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was I in 1,744, while the number from signed for the Life-Saving Service by the English lifeboats was about 1 in 850. Colonel Lyle of the Army, is a pretty,

Where the water is sufficiently deep to little bronze cannon weighing less than effect a launch, lifeboats are used. They 200 pounds, very accurate, and capable are self-bailing and self-righting, from 26 of carrying more than a third of a mile. to 34 feet in length, capable of carrying By means of the shot-line, the shipsail, and will support a very large num wrecked haul out what is called the

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"whip lire," and by that the hawser. These have tally boards with printed instructions for their use; and when the lawser is made fast on the ship, the

ber of people. The way a lifeboat bails itself is by means of relieving tubes running down from the deck through the bottom of the boat. When a sea dashes on board, the deck being higher than the outside water, that taken on board runs down the relieving tubes by force of gravity, and the boat is thus constantly kept free. Some of our surfboats are also self-bailers and self-righters. The self-bailing quality is probably the best feature a boat can have; without it she is liable to be swamped at any moment, and is always handicapped.

The Breeches Buoy The breeches buoy apparatus, when in operation, is simply a rope suspension bridge between the ship and the shore. The Lyle gun first throws over the wreck a projectile, with a small but very strong cord attached. This gun—the only piece of ordnance that shoots to save-de

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on the

persons. Thousands have been safely loss of life; but the patrol system has landed in this ingenious way when no

eliminated this horror, wrecks being now other was possible.

discovered within a few minutes after

their occurrence, sometimes on the very The Life-Car

instant. The patrolman quickly burns The life-car is a little iron boat, covered

his signal-a message of hope to the over, and capable of containing five or shipwrecked, and of alarm to the station six persons. It may le

—and the crew turns out promptly, while the ever-ready telephone summons assistance if need be from neighboring stations. Patrol duty is always arduous, and, in the bad winter weather, is extremely severe and dangerous. The arrangement of the watches is necessarily such that no man ever has a whole night in bed. Quite a large number of patrolmen have perished on the stormy pathway, and a great many have suffered serious injuries; but the inestimable utility of the patrol system has been demonstrated over and over again.

One night in February, 1880, three Wreckage from Schooner "Augustus Hunt" Coming

life-saving crews rescued the crews of Ashore at Quogue, Long Island, Jan. 29, 1904.

four wrecks on the New Jersey coast, hawser, or drawn on the surface of the without the slightest mishap, while water. It is entered by a small hatch, everything and everybody was coated which may be fastened from the inside or with' ice and the weather was pitch dark. from without; and it is extremely useful In September, 1889, three crews near when women and children are among the Cape Henlopen, Delaware, rescued every shipwrecked.

person (194) from 22 stranded vessels,



and in doing so made use of every known from that point saved the lives of two means of saving life from shipwreck men.

At Buffalo, N. Y., three years the boat, the breeches buoy, and the life ago, Keeper Griesser performed one of car. Four crews on the same coast at the most extraordinary feats of swimtended 65 wrecks during the years 1888 ming of modern times, carrying a lifeand 1889, rescuing 499 persons. During line, with which he effected an extremely the first seven years of the present system difficult rescue. on the Jersey coast, there were 180 disasters, involving 1,909 lives, of which only 18 were lost. During the entire history of the present Service on that coast, only one life has been lost of every 133 imperiled.

Heroic Deeds Many of the rescues have called out most noble acts of heroism. Just before daybreak during a hurricane on the North Carolina coast, patrolman Midgett, alone, two miles away from his station, rescued 10 men, one by one, at the jeopardy of his own life in each instance. On the same coast, volunteers were once wanted to go to a wreck in the breeches

MAINMAST AND OTHER WRECKAGE OF AMERICAN SCHOONER buoy, under very desperate conditions.


JANUARY 22, 1904, There were 21 surfmen on the beach; and when two were called for, 21 stepped These brave men were awarded lifeforth and contended to the point of acri- saving medals of honor, which may be mony for the privilege of making that bestowed by the Secretary of the Treasfrightful trip. Some years ago, Fred ury, not only upon surfmen, but upon Hatch, of Cleveland, Ohio, made a "any persons" who endanger their own



mighty leap one dark and tempestuous night, from the main boom of a submerged wreck to the mizzen shrouds, which he succeeded in reaching, and

lives in saving the lives of others in waters over which the United States has jurisdiction. In several instances, women have been the recipients of these honors.



All aboard were rescued This picture was taken October 1, 1894, one and one-half years after the wreck.

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Service for the last year was $1,721,727, which is less than one-fourth the amount of property saved during that time, and

America, who has saved many lives in the vicinity of Narragansett Bay, where she is now a lighthouse keeper.

The crews of stations comprising 6 or 7 men, dwell in the station houses, which are models of comfort and convenience ; and the boat rooms amply accommodate the boats and appliances, which are always ready for instant service. In the exact sense in which we use the words "life-saving station," there is no such thing anywhere else in the world, the socalled stations of other countries being simply boat-houses, without living quarters or permanent crews. Nor is there any other life-saving establishment in the world maintained solely by Government, all save ours being supported wholly or mainly by contribution.

There are now about 2,000 men in the Life-Saving stations of the United States; and these watchful outposts of humanity stretch from Quoddy I lead on the North Atlantic to Cape Disappointment on the North Pacific, as well as along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes. Under the present system (since November, 1871), the Service has attended 14,076 disasters, involving 102,474 lives, of which only one

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