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Mines; but he knew that in certain Ger there was something almost magical man schools some of the processes of re about the young man's operations. There ducing ores had been recently carried to wasn't. He knew his business, from the a still higher state of perfection. If he ground up and all the way through. could learn these processes, and so pro

That was all. duce metal more economically than the

All this time Heinze and his company other Butte copper miners, the disad were making much money and making vantage caused by his smaller capital it rapidly. Presently he cast his eyes over might be more than made up.

into British Columbia, where hundreds So Heinze bade Butte good-bye for a of thousands of dollars had been sunk in time, and sailed for Germany. There he a vain effort to develop valuable mines. took a complete course in engineering He took his keen observation and his and metallurgy; and when he came back, technical skill across the border, and he felt himself ready for the battle which bought a lot of the abandoned claims. he knew would follow his invasion of the The claims held rich ore and Heinze Butte field. He hunted up some of his knew it. He built a reducing mill, started old fellow-students at the Columbia to open up the mines, started to construct School of Mines—it would do no harm a railroad to haul his ore to market or to have as much technical knowledge as to where it could reach a through railroad possible—and among them they organ line. Then the Canadians became badly ized a mining company with a capital of scared. They were not willing that this $250,000. Heinze put in his own $50,- young Yankee should come over and rob 000; his associates added what they could them of their mineral wealth. They control; and they were able to interest offered him a big price for his holdings. outside capital, which was impressed with Heinze accepted, and his company the story of the young man's thorough cleared a huge profit on the undertaking. preparation for the coming struggle. He came on back to Butte, where his

Then Heinze invaded Butte for a sec enterprises were still growing rapidly. ond time. First of all, he built a big re There were plenty of opportunities and ducing plant for the handling of copper plenty of work to be done there, anyhow. ore. He put into this plant all the new Marcus Daly was then, as he remained "tricks of the trade” which he had until the end of his life, one of the copper learned in Germany, together with others kings of Butte. He had poured many which he and his fellow mining engineers thousands into a hole in the ground, and had studied out. One of them was a new had found nothing worth while. Heinze method of roasting copper ore, which had been down in that hole himself; and has since been adopted by all the plants he knew more about its prospects than in Butte. Starting with these advantages even Daly, shrewd as the latter was. in the way of economical production, the Daly was anxious to sell. Heinze was new mill was a paying investment from ready to buy. The deal was made, with the start.

the proviso that, if the abandoned claim Then Heinze began to look around for finally proved profitable, Heinze was to mines which looked like good purchases. pay Daly lack the money he had spent In this work his expert knowledge of in opening it up. conditions, acquired during his service as Within two weeks after he took control a surveyor around the camp, proved ex of the Daly claim, Heinze had struck one tremely valuable. A good many men of the three richest deposits of copper in liad sunk a lot of money in trying to de the world. Daly rushed into court with velop mines, and had failed to make them a petition asking that the sale be set aside pay, because of the lack of this very first and that the control and possession of hand knowledge which Heinze possessed. the mine be turned over to him. Heinze, He bought several of these abandoned of course, fought it, and so he became enproperties, and, one after the other, al- tangled in a web of litigation which has most without exception, he made them ever since spread its coils over the State pay. That naturally aroused the anger of of Montana and has caused innumerable his less successful rivals. They thought scandals. These scandals have involved

the courts, the peace officers, and even is sufficient for the present purpose to the Legislature of the State. Their point out again, that Heinze's rise to echoes have been heard all over the coun power is directly due to the fact that he try, and have even invaded the Senate was an expert engineer and metallurgist, of the United States.

and that he was able to meet competition But the history of the scandals grow and to beat it, first of all, on the perfectly ing out of the bitter war between the proper ground of being in possession of copper kings of Montana, is a story by a more thorough technical education and itself. And it is not a pleasant one. It training

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Solution of the Mystery of the Deadly Slumber from which No Victim

Ever Awakes




N THE KONGO the natives have

much havoc among the horses of explorfor three years past been afflicted ing expeditions in the Dark Continent. with a mysterious, deadly ailment, Until the recent outbreak of the disease,

called the "sleeping sickness.” The however, man was thought to rest secure victim at first displays extreme drowsi from the terrible affliction. Now the fear ness, and then is overcome by an incontrollable desire to sleep while at work or play. He falls asleep at his meals, and, when on a journey—no matter of how great importance—will lie down by the roadside and sleep until awakened. At length it becomes difficult to arouse him, then more difficult and still more difficult, until finally he sinks into the sleep from which there is no waking. No one stricken with the disease has ever recovered. It has wiped out whole towns and neighborhoods of the negroes during the three years of its terrible ravages. Scientists have gone from all parts of Europe to These parasites are carried by the tsetse fly, and deposited

in sufferers, causing sleeping sickness. study the malady, but its origin has until very recently remained a deep mystery. has arisen that the ailment may become

general among both the white and native inhabitants of Africa. Already the captain of a British vessel has met death from the disease, and several white residents of Uganda have been afflicted with the usual results. No living thing that has been bitten by the tsetse fly-save the immune ox—has ever recovered.

It has been found that it is not the actual bite of the fly that is poisonous, but the fly deposits in one animal a microbe—the Trypanosomawhich it has sucked from the blood of another animal. This same microbe is found in ordinary sewer rats of Chicago and New York, but has hitherto been regarded as

harmless. In rats the Trypanosoma is These flies carry the fatal parasite. Reproduced from specimens in the South Kensington Museum.

revealed under the microscope to be a

worm-like microbe which dashes about Col. David Bruce, of the British Army at an extraordinary rate, causing everyMedical Corps, formerly stationed in where a violent commotion by the lashing Zululand, has discovered that the afflic of a whip which it possesses at its antion is caused by the bite of a fly—the terior end. Rats appear to treat this unTsetse fly, which Livingstone and other ruly parasite with indifference. No harm African explorers describe as creating so is known ever to have been caused by this



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microbe in the rat. The tsetse fly in Busoga and Kavirondo shores of Lake Africa is believed to get the microbe from Victoria. In the islands the mortality large wild animals such as the koodoo, had been terrible. A laboratory was esimpala, and buffalo. It is known to in tablished at Entebbe, and study was habit all the regions where these animals begun. But the task was difficult, and the are found. The fly is merely a go-be- problem seemed no nearer solution when tween which carries the Trypanosoma Colonel Bruce was despatched to investifrom the African wild beasts, in which gate and elucidate the problem. With it seems to be harmless, to the domestic his wife, who had also accompanied him animal and human body, in which it to Zululand, the Colonel soon discovered causes unfailing death.

that the Trypanosoma was found in In animals the disease caused by the every case of the disease; it was not fly's bite is known as Nagana. In the found in persons not suffering from the

disease. It was present in the blood. Only a blood-sucker could put it there. Examination soon revealed the fly-a tsetse fly-differing but slightly from the old tsetse of Zululand. Natives were instructed to collect the flies, which soon


Doctors puncturing the spinal column in which

the Trypanosoma exists.



vast area of the Gran Chaco, where the pampas of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil meet, the Trypanosoma of Tsetse Flies (Glossina MorsitanS) BEFORE AND AFTER Mal de Caderas has swept tens of thousands of horses off the face of the earth ; and in many regions the bandy-legged Gaucho bemoans the loss of his horse, began to arrive in packets by the hunwhose place has been taken by the hum

dreds every day. The geographical disble but immune ox. The Trypanosoma

tribution of the fly was found to correof Dourine is also universally fatal to

spond exactly with that of the disease. horses.

The Sphere, of London, in commentThe tsetse fly is supposed to have been

ing on the discovery, says: brought to Uganda by Emin Pasha's fol “The importance of these researches can lowers after their relief by Stanley in the scarcely be overestimated. We may still be eighties. It gained such a foothold in so

a long way off the cure, but the cause is known.

The harmless parasite of the rat has led to short a time, and created so much havoc the discovery of others which have been shown among the natives, that the Royal Society to be the most deadly of all microbes that sent out an expedition for the study of

infect man and animals. Science may yet rid the malady. Inquiry showed that the

l'ganda--perhaps the best of all our African

possessions of this terrible curse which afarea affected was principally along the fects its inhabitants."

A Poor Boy's Country

Extracts from Address Delivered at Second Annual Reception Tendered by Armour Institute of Technology to Students of the American

School of Correspondence, June 17, 1904


Junior United States Senator from lowa.

AM TO SPEAK for a little while which has given to the world practically upon the country in which we live, every important personage in history. with a special reference to its present opportunities for young people to fight successfully the battle of life; Emerson was right' when he said that and, if you will allow me, I intend to the only way to study the history of the

approach the subject through some world is to study the lives of the men thing specially suggested by the biogra- who have made history. I tried this phy of the late President of the United method and started with the life of NaStates.

poleon, but I had not read ten pages beEvery human life has an important fore I came to the conclusion that he significance. There are some lives lifted wasn't in our class at all!-that he was up so that all generations of men may see not a man, but a monstrosity, the like of them and mark out the spirit and sig which never got into the world before, nificance that lie in them; but the thing and, fortunately for mankind, is not that I desire to speak of in connection likely to again. I had the same experiwith the life of William McKinley is the ence in reading Carlyle's "Life of Oliver lesson that may be learned from such a Cromwell.” To this day I cannot pick man, who, without any outside assistance, that book up and mark the gulf which without disturbing the institutions of so seems to be fixed between the man's ciety, made his way from an humble preparation and what he did, without a situation in life until, before he was sixty, strange sensation creeping over me that he stood upon the highest eminence the story is not about a man at all. But known among men.

when you come to the case of William There has grown up within our life- McKinley everything looks reasonable. time a school of thinkers and critics who There is nothing but what almost anyteach that the world we are in is hardly one might have done. No one pretends fit to live in ; and that, before the poor that he ranked high as a student in shall have a chance, it is first necessary school ; no one pretends that he was an to subvert the old institutions of society extraordinary soldier in the field. He and bring in a new order of things—a went out as a private, and came back benevolent régime. I like the life of hardly more than a private. I have alMcKinley because it rebukes this ways had a kind of satisfaction in the thought. I believe the longer I live, the life of McKinley—that he died as he had less sympathy I have for the children of lived, shoulder to shoulder with more the poor. I am saving my sympathies than a million men in the United States. now—all that I have to spare—for the He was not a great lawyer. You cannot children of the rich.

find a trace of any record connecting his

name with any prominent case. He was McKinley was not born in abject pov not an extraordinary member of Conerty. He was one of a family of chil

gress. The thing that made more imdren born on the average level of life, pression than anything else was the fact where nearly every one else is born. He that no one seemed to envy him a single was born upon the average plane of life faculty that he had. He gained the po

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