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as a mechanical implement. Its threatened successor is a simple little instrument called the “Holdfast.” Making its debut on the market but a short time ago,
and the screw is held as tightly as in a vise (Fig. 2).
Hard wood offers little opposition to the screw driven with the holdfast. There
Fig. 1. the “holdfast” sprang into instantaneous is no danger of cracking the head of the popularity, and already has found a place screw, as is frequently the case when it in most modern tool-chests.
is driven by a hammer. The jaws and The holdfast has one great advantage case of the holdfast can be removed in a over the old-time screw-driver in that it second, when desired, by pressing the
Fig. 2. will start and drive a screw without the jaws together and pulling out the blade. aid of a hammer or gimlet. The com- The tool may be used in a brace or spiral plete tool, with the case and jaws set on by driving the pin from the ferrule and the blade ready for use, is shown in removing the blade from the handle. AnFig. 1. When the screw is placed on the other advantage of the instrument is that blade, the operator loosens the jaws with by means of it a screw can readily be rea small thumb eccentric, pushes the case moved even when it has but half a head. down and grips the jaws on the screw The holdfast is light and strong, being head. Then he tightens the eccentric made of the best oil-tempered tool steel.
Q There is plenty of room at the top, but the elevator is not running. C Successful men know when not to tempt failure. Q Only a doctor or a dentist can repair some typewriters. [ The ice man and the coal man both swear by the thermometer. C Bucket shops are places where men exchange their barrels for bungholes. C At fifty a man has forgotten about half the things he knew at twenty. ( Publishers want original matter, but they draw the line at that brand of spelling. (If a man doesn't break anything else when he slips on a banana peel, he is pretty sure to break one of the commandments.
Just when the undertaker gets ready to give a man the earth, he doesn't want it. (Every new invention is expected to revolutionize things—but it doesn't. C About the time a man thinks he knows a woman, he discovers that he doesn't. C All the world's a circus ring, and each of lis at times enacts the role of clown.
It's a smart baby that understands the baby talk its mother indulges in.
There are a number of civil engineers in Chicago-also a number who are not. (The I-told-you-so chap is always on hand when the unexpected happens.
Some men get there because they are pushers and some others because they are kickers. Results of a Municipal Experiment in an English City
RECENT REPORT of United accommodating more passengers than the
States Consul Hamon, Hull, En- lower deck. The Hull cars are of two g land, on the subject of munici- different dimensions, the smaller seating
pal street railway service in that 22 passengers below and 35 on top. This, city, is fraught with lessons of great prac- of course, compels a heavier style of car tical importance.
and longer platforms, both at the front The City of Hull, says Consul Hamon, and rear, so as to prevent congestion in began the municipalization of its transit loading and unloading. These cars cost system at an unusually favorable time. here about $3,000 each, without the cover The charters of the old companies were over the roof, which is now being added about to expire, so there were few rights to most of them. and privileges to be acquired. The total I t is often asked why the doubleoutlay of money for this purpose was decker has never been adopted in the about $170,000. At the same date the United States. Two or three reasons city was entering upon an extended system of street improvements. The streets were to be repaved and widened, and new avenues cut through the old part. It was thus possible to lay new tracks at the same time that new pavements were put
DOUBLE-DECKED TROLLEY Car.
A statement of the street-car system would not be complete without a description of these city pavements. They are of the most enduring character, and afford a foundation for the rails unequaled by anything of the kind that I know of in the United States. First a layer of chalk is put down, ten inches thick. Over this is placed an 8-inch layer of broken stone and cement, in which the ties for the stringers are laid; and on this layer of cement are superimposed the blocks of wood or stone which form the pavement. The rails are of the center-groove girder pattern, weighing 96 pounds to the yard. This forms a track which for solidity and evenness cannot be surpassed. Hull has now a little over 12 miles of such double track, and this number is being constantly added to.
One of the chief peculiarities of the Hull tram system is the double-decked car. Recent statistics show that of the 6,660 electric cars in use in the United Kingdom, 90 per cent are double-deckers, and only 10 per cent single-deckers. In this way the seating capacity of the cars is more than doubled, the upper deck
have been given for this neglect. One is the supposed confusion and delay caused on the platforms by passengers boarding or alighting from the car, part of whom enter or emerge from the interior and part from the upper deck. No such confusion, congestion, or delay is noticeable on the cars in Hull, even during the most busy hours of the day.
The second objection to the doubledecker is that it is not adapted to the extremes of climate in the United States. In the heat of summer, it is argued, the passengers would be exposed to the burning rays of the sun; in the winter, to the cold blasts; and at all seasons, to storms. This objection is apparently more tenable than the one based on alleged delay in loading and unloading. But it has been
overcome by the roofing-in of the upper hours of the day. So this third objection deck with combined glass and wood cov- to the double-decker vanishes. ers. These protect the passengers from One of the chief merits of the doublethe weather as effectually as the inside decker car is that it offers a smoking passengers are protected. The roofs are compartment for men with every car. of different styles and arrangements. Very few women climb the stairs, alThey all have a fixed wooden framework, though they are easy of ascent and debut in one pattern the side windows can scent; and accidents from falling are so be raised or lowered separately, while rare as to make them a negligible quanin the other pattern all the windows on tity. The “deck” is especially popular both sides of the upper deck are raised with men, who can smoke as they will and lowered together by a winch. The even if women are present, the free cirroof in both styles coils up like a roller- culation of air removing all offensive top desk, either in sections or all to- odors. Another merit of the doublegether. In one style of these the deck decker is its uses as an observation car, extends completely over both platforms; the pleasure of riding so far above the but in the kind used in Hull, it is only street with an extended outlook being
Next to the style of cars, the chief distinguishing feature of the Hull tramway system, is the cheapness of the fares. These are I penny (2 cents) on all lines and for all distances. The financial results of this low-fare system are equally interesting. During the last twelve months reported on, there were to miles of double track, or 20 miles of single track, in operation. The gross income was about $445,000; the cost of operation was about $233,000; this left a gross profit of $212,000, and, deducting inter
est on the investment and the sinking DOUBLE-DECKED TROLLEY CAR, WITH UPPER DECK sum, left a net profit of $122,000, or an Roofed IN.
average of over $12,000 a mile of double a little longer than the body of the car. track, which went into the City Treasurv. This inclosing of the upper deck would The wages paid look low to an Ameriappear to overcome the climatic objection can. Motormen receive from $6.75 to to this kind of car.
$8.50 a week, and conductors from $5.00 A third objection to the double-decker to $6.50 a week. But it must be rememis the added weight and difficulty of bered that house rents and some kinds of handling them. How decisive this ob- provisions are lower in England than jection would be on roads in cities where in most American cities. This difference there are heavy grades, I do not know; might make it necessary to add $2.00 a but on level grades, no difficulty is ex week to the wages of Hull motormen and perienced. The cars are stopped and conductors when comparing them with started as quickly and easily as the single- the wages of the same class of American decker cars; and there are more slippery workingmen. But, as the total wages tracks to contend with in this country paid on the whole system was a little less than in the United States, the fogs and than the net profits, after deducting inrains causing wet and muddy rails much terest and sinking fund, it is evident that more frequently. The weight of these wages could be doubled and still a small double-decked cars, with every seat occu- profit be shown. All the employees are pied above and below, cannot be much of an excellent class, fully equal in inmore than the weight of the crowded telligence and efficiency to those emsingle-deck cars run on nearly every ployed on any street-car line. A day's American street railway during the busy work consists of ten hours, the cars being
run from 5 A. M. to 11:30 P. M. The
These are the results of the municipalization of city transit in Hull. They give American cities a striking proof of the mistake they have made in surrendering
their streets to private companies that operate the lines for their private benefit, and often to the detriment of the public. If the advocates of the municipalization of street-car lines in the United States wish a good object-lesson on their side of the question, they cannot do better than to study the Hull tramway system.
Locomotive Whistle Signals
Just one long blast on the whistle, -- this style,
Is a sign of nearing town,
And this —, the brakes whistled down.
And this — - the engine's reply,
A sort of cheerful Ay! Ay!
— will show when the train comes apart;
Some special signal it brings.
- belong to the flagman alone,
- are meant for the crew;
---, when crossing a road at a grade.
"Look out for a rear attack!”
Or a deaf man's on the track!
The New YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD is bound and 98,588 east-bound passengers now having built thirty electric locomo- between Cleveland and Oberlin, Ohio, a
tives which are expected distance of 34 miles. In 1896 the netElectric
to haul trains of cars at work of trolley lines about Cleveland was
a speed of 75 miles an practically completed. By 1902 the trolhour. These locomotives will be capa- ley lines had made such inroads upon the ble of developing 2,800 horse-power. business of the railway lines that the latThe present steam locomotives which ter carried a total of only 91,761 pashaul the Empire State Express have a sengers between Cleveland and Oberlin, horse-power of 1,500 when running at against a total of 203,014 seven years 60 miles an hour. The weight of one of before. these electric locomotives is 85 tons; and On the 29 miles of track between the length, 37 feet. The diameter of the Cleveland and Painesville and intermedidriving wheels is 44 inches; and of the ate points, the Lake Shore carried a total pony truck wheels, 36 inches. The New of 199,292 passengers, or an average of York Central has made the first step 16,608 a month, in 1895; and 28,708, or among the railroads towards the replac- an average of 2,302 a month, in 1902. ing of steam locomotives with electric.
Prior to the building of the electric road from Detroit to Ann Arbor, Michigan, a distance of 40 miles, the purely
local business of the Michigan Central HAS THE REMARKABLE DEVELOPMENT
road between those points was about 200 of interurban trolley lines detracted from
passengers a day. During the first sumTrolley or added to the business versus Steam of railroads? Instead of
mer that it was in operation, the electric Lines looking on these electric
road averaged 4,000 passengers a day lines as competitors, big railway systems
between those points. are now beginning to regard them as
Undoubtedly a great amount of en"feeders" to the main lines. Statistics
tirely new traffic has been created by the show that in short hauls the electric lines
electric lines. The steam roads, it is bedetract considerably from
lieved, have derived great advantages
railway passenger traffic in localities where there is
from this new business, as statistics show much competition, but it is believed that
a great increase in long-haul traffic from in long hauls they have added greatly to
all districts where the interurban trolley the business of the railroads by creating
has reached a high stage of develop
ment. a desire for traveling, and by making the main lines easily accessible from points whence they derived little patronage be ONE OF THE QUEEREST SHIPMENTS of fore the advent of the interurban trolley Kansas products that has been sent from lines.
Shipping Soil Emporia for a long time, In 1895—the year when the independ- from Kansas was a two-bushel sack full ent railway systems of cities began to
to Indiana of rich Lyon county earth expand into “interurban” lines, connect- from Will Williamson's farm, four miles ing towns and cities over wide stretches west of Emporia, which was sent to a of country—the Lake Shore & Michigan man in Indiana. The Indianian also seSouthern road carried 104,426 west- cured some Kansas alfalfa seed, and will