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of railroading ability ; many a high offi- is that there is always something to learn. cial, and even several of the presidents Too many graduates of technical schools of the most important roads of to-day, are too satisfied, at graduation, that they including the New York Central, have "know it all;" and it is for that reason had the benefits of St. Paul railroad that such men are often passed in the training.
race by those who had far less advanMr. Wilgus made himself invaluable, tages at the beginning and within six years had won such a rep Mr. Wilgus is one who knows that, utation that he was called to Chicago to for any man, there is always something become the resident engineer of the Chi- to learn; and therefore it was, that, while cago Union Transfer Railway. The next engaged in engineering work at Chicago, year saw him with tle Duluth & Iron he took up the profound study of elec
When the terminal facilities are completed, all trains within a radius of 25 miles from the Grand Central
Station will be electrically moved.
Range. And in 1893 he was drawn to tricity, and especially of electric applithe New York Central, which is forever ances and apparatus. To that fact is owon the lookout for the very best men ob- ing his most marked advancement, for a tainable. He had applied to this road for master of engineering who is at the same employment immediately after securing time a master of things electrical is what his correspondence school diploma ; his the New York Central needed for the home town being the western terminal of vast work which is to build the new the road, it seemed the natural course for trackage and station and install the ophim to go to work for it; but the road eration of electricity. was not ready to recognize the stripling. With the New York Central, Mr. Wilwho, within so few years, was to come gus rose rapidly, till be became Chief back from the West and take such im- Engineer; and his recent promotion to portant charge of its work.
be one of the Vice-Presidents has not One of the truths which a man who is taken him from the active care and overto win any degree of success must know, sight of the work.
work, the excavation covers more than twice the amount excavated in the original construction of the Hudson River Railroad, it being necessary to tear up more than a million and a-half cubic yards, more than half of it being solid rock. There is to be a million square feet of concrete paving. There are to be seven miles of four-way electric ducts; there are to be twenty miles of track; there are to be turntables, transfer-tables, and a bewildering maze of interlocking and signaling devices. There will be 30,000 tons of structural steel — more than enough for the building of two modern battleships. Within the new railroad station there will be a fully equipped postoffice, for the handling of the enormous masses of mail which enter and leave there.
The New Terminal Building The new terminal building, the work. of four architects, aided by a corps of
ness of effect, the station will be set back 40 feet from the street line in front, and 70 feet on one side, thus giving a clear, open space of 140 feet on Forty-second Street and of 130 feet on Vanderbilt Avenue.
The main entrance is to be through three arches, each 33 feet wide and 60 feet high. The ticket lobby is to be 300 feet long, and nearly 100 feet wide. The concourse is to be the largest in the world -470 feet long, 160 feet wide, and 150 feet high. The platforms beside the tracks will be 15 to 29 feet in width. There are to be a great number of elevators and stairways, wide exits, and spacious entrance-ways.
Value of Specialization In connection with the adoption of the plans for the new station there is an interesting story:
There have been four men engaged, with the advice and co-operation of rail
way officials and engineers as to specific working together, under combined plans, needs, in bringing all the plans to per- each helping the others, and all infection—a firm of two architects from fluenced and actuated by the representaSt. Paul, far away though it is, and a tions of the practical railway heads as to firm of two architects of New York. the needs of the traffic. And these architects work together, in Mr. Reed is a graduate of the Massafriendly concert.
chusetts Institute of Technology. Mr. But how did it come that these St. Stem, on the other hand, never took a Paul men are working with those of New technical course, but he studied archiYork on a New York railroad proposi tecture broadly, from the standpoint of tion? The answer shows the value of art as well as utilitarianism, and posspecialization, and also that one should sesses one of the finest libraries in the never despair of winning success at United States of books relating to his points distant from home.
profession. The firm thus exhibits the Mr. Charles A. Reed and Mr. Allen advantages of high technical training ; H. Stem, the first from Rochester and and at the same time points out to the the second from Indianapolis, went to young man to whom attendance on colMinnesota about twenty-five years ago, lege courses has been denied, that it is and, after working individually for a possible for him to achieve a brilliant time, as architects, formed a partnership success without it if he will take adin 1890, in St. Paul. From the first, the vantage of every educational aid within firm set itself to make a specialty in one his reach. certain line, that of architectural rail- There are situations in which that road work; and, as the years went by, much-worn phrase, “Captains of Intheir reputation increased. Not only in dustry,” well applies. Here, in these the vicinity of their own city, but at busy yards, is such a situation, where a points far distant, they became known. regiment of a thousand is every day at The Union Station at Seattle is their work; where, indeed, the passengers in work, and so are other structures the trains find toilers not only to right throughout the West. But, fortunately of them and to left of them and in front for their future, their ambition stretched of them, but above them and below them to the eastward as well. They managed as well, and where ten locomotives and to attract the attention of the New York almost two hundred cars are used for Central, and here and there along the the new work—in yards already covered line a station of their building was put with the ceaseless movement of pasup. Through this tentative opening senger and express traffic. came their greatest success. When the Within the short period of five years, New York Central desired plans for its the entire work is to be completed; it is new station in New York City, it quietly possible that it may be accomplished in requested a few architects to submit not much more than three. ideas. Reed and Stem were among the The speed with which enormous tasks few chosen ones; and such attractive are accomplished is one of the chief wonplans did they send in that it was de- ders of these modern days. In the past, cided to ask them to come to New York when speed was thought of, the fancy to open offices and to superintend the had to rely upon the pronouncing of a putting of their plans into execution. magic word or the rubbing of a magic That was a change indeed! At the same lamp. The magic lamp of the Twentime, the plans of two of the New York tieth Century is fed with money, and the architects were found to contain a great magic word is only a plain “Go ahead." deal that was favorable; and, with a And with modern Captains of Industry broadness which marks this entire work peace hath her victories no less proas so unique, the four architects are nounced than war.
A 600-HORSE-POWER TURBINE DIRECT-CONNECTED TO ELECTRIC GENERATOR,
Westinghouse-Parsons type. – Broadside view.
By DAY ALLEN WILLEY
ESS than ten years ago, the tur- the attention of marine engineers esbine system of developing power pecially to what might be accomplished: was practically unknown to the and possibly more has been heard of the
general public, for it was not un- turbine in connection with shipbuilding til 1897 that the remarkable speed ob- than in any other respect, although, as tained by a turbine-driven steamship at the figures show, its use is becoming very tracted attention to its possibilities as an extensive in other ways. improvement on the ordinary marine en- It is perhaps unnecessary to say that, gine. It is true that for several years following the design of the Allan Line previous a set of turbines had been in to construct a vessel for ocean service service, generating electric current for propelled by turbines exclusively, came lighting purposes at Newcastle-on-the- the announcement that the Cunard ComTyne, England; but this installation was pany would add to its fleet two turbineregarded more as an experiment than as driven ships calculated to develop at a practical application, the four turbines least 25 knots an hour, and representing aggregating only 400 horse-power in all. fully 60,000 horse-power each. The It may be said here, however, that this Victorian, which is now in service belittle plant has afforded a remarkable tween Glasgow and Canadian ports, has, proof of the efficiency and durability of it is understood, borne out the claims of such mechanism, as it has been almost her builders that her engines would give continuously in service since 1889 at a entire satisfaction. They are of the Parminimum expense for repairs.
sons design, five in all being utilized
three for forward propulsion, and two Marine Field First Entered
for reversing the ship. She is equipped The fact that the turbine attained a with three screws, which give a speed of speed of nearly 35 knots an hour, aroused 17 knots an hour, as the vessel was de
signed more for capacity than for speed.
Various Applications With the success attained in the application of the turbine to marine service, it is not strange that it should have been exhaustively tested in other ways. As a result, the turbine is now being utilized for such purposes as generating electrical current for power and light, for driving power tools and other equipment of the modern machine shop, for operating blowers in connection with woodworking plants, for pumping water in mining and other operations, and for generating electric current for lighting railway trains,
capacity. For example, the power house
power being secured indirectly from the cipally utilized in the United States, are steam locomotive. Some idea of the utility illustrated by the accompanying photoof the turbine can be gained when it is graphs, which include one developing stated that a conservative estimate shows 600 horse-power. The turbine consists nearly if not quite 1,000,000 horse-power essentially of a number of impulse wheels at present in actual use or under con- mounted side by side upon a revolving struction to be completed in the near fu- spindle, and surrounded by a casing, or ture. Over 100,000 horse-power has cylinder, which constrains the working been installed in vessels of various kinds steam. On the adjacent surfaces of both, within the last two years; and contracts are rows of radial blades, or vanes, befor constructing mechanism representing tween which the steam passes, each row 200,000 horse-power in all, have been on the surface of the spindle alternating taken for the manufacture of Westing- with a similar row on the wall of the house-Parsons turbo-generators in the cylinder, the latter serving to give direcUnited States and Canada.
tion to the expanding steam, while the The demand for this equipment has led former immediately abstracts velocity to the construction of some units of great thus formed, energy being delivered to