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sition which he held in the House, not to entertain me on peculiar Kentucky through any great act that he initiated, lines. I said, “Gentlemen, there is one but by simply holding his place and rising thing in Kentucky I should like to see. to a position of leadership by reason of Down on the edge of Hardin County long service. To this day, while the there is a cabin in which the mother of sum of his achievements is great, there Abraham Lincoln was living when he is no trace of a record connecting the was born. I should like to visit that name of McKinley with any extraor- spot.” We started; and the next day, dinary parliamentary proceeding. He toward sundown, we came to Hardin lived an average life, hardly appearing to County, and I found myself standing, have taken a single step that nearly every with hat in hand, in reverence before all one else under favorable circumstances that is left of that rude cabin which shelmight not have taken. That is why I like tered the infancy of the grandest man the biography of McKinley—to answer that ever lived in the most trying of every humbug philosophy of human life times. That cabin is more royal than all aiming to overthrow the institutions of the palaces of the earth. It did not shelsociety in order to give the poor a better ter the child of a king ; but there is someopportunity. The Lord seems to have thing more royal than a king—it is a arranged this world in such a way that no man. For hours I stood there; and I said one appears to amount to anything unless to myself, “This is the American type of he does something, and no one does any- royalty.” You can turn the pages of histhing except those of us who have to: tory and not find a name that does not therefore the poor boy is the only boy have a background of poverty and hard who ever had a chance, or who ever can work—from Washington down to our have a chance, to do anything. If you own times. Every one came up to that give a boy $50,000, you run the risk of honor through the tribulations of povsimply ruining him for life. He is fully erty. William J. Bryan is no exception satisfied and does not start. He simply to that rule. Ile had a hard struggle in coils himself up on the door-mat, and it his younger days. He has served a good requires more than parental energy to many years in the House of Representakick him into the street. So I would tives, where I have known him well, and I suggest to you the propriety of keeping use him to illustrate the unlimited opthe two as far as possible out of each portunity for young manhood in the other's way. It will be better for the United States. There, is a man hardly boy, and, in the long run, better for the forty-five years old, who, without the help $50,000. If there are girls in the family. of money or influential connections of why, of course, that is somewhat differ- any kind, but by the unaided forces of his ent. On account of the uneven way in own character, has become the wellwhich society has got itself divided, it is beloved leader of millions in the United well to give the girls half of the money; States. but take the rest, and give it to some institution of learning that shall help to Not only is it true that every important save the world; and let the boys fight the public career has had that background of battle of life as you have fought it. * * *

hardship and toil behind it—the same The law of human life is not a law of thing is true of every important business ease, not a law of deliverance of any kind. career. * * * The law of human life is a law of labor,

In these days there are mighty few of sacrifice, of service; and that man ren

people who are going to be President or ders this poor old world of ours a mean

even Vice-President of these United turn who tries to take away the means by

States. Few people are going to be presiwhich the strongest manhood is made.

dents or even vice-presidents of railroads.

The great majority of people are going to A year or so ago I went to Kentucky live very ordinary, humble lives in this to make a political speech; and when I world. My father was a Methodist got through, the boys said they wanted preacher, and he used to say that the to entertain me. I thought they intended Lord gives to every one of us everything that He can trust us with. Perhaps that made, I believe, though it was never reis why so many of us have so little— ported at all. After breakfast we all fighting a hard fight and winning a very went back to the smoking car, when we modest victory. Maybe it is all for the noticed a peculiar smile on the Presibest, though. The accumulation of dent's face as he watched the antics of money seems to constitute what in gen- two boys by the roadside—two boys eral is regarded as a man's success in warming their feet by starting up the this world, but let me say to you to-night cows. The President said that one of the that my conviction is stronger than ever most delightful memories of his boyhood that it is not money or position that days was the luxury of warming his counts, but the faithfulness with which a frost-bitten feet by scaring up the cows. man stands to the every-day business of “I wonder how many of you have had life that lies along his pathway.

the same experience,” he added. Begin

ning with Jolin Ilay, Secretary of State, I went down to New York recently, who began his foot-warming in the woods and took occasion to see who it is down of Ohio and finished on the plains of there that is doing the great business of Illinois, every member of the President's the metropolis, our commercial capital. Cabinet gave in the same testimony. Then Before going, I put down the name of followed the Governor of the State and every one I had heard of, but, for fear I the Senators—one after another—until had not got them all, I asked a man who the little experience meeting came to an lived there to put down all he knew. I end. So I was not surprised when I took found that outside of a few decadent my census of New York. Every great families rarely heard of except as they merchant, every noted lawyer, journalist, moved from one pleasure resort to an artist, architect, writer—every man and other, there was hardly in New York City every woman conspicuous in any departa man or a woman whose name was ever ment of culture—all appeared to have lieard of, who was born there, except one walked into the town from some other - Theodore Roosevelt-and how he ever place; and I made up my mind that I got away I never heard anyone say. With would never fail to bear a manly witness that one exception, every one of them that this country is, and always has been, seemed to have walked there from a farm a poor boy's country. somewhere. Tolstoi was right when he Now and then a young man says, said that there is no possible strength of "What you say may have been true body, mind, or character that does not twenty-five years ago, but it is not so come up from the ground through the now.” On the other hand, modern indusbare feet.

trial methods in America, instead of Before McKinley died I went with him shutting the doors of opportunity, have through Iowa to the Dakotas, to meet the opened them in a thousand directions. returning regiments of the Army. There Within twenty years every president of were in the party six Senators of the every great corporation will be dead, or United States, including those from Illi- in a sanitarium for nervous debility nois and Iowa, seven or eight members brought on by drawing his salary, and of the House, all conspicuous in public the directors will be running all over life to-day. As we came to Iowa Falls, this world to find young men of trained the President waked us all up. There ability to take up the failures and carry were five thousand people waiting there forward the great business enterprises in that early morning hour, to hear him of the modern world. And I say to you speak; and it was as little as he could do that there never before was a time when he said, to gratify them; so he said, “The a man, taken by himself, stood for so rest of you have got to get up, too.” He much, and when a dollar stood for so made one of the best speeches he ever little.

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THERMOMETER is an instru- marked 212°, and the freezing point 32°. ment for measuring intensity of As shown on the blackboard, there are heat. It consists of a glass tube 180 divisions between the boiling and

of small bore, with a bulb on the freezing points. end. The tube and bulb are filled withi

Comparison of Scales mercury, and the end sealed. The height of the mercury indicates the temperature. From the blackboard we know that, Kinds

180° F. = 100° In England and in America the Fah

go F. = 3°C. renheit thermometer is generally used,

1° F. = c. while in France and in most laboratories

9 in this country the Centigrade is the

1° C. accepted standard. The difference between the two lies in the graduations.

This is shown by the lines E F and C D.

This is shown by the lines E F and There are other kinds of thermometers,

Now, let us suppose that the two thersuch as the Réaumur; but, as they are not commonly used, we need not con

mometers are placed side by side and sub

jected to the same heat. Assume the sider them.

temperatures to be 176° F. and 80° C., as Graduation

shown. If heat is now applied and the Although various arbitrary units may mercury in the Fahrenheit thermometer le adopted for the graduation of ther- rises to 194', how high will the mercury mometers, there are two points which are rise in the Centrigrade thermometer? fixed. These are the boiling point and The rise in temperature F. will be 194 the freezing point of water.

- 176 (= 18) degrees. Since a FahTo graduate a Centrigrade thermome- renheit degree is 5 of a Centigrade ter, it is placed in boiling water, and the degree, height of the mercury column marked :

18° F. = 10° C. this is called 100°. The thermometer is because I x 18 = 10. By adding this to then held in a freezing mixture, and the the original (entigrade reading, we get height of the mercury marked oo. The 00°. distance between these marks is divided into 100 equal parts called degrees.

Problem The graduation of the Fahrenheit In the above we simply compared a thermometer is accomplished in the same few degrees' change in a case in which way. The boiling point, however, is the freezing points were not involved. (68)

(Rights of Publication Reserved by Author)

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Now let us change one reading to an As the comparison can be made only other. One reading is 30° C., and we when starting from the freezing point, we wish to know this reading in Fahrenheit must first subtract 32° from the Fahrendegrees. We know that a change of 30° leit reading: C. is equal to š x 30 = 54° F., but the

185 — 32 = 153. reading is not 54° F. because the Fahrenheit freezing point is 32° above the zero. Since To reduce the reading, we must add 32° to the change in temperature:

32 + 54 = 86. From this we may deduce the expression:

From this we may deduce the expresTemp. F. = 5 Temp. C. + 32o.

sion: Another Problem

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Let us reduce 185° F. to Centigrade.

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Mammoth Remains in Texas W/HILE DIGGING A WELL in the

V vicinty of Austin, Texas, a workman recently struck something hard with his pick at a depth of about thirty feet below the surface. The man supposed it to be a stone, and struck it several blows to dislodge it. The blows, unfortunately, caused it to break into two fragments. The object was raised to the surface with the other material of excavation, when the attention of one of the laborers was attracted to the curious ap

few ounces of twelve pounds. In the opinion of experts who have examined it, the tooth has been embedded for many centuries, and much of the roughness of its surface is due to the corroding action of time. A diligent search has been made for other remains of the great animal, but thus far only this part has been found.



New Lining for Refrigerator Cars A NEW LINING (“Arctic" brand of n Keystone Hair Insulator), especially for refrigerator-car insulation, has recently been placed on the market. Its distinctive characteristic is, that while it possesses the insulating properties of hair felt, it combines the papers used in connection therewith, so that, instead of involving three operations, the “Arctic" can be applied in one. It consists of regular felting hair fastened to and enclosed by two layers of waterproof paper. Tests are said to have demonstrated it to be equal to hair felt, and superior to anything else.

It is furnished in lengths sufficient to reach around a car, and wide enough to extend from the sill to the roof plate. This does away with joints. Car builders will appreciate this saving in labor and waste.

For the floors and roofs, the "Arctic" is furnished according to specifications, to fit the nailing strips and car-lines respectively. It is made from 38 inch to 34 inch thick, according to the quantity of hair employed, and should meet with ready favor.

The H. W. Johns-Manville Company, 100 William Street, New York, are prepared to figure upon specifications and to


pearance of the supposed stone. Its surface was grooved in regular lines, and on the side were a number of conical indentations. By the merest chance, a scientist happened to see the fragments, and made a minute examination, with the result that the object was found to be the tooth of a mammoth of unusual size.

It was taken away and carefully measured and weighed. An idea of the enormous size of the animal from which it came, can be realized when it is stated that the tooth itself is no less than a foot in length and six inches across the broadest portion. Its total weight is within a

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