big show. The weight of the great wheel is more than 12,000 pounds. To build it, required the constant work of four men for thirty days. The pulley is soon to be put in regular service by the Reeves Company at Columbus, Ohio.

TAPPING TROLLEY-WIRE CURRENT FOR WELDING.

wire by a loop connected to the motors enclosed in the boxes. This mechanism produces the necessary heat. Some of these machines are provided with a parallel pole, and can be run along the track by their own motors, but the one here illustrated is drawn by a trolley car.

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Finding Center of Shaft THE height of the center of a large 1 shaft can easily be found by the simple method shown in the illustration, without turning the shaft half way round, as is usually done. Apply the combination square to the side of the shaft, as shown; and bring both ends of the blade, A and B, to the same height by the surface gauge, and this will be the height of the center. This method can be used when the shaft is over the lathe centers, if a parallel piece or other level support is provided for the surface gauge. It will be found convenient, says C. W.

LARGEST PULLEY IN THE World.

This immense wheel is built of Southern Indiana oak boards. It is made in halves, the arms being constructed of boards separated from one another by rim segments, between which they pass and form a portion of the rim.

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Automatic Ship Log Ohio, is a radical departure from all

other types of nautical measuring deSHOWING at all times the exact speed vices. It is called the “Nicholson" ship w of the vessel, and permanently record- log in honor of its inventor. In addition to ing this speed, together with the time giving the mileage sailed, the log shows and date of the record chart, a new ship on a dial the speed per hour, and records log that has been made in Cleveland, this speed on a paper record chart for

every minute of the trip. These records can be dated and filed away for future reference; and, should any accident or controversy occur, they would furnish incontestable evidence. The device is entirely automatic, and requires little attention save tie daily winding of the clock and changing of the paper record. When the log's record chart is turned in to the steamship manager, he can see at a glance the entire performance of the ship while she was under way.

The complete registering apparatus is shown in the accompanying illustration (Fig. 1). The clock is placed at the top of the frame and works in conjunction with the speed dial, regulating the counter and record drum. The pointer on the dial to the left is operated by the speed of the vessel, and indicates the miles or knots per hour the vessel is moving. It is so sensitive that the slightest variations of speed are instantly shown. When the pointer completes a revolution, a figure is turned in the counter located between the dials. The drum carrying the paper blank form, is operated by the clock placed above the indicator dials, and shows a complete record of the speed for 24 hours, the hours being laid off vertically and the miles horizontally.

A simpler form of log, designed for use on rivers and harbors, has no counter attached, the distances traveled being always known.

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NICHOLSON SHIP LOG. Showing Complete Automatically Registering

Apparatus.

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