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spike their supports. A strong logging derrick, requiring but four men, two chain is passed around the pole, well horses, and a boy driver, saves from fifabove the center of gravity; and the teen to twenty dollars a day in wages. horses are hitched to the draw-rope. At This particular construction crew has a signal from the foreman, the horses been aided also by a “reel wagon” which start on a steady, even pull, whereupon allows them to string ten wires simul

taneously. The essential feature of this is a specially constructed wagon with five wire-reels placed horizontally on either side. It is said to be a great improvement over the old method of stringing wires.

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TELEPHONE LINE CONSTRUCTION.-POLE-DERRICK IN OPERATION.

By means of this device, four men are enabled to erect a two-ton pole.

the ropes tighten, the blocks creak, and "Key Route" Electrical straightway the big stick swings clear. Two of the men guide its butt; and, as

Line soon as this is squarely over the hole, the horses back slowly, and the stick THE. noted “Key Route” Electrical drops into place. Thereupon the fore Railway in California is in many reman climbs the shaft, removes the chain, spects unique. This double-tracked line and gives orders for the horses to be is about twelve miles long, extending hitched up again and the derrick moved from San Francisco to the outlying subon to the next pole. Meantime the pole urban cities of Oakland and Berkeley. is straightened up by the "fillers," and It has only recently gone into active opthe earth is thrown in about it. Such a eration,

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of San Francisco Bay.

switches except at rightangle crossings, where a simple special design is employed.

The wear on the trolley wire, also, is smaller than with the wheel. The roller soon wears smooth and bright, and does not become corrugated and pitted. The device is prac

tically noiseless, for the TERMINAL OF "Key Route' ELECTRIC Railway.

roller is packed with nonThe station is at the end of a mole extending 3/4 miles into the waters

resonant matter that almost

entirely destroys the vibraBoats run regularly from the dock at tion. Tliere is but very little jar even San Francisco over to the end of a very when moving at a high rate of speed, long mole, where is located the large while the train runs very smoothly and depot. This mole is one of the longest steadily. The roller exerts an upward in the world, the distance from the main pressure of only 24 pounds against the land to the depot being 17,160 feet, or trolley wire. To operate a train of eight 374 miles. The water of San Francisco cars moving at a speed of 50 miles per Bay along the line of the mole averages hour, requires from 2,500 to 3,000 am20 to 30 feet in depth, according to the peres to be collected from the overhead tides; and the construction of the long conductor. track-way was a very expensive undertaking.

None of the ordinary poles and trolley wheels are used on the railway. What is

A Sledge Locomotive known as the “Brown roller trolley,” the invention of Mr. J. Q. Brown, General IN the Maine lumber districts a very Engineer of the line, has been adopted. curious motor is utilized to haul logs A roller two feet long is attached to the through the woods in winter time. It is top of a diamond-shaped iron device. By what might be called a "sledge locomomeans of strong steel springs, the roller tive," for, in place of the ordinary wheels, is pushed up and kept in constant con the front part is mounted on runners as tact with the overhead current wire. The well as the rear. Under the heaviest part device is so constructed as to allow a of the motor, however, is placed a wheel vertical play of six feet in order to conform to variations of grade.

With the roller trolley there is no "jumping the wires,” as with the ordinary

narrow - grooved wheel. This cannot occur unless the car itself leaves the track. The roller is of great advantage also in running around curves ; for, even at high speed, it cannot possibly “skip" from the wire. It simplifies greatly the overhead construction, doing away with a 11 trolley frogs and

LOG-HAULING TRACTION ENGINE.

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SEMI-PORTABLE COMPRESSED-AIR PLANT USED IN BRIDGE REPAIRING.

machine will laul two or three car-loads on the Illinois Central, on both new and of logs along a fairly level road through repair work. The machines are generally the woods, at the rate of from four to placed in care of the superintendent ; six miles an hour. It is brought into and after they are started, little or no use after the snow has fallen sufficiently attention is necessary, except the filling to form a fairly smooth surface for the of the oil-cups. The arrangement of the runners, and it will ascend quite a steep

compressor is automatic and is under the grade.

control of the engine's governor, thus making it economical, both in the use of

fuel and in effecting a great saving in Compressed Air in attendance.

Bridge Repairing A UNIQUE feat of bridge repairing. English Railway Adopts recently performed on the Illinois

Electricity Central Railroad, shows the high state of efficiency that compressed-air machin- THE Northeastern Railway of Enery has attained, and the important new gland is the first road in Europe to fields that it is invading. By the aid of grapple in a big way with the problem a portable gasoline air-compressor, field riveting was done on a railroad bridge without in any way hindering traffic over the structure. The compressor was set outside the rail a sufficient distance to permit the passing of trains. An entirely new floor system was riveted in position in this particular bridge, without interfering with the passage of trains. The

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THE GREAT WESTERN AUTOMOBILE.

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Ingenious New Panel

Board SYSTEMATIC arrangement of cir

cuits, avoiding all confusion such as often results in the wiring of large office buildings, is the result of a new type of panel - board installed in the great Railway Exchange Building in Chicago, Illinois. The panelboard is compact, and at the same time

ENGLISH ELECTRIC RAILROAD TRAIN.

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and has thus become a pioneer in the substitution of electrical for steam motive power.

It would be difficult to find a road where the conditions were more unfavorable for the success of electrical operation than on the Northeastern, but the promoters have already proclaimed the experiment an absolute success. Traffic over the forty miles is exceedingly heavy; there are four tracks nearly all the distance; and crossings and other obstacles are

numerous. The electric trains that have been installed consist of two motor coaches, with one trailer coach between them. They are operated by a continuous current obtained from a single collector placed in the six-foot way, with a return circuit through the running rails. The collector rail weighs eighty pounds to the yard, and is placed 3 feet 117/2 inches from the center of the track, and, where necessary, is protected by two creosoted boards bolted against distance pieces on each side of the rail. Under the protected rights of way of English roads, a third rail needs little protection, which is extremely different from the condition presented by American roads.

The electric rolling stock consists of motor and trailer coaches of the opencorridor type, lighted and heated by electricity. Each motor car is equipped with two motors, each of 150 horse-power. The motors used in the freight service are capable of hauling a train of 150 tons up a grade of 1 in 27 at a speed of between nine and ten miles per hour. For the

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Fig. 1. PANEL-BOARD FOR OFFICE BUILDINGS.

- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT.

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Fig. 2. In the latter figure, one of the meters is shown as registering on the two right-hand circuits at the top and bottom of the panel. When the lower one of these offices is to be vacated and the other retained, the meter can readily Le changed to the one circuit by merely removing the jumper wire connecting the two, thus disturbing no other wiring.

The wiring of all the meters served by Ő each panel-board is brought in at the

sides near the top (Fig. 1), and the lamp circuits lead out opposite their respective switches at the lower portion of the board. The wiring on both sides is identical, although Fig. I shows it as entering one side.

Unscrewing two marble slabs at the rear, covering the fuses and wiring, gives access to the panel itself. Two

small doors at the top and bottom of the gives great flexibility in connecting the

case various circuits in the building to the

near the edge (Fig. 1) can be metering system.

opened, to show at a glance which leads The general arrangement and connec

are connected to the respective fuses. tions of the device are shown in the accompanying. illustrations. The board is

World's Largest Stone mounted on a shallow steel box and is divided into two sections, vertically (Fig.

Arch 1). At the top the feeders from the S rapid is the progress made these three-wire service enter, and are led days in almost every line, that already through the fuses to the main switch. the record of the noted Luxembourg The neutral passes from the switch down bridge, completed in 1903 (See THE to two bus bars in the lower portion of TECHNICAL WORLD, November, 1904, p. the board. These bus bars are common 311), has been beaten by a single-span

Fig. 2. PANEL-BOARD FOR OFFICE Buildings.

-CONNECTIONS TO METER,

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to one side of each of the office circuits. structure erected in 1903-04, at Plauen, The other side of each individual office Germany, which now ranks as the longcircuit ends in a terminal on the board, est stone arch in the world. The Plauen and from this terminal a wire is carried bridge is about 59 feet high and 55 feet up to the customer's meter, the current wide. The length of the span is 90 metpassing from the meter back to the other ers (over 295 feet). The structure cost side of the main circuit, as shown in 500,000 marks, or about $119,000.

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