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experiment with that crop. The alfalfa paper money, performs these journeys, earth is impregnated with a kind of para because it is the article in which intersite which lives on this plant; and this is national balances are settled. It serves a very good thing for the alfalfa, because this purpose because its value as coin and the plant flourishes on dead parasites. its face value are everywhere identical. The transported soil will be scattered The coin of one country can be melted over the field in which the seed is planted. into that of another without loss. The experiment will be watched with in Hence gold moves about the world reterest.
gardless of the symbols which individual nations may stamp on its face.
PROBABLY as simple and clear an explanation of the manner in which gold ACCORDING TO OUR CONSULAR REHow coin circulates through the
PORTS, there has been only 5 per cent inGold commercial world, was Travels
Our Small crease in our trade with given by one of our week
South American the South American states lies in the following editorial:
during the last thirty Some coined gold recently made an in
years. To the forty million people in teresting journey from Tokio to Paris, by way of the United States, and is now
South America, our yearly sales amount
to less than $1.00 per capita. This is a on its way toward St. Petersburg.
most inadequate and unsatisfactory state Japan has been buying supplies heavily of affairs. We sold to the Canadians from the United States. Such transac
last year a little less than $24 per capita ; tions can ordinarily be settled through and to the Cubans, without any reciprocbills of exchange, by which purchases ity, about $15 per capita. Of the total and sales on one side of the water are
imports into South American countries, swapped off against purchases and sales
our share is only a fraction more than 10 on the other. But, because of war needs,
per cent of their trade; and, while we Japan bought much more than usual in
boast of our American shrewdness and this country. The “balance of trade"
superior methods of business, the unsatisbetween the two countries turned strong
factory condition of our trade in South ly in our favor, and Japan had to send
America is due mainly to a lack of ingold across the Pacific to square the ac
telligent and well-directed trade energy. count.
We buy from them three times as much Meanwhile the Government of the
as we sell them. We pay them $120,000,United States has bought for forty mil
000 for their products, and they use the lion dollars the property of the Panama difference between that and $40,000,000 Canal Company, which was owned chiefly
to purchase from our foreign competiin France. It may be that some of the tors the goods which we might and ought identical gold that came from Japan was to sell them. In other words, we supply used in the payment for the canal. It
them with funds which enable them to would have reached Paris just when the
buy from other people things that we French were taking a great Russian war
grow and manufacture. In the last loan.
thirty years, we have purchased from So, unless Russia uses the proceeds of
South America $1,700,000,000 more than its French loan to buy supplies in Paris, we have sold it by direct transportation. or to pay for them from that city, this gold, continuing its journey, may go to St. Petersburg, and come into the possession of the country with which Japan The ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD has is at war. On the other hand, there may always shown a wise foresight in matters be a return movement to Japan of the
relating to the future.
Railroads gold realized by the Japanese loan, which
The clearing of the for
and Forestry was mostly taken up in England and the
ests in the Middle West United States.
has brought home to the large railroad Gold, instead of other metals or of systems the importance of tree planting,
to make sure of a supply of ties in the attention to becoming proficient in the coming years.
art; but expert handiwork can produce Three years ago at a point near Du many beautiful creations if the designer Quoin, ill., the Illinois Central planted has an artistic eye. Bright women who 200,000 catalpa trees. This artificial have not the means to present their forest is thriving splendidly; and it will friends with costly cut glass or expensive not be long before many of the ties on imported ware, can engrave a set of the Illinois Central Railroad will be cut tumblers or a pitcher of the commonest from their own forest, planted in the material, and convert it into a gift which heart of Illinois. The same company is the recipient, if a lover of the beautiful, at work on a similar forest in Mississippi. will thoroughly appreciate.
GLASS ENGRAVING may become FOR TWO YEARS, in Washington, D. C., popular as was brass hammering a few a Naval Board has been experimenting Engraving years ago. With the use
with liquid fuel. The reof a weak acid solution Liquid Fuel port of its work, reon Glass and a set of engravers'
cently made public, states tools, truly wonderful work can be pro that crude petroleum is more of a steam duced upon the surface of goblets, tum- producer than coal, and, with slight dis
SPECIMENS OF ENGRAVING ON GLASS. blers, pitchers, and other ordinary uten tillation, its combustion is less wearing sils. The designs, as will be seen from on boilers. These are two of the conthe accompanying illustration, embrace a clusions reached by the Board ; and they variety of patterns—from leaves and will, without doubt, prove an effective flowers to representations of animals, spur to the development and use of oil birds, and persons.
It is claimed that as a fuel in the sections of country where work of a much finer character can be it is plentiful. done than in the case of glass cutting, while very thin ware can be used without danger of breaking. The pioneer glass engraver in the United States was Joseph ACCORDING TO THE REPORT of the Locke of Pittsburg, Pa. He learned his American Consul-General, there are four tra le at Worcester, England, and worked Steel yards in Canada for the in a number of the most noted factories Shipbuilding in construction of steel vesof Great Britain. He had an exhibition
Canada sels. One yard is building of his work at the Chicago World's Fair a canal boat that is to carry 7,500 bushels in 1893, which first attracted attention to of wheat, or 23,000 tons of dead weight. the opportunties for working on glass Her cost will be $130,000. This yard has in this manner.
several other contracts nearing compleThis industry promises to become very tion. The steel plates used are now impopular, especially with women, as so few ported free of duty from the United tools are required and the work can States, as they are not made in Canada. readily be done at home. One must. As British-built steel vessels come into however, devote considerable time and Canada duty free, it is impossible to de
velop the industry in Canada successful "I shall oppose the building of warships ly, except for vessels of small size or of a with turbines, except for experimental pur
poses. The whole thing is in its infancy, design necessitated by local requirements.
and there is not an engineer living who is It is stated that a Nova Scotia steel com
willing to swear by it. In London I had many pany intends to manufacture plates; if interviews with Lord Selborne, First Lord of so, the duty of 25 per cent will attach,
the Admiralty ; Rear-Admiral Sir John
Durston; Admirals May and Oram; Sir Wiland the price likely advance. This would
liam H. White, the naval architect; and with probably cause the suspension of steel members of the Cunard Commission, appointed shipbuilding in Canada unless sustained to study the turbine. The Cunard people were by duty or bounty.
not very communicative, being pledged to secrecy; but the naval officials gave me much information. I visited yards in the United Kingdom where turbines are building, and saw
five of the vessels in process of construction. THE STEAM TURBINE is making large These boats were of moderate speed, of the gains in public favor.
triple-screw type. I found no one who was The
satisfied with the claim of economy of coal power station of the
and weight made in behalf of the turbine. As Steam Pennsylvania, New York
to space, there seemed to be no question in the Turbine
& Long Island Railroad, minds of the shipbuilders; and, while all are and the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Sub
anxious to build, none are ready to guarantee
anything but moderate speed, and I am surway system of Philadelphia, are being
prised that the Cunard Line should make an equipped with steam turbines, aggregat experiment on such a large and expensive ing at the start 33,000 K. W. capacity. scale. In my visits to foreign shipyards I Also, the Interborough Rapid Transit went
to Stettin. Hamburg, Flushing, and
through some French yards. I found the Company of New York and the Brooklyn
French yards dabbling in the turbine to a Rapid Transit system have both adopted small extent only. Of all the engines that I steam turbines of the Westinghouse examined, I found the Westinghouse doubleParsons type for extensions in power.
flow' the best." The equipment of these systems will be in units of 5,500 K. W. each, thus conforming to the precedent established by the Pennsylvania and Philadelphia sys
VORE THAN 50,000,000 POUNDS of In
dia rubber, valued at over $30,000,000, tems in regard to the capacity of their largest main generating units. The Phil
were imported into the India
United States last year. adelphia Rapid Transit Company have Rubber also recently extended their original
In 1890 the quantity was order for 16,500 K. W. in Westinghouse- only 33,000,000 pounds; in 1880, 16,000,Parsons turbines, by 6,000 K. W., in four
000 pounds; in 1870, 9,000,000 pounds; units of 1,500 K. W. each. A contract
and in 1882, the earliest date at which has recently been closed with the Mer
rubber was shown in the import statistics, chants' Light, Heat & Power Company
it was only 2,125,516 pounds. of Indianapolis, Indiana, for two 750-K.
This rapid growth in the importation
of crude India rubber is, of course, due W. turbine units for general light and power service. At the Cactus Mines,
to the great increase in its use ini manuL'tah, turbines furnish electric power for
facturing—for rubber garments, shoes, lighting the buildings and mines, and etc., and its use in machinery and as tires
for vehicles. for all other forms of power throughout
Over $100,000,000 worth the company's property.
of manufactures from India rubber is now turned out from the factories of this country every year, and about half of this
total is in the form of boots and shoes. REAR-ADMIRAL MELVILLE has returned So great is the demand for India rubfrom Europe, where, as representative of ber for use in manufacturing, that not
Opposed to the Navy Department, he only has the importation vastly increased, the Steam investigated the present but, in addition to this, the forests of the Turbine
relation of the steam tur East Indies are called upon for several bine to marine service. The admiral ex million pounds each year of a new subpressed himself in the following words: stitute for gutta percha, known as "gutta
joolatong ;" while the highways and by ACCORDING to the United States ways of Europe and other parts of the Census Bureau, the telephone industry world are also ransacked for cast-off
in the United States reprubber, from which rubber is "reclaimed" Telephone resents a capital of over to be used in conjunction with new rub
$450,000,000, covering ber from the forests of Brazil, Africa, slightly over 4,000 systems, with 2,371,044 and the East Indies.
telephones of all kinds, over which were
000,000 telephone conversations. Statistics of the Department of Com
industry employed 64,628 wage-earners,
to whom was paid $26,369,735; and Japanese Im merce and Labor shows ports of Electric- that the exports of elec
14,124 salaried officials and clerks, who al Machinery trical machinery to Japan
received $9,885,886. The revenue defor the eleven months ended May 31,
rived from the industry reached the im1904, were valued at $715,057, as com
mense total of $86,825,536. The expared with $426,562 for the correspond
penses for the year were $61,152,823.
The interest on bonds was $3,411,948, ing period of last year. The exports of
and the dividends paid were $14,982,719. scientific instruments for the same periods decreased from $255,833 in 1903 to
It would appear that, exclusive of the
interest on bonds, the expenses were just $131,605 in 1904. Increases are shown in other articles-cars and carriages,
about 70 per cent of the income. from $133,402 to $250,446; builders' hardware, from $129,449 to $148,133; locomotives, from $275,042 to $499,073; THE DEMAND for motors and all other typewriters, from $14,357 to $21,042;
electrical apparatus, in Scotland, is steadand a substantial increase in most other
Profitable Fieldily increasing; and Ameriarticles is noted. The war has not thus
for Electrical can companies prepared far had any appreciable effect on Japan's Eng’ring Firms to compete in these lines demand for modern things.
of manufacture have now their best op-
as a motive power in various industriesTHE Electrical Review contains the
for urban lighting and traction, as light following interesting item:
and power for coal mines, and for other
uses, examples of which are numerous, “Our foreign exchanges report that at one mark the real dawn of the electric-power of the meetings of the South African Light
era in this part of Great Britain. AmeriReduction ing Association, to account of Municipal for the shrinkage in the con
can manufacturers have in the past few Expense sumption of gas, it was ex years furnished some of the heavy maplained that the Government of Cape Colony chinery for municipal generating stations has adopted a standard time which moved for
and private plants, and also a considerward the day one hour. Now, the people of South Africa regulated their daily affairs by
able number of dynamos, motors, etc. the clock before this change, and they still do American-English concerns have done so. They rise one hour earlier and go to bed much in this line-in fact, they seem to accordingly. This shifting forward of the day
be well ahead of all others. in effect extends twilight into the night. Street lamps are lit an hour later-according to the clock-and, as they are extinguished at the regular time, an hour of lighting is saved. It does not appear that the new life is less A CAPE-TO-CAIRO RAILWAY is becomenjoyed than the old, as doubtless the chickens,
ing a reality far more rapidly than anycats, and other domestic animals have also
Cecil one would believe possible adopted the new day. This is surely an exceedingly simple and effective method of re Rhodes's at the time the scheme ducing one item of municipal expense; and we
was first broached by the recommend it to those towns which, owning
late Cecil Rhodes. Last week a train municipal plants, each year have the hard problem of making the income meet the ex
left Cape Town for Victoria Falls, a penses.”
distance of something like 1,600 miles.
From Cairo the railroad now penetrates tina, are to be extended, at a cost of far into the Soudan. Roughly speaking, $338,167. two-thirds of the “Cape-to-Cairo” line The value of artificial and chemical is already completed; and in a few more fertilizers annually used in Italy is estiyears Africa will be traversed from one mated at $8,250,000, among which minend to the other by rail. A railway trip eral superphosphate, Thomas slag, Chile through equatorial Africa does not ap- saltpeter, and ammonia sulphate are the pear to offer any advantages over trans principal items. portation by the Southampton liners; Owing to great losses of cattle by the but, as a commercial undertaking, the rinderpest in Egypt, the large plantations road will be of the greatest importance in and farmers there are about to introduce opening up the resources of Central Af
steam plows and automobile machines rica. Its strategical and political im for the cultivation of grain and cotton. portance to the British Empire, as another link of intra-imperial communication, goes, of course, without saying.
THE CAPE-TO-CAIRO RAILROAD is soon to have the highest bridge in the world.
Highest A huge one-span arch THE GOVERNMENT of Algeria contem Bridge in the steel bridge—the main
World plates giving subsidies to Algerian
span 500 feet—is to carry Foreign farmers for the purchase
the road across the Zambesi river, a short Industrial of plows of modern con
distance below the Victoria falls. Notes struction. The governor
The material for the construction will general of that French African province
be transported across the river from one has publicly called the attention of the bank to the other by means of an electric natives to the advantages to be derived cableway. from using modern plows instead of the antiquated implements now in vogue there.
IN HOLLAND AND BELGIUM the dog The Egyptian Government has granted occupies the place which the donkey does $8.500,000 in aid of the construction of a
in several other countries. line of railroad from Berber to Suakin.
Draught In the former, the sight The town of Pardubitz, Bohemia Dogs of a couple of dogs drag(Austrian Empire), is about to construct ging along a pushcart loaded with vegewaterworks.
tables, flowers, or shining milk-cans is The commercial agent of Canada, rep a familiar one. The dogs trot along unresenting the Dominion's trade interests derneath the cart, within easy reach of in Australia, reports that the towns and the blunt toe of the sabot worn by the settlements of Tasmania, Victoria, and
woman who walks behind to guide the South and West Australia are rapidly cart by the handles attached at the rear. introducing calcium carbide lighting In Belgium the dogs are hitched in front, plants and implements.
three abreast, and are guided by a pair A branch railroad is to be constructed
of rope reins fastened to a muzzle about between Alberdi and Sudbeste in Ar
the nose of the middle dog. Recently gentina.
the NationalCart Dog Association held its The breweries at Pilsen, Bohemia, will first exhibition of cart dogs. The Flemerect a large electric central station to ish breeders have found that, in crossing furnish that noted industry with power. Belgium mastiffs with Great Danes, with
The Russian Ministry of Roads and the idea of increasing the size of cart Traffic has decided to operate a branch dogs, and so securing additional strength, of the Baltic Railway by electric power. they made a mistake. The result proved
The municipality of Venice, Italy, has to be animals with weak hind quarters resolved to
purchase electric-motor and disproportionate limbs. Now the boats.
breeders are endeavoring to revive the The waterworks of San Juan, Argen- original stock.