« PreviousContinue »
biers, pitchers, and other ordinary utensils. The designs, as will be seen from the accompanying illustration, embrace a variety of patterns—from leaves and flowers to representations of animals, birds, and persons. It is claimed that work of a much finer character can be done than in the case of glass cutting, while very thin ware can be used without danger of breaking. The pioneer glass engraver in the United States was Joseph Locke of Pittsburg. Pa. He learned his trade at Worcester, England, and worked in a number of the most noted factories of Great Britain. He had an exhibition of his work at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. which first attracted attention to the opportunties for working on glass in this manner.
This industry promises to become very popular, especially with women, as so few tools are required and the work can rcadilv be done at home. One must, however, devote considerable time and
filiation, its combustion is less wearing on boilers. These are two of the conclusions reached by the Board ; and they will, without doubt, prove an effective spur to the development and use of oil as a fuel in the sections of country where it is plentiful.
According To The Report of the American Consul-General, there are four Steel yards in Canada for the
Shipbuilding in construction of steel vesCanada seis. One yard is building a canal boat that is to carry ".500 bushels of wheat, or 23.000 tons of dead weight. Her cost will be $130,000. This yard has several other contracts nearing completion. The steel plates used are now imported free of duty from the United States, as they are not made in Canada. As British-built steel vessels come into Canada duty free, it is impossible to develop the industry in Canada successfully, except for vessels of small size or of a design necessitated by local requirements. It is stated that a Nova Scotia steel company intends to manufacture plates; if so, the duty of 25 per cent will attach, and the price likely advance. This would probably cause the suspension of steel shipbuilding in Canada unless sustained by dutv or bounty.
The Steam Turbine is making large gains in public favor. The immense The power station of the
Steam Pennsylvania, New York
Turbine & Long Island Railroad, and the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Subway system of Philadelphia, are being equipped with steam turbines, aggregating at the start 33,000 K. W. capacity. Also, the Interborough Rapid Transit Company of New York and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit system have both adopted steam turbines of the WestinghouseParsons type for extensions in power. The equipment of these systems will be in units of 5,500 K. W. each, thus conforming to the precedent established by the Pennsylvania and Philadelphia systems in regard to the capacity of their largest main generating units. The Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company have also recently extended their original order for 16,500 K. W. in WestinghouseParsons turbines, by 6,000 K. W., in four units of 1,500 K. W. each. A contract has recently been closed with the Merchants' Light, Heat & Power Company of Indianapolis, Indiana, for two 75°-KW. turbine units for general light and power service. At the Cactus Mines, Utah, turbines furnish electric power for lighting the buildings and mines, and for all other forms of power throughout the company's property.
Rear-admiral Melville has returned from Europe, where, as representative of Opposed to the Navy Department, he the Steam investigated the present Turbine relation of the steam turbine to marine service. The admiral expressed himself in the following words:
"I shall oppose the building of warships with turbines, except for experimental purposes. The whole thing is in its infancy, and there is not an engineer living who is willing to swear by it. In London 1 had many interviews with Lord Selborne, First Lord of the Admiralty; Rear-Admiral Sir John Durston; Admirals May and Oram; Sir William H. White, the naval architect; and with members of the Cunard Commission, appointed to study the turbine. The Cunard people were not very communicative, being pledged to secrecy; but the naval officials gave me much information. I visited yards in the United Kingdom where turbines are building, and saw five of the vessels in process of construction. These boats were of moderate speed, of the triple-screw type. I found no one who- was satisfied with the claim of economy of coal and weight made in behalf of the turbine. As to space, there seemed to be no question in the minds of the shipbuilders; and, while all are anxious to build, none are ready to guarantee anything but moderate speed, and I am surprised that the Cunard Line should make an experiment on such a large and expensive scale. In my visits to foreign shipyards I went to Stettin. Hamburg, Flushing, and through some French yards. I found the French yards dabbling in the turbine to a small extent only. Of all the engines that I examined, I found the Westinghouse 'doubleflow' the best."
More Than 50,000,000 Pounds of India rubber, valued at over $30,000,000, were imported into the
United States last vcar. Rubber In l89Q the quantity was
only 33.000,000 pounds ; in 1880, 16,000,000 pounds; in 1870, 9,000.000 pounds; and in 1882, the earliest date at which rubber was shown in the import statistics, it was only 2,125,516 pounds.
This rapid growth in the importation of crude India rubber is, of course, due to the great increase in its use in manufacturing—for rubber garments, shoes, etc., and its use in machinery and as tires for vehicles. Over $100,000,000 worth of manufactures from India rubber is now turned out from the factories of this country every year, and about half of this total is in the form of boots and shoes.
So great is the demand for India rubber for use in manufacturing, that not only has the importation vastly increased, but, in addition to this, the forests of the East Indies are called upon for several million pounds each year of a new substitute for gutta percha. known as "gutta joolatong;" while the highways and byways of Europe and other parts of the world are also ransacked for cast-off rubber, from which rubber is "reclaimed" to be used in conjunction with new rubber from the forests of Brazil, Africa, and the East Indies.
A Statement issued by the Bureau of Statistics of the Department of CornJapanese Im- merce and Labor shows ports of Electric- that the exports of elecal Machinery trical machinery to Japan for the eleven months ended May 31, 1904, were valued at $715,057, as compared with $426,562 for the corresponding period of last year. The exports of scientific instruments for the same periods decreased from $255,833 in 1903 to $131,605 in 1904. Increases are shown in other articles—cars and carriages, from $133,402 to $250,446; builders' hardware, from $129,449 to $148,133; locomotives, from $275,042 to $499,073: typewriters, from $14,357 to $21,042; and a substantial increase in most other articles is noted. The war has not thus far had any appreciable effect on Japan's demand for modern things.
The Electrical Review contains the following interesting item:
"Our foreign exchanges report that at one of the meetings of the South African LightReduction ing Association, to account
of Municipal for the shrinkage in the conExpense sumption of gas, it was explained that the Government of Cape Colony has adopted a standard time which moved forward the day one hour. Now, the people of South Africa regulated their daily affairs by the clock before this change, and they still do so. They rise one hour earlier and go to bed accordingly. This shifting forward of the day in effect extends twilight into the night. Street lamps are lit an hour later—according to the clock—and, as they arc extinguished at the regular time, an hour of lighting is saved. It does not appear that the new life is less enjoyed than the old, as doubtless the chickens, cats, and other domestic animals have also adopted the new day. This is surely an exceedingly simple and effective method of reducing one item of municipal expense; and we recommend it to those towns which, owning municipal plants, each year have the hard problem of making the income meet the expenses."
According to the United States Census Bureau, the telephone industry The in the United States rep
Telephone resents a capital of over Industry $450,000,000, covering slightly over 4,000 systems, with 2,371,044 telephones of all kinds, over which were exchanged during the year 1902 the extraordinary number of more than 5,000,000,000 telephone conversations. This industry employed 64,628 wage-earners, to whom was paid $26,369,735; and 14,124 salaried officials and clerks, who received $9,885,886. The revenue derived from the industry reached the immense total of $86,825,536. The expenses for the year were $61,152,823. The interest on bonds was $3,411,948, and the dividends paid were $14,982,719. It would appear that, exclusive of the interest on bonds, the expenses were just about 70 per cent of the income.
The Demand for motors and all other electrical apparatus, in Scotland, is steadProfitable Field ily increasing; and Amerifor Electrical can companies prepared Eng'ring Firms to COmpete in these lines of manufacture have now their best opportunity. The application of electricity as a motive power in various industries— for urban lighting and traction, as light and power for coal mines, and for other uses, examples of which are numerous, mark the real dawn of the electric-power era in this part of Great Britain. American manufacturers have in the past few years furnished some of the heavy machinery for municipal generating stations and private plants, and also a considerable number of dynamos, motors, etc. American-English concerns have done much in this line—in fact, they seem to be well ahead of all others.
A Cape-to-cairo Railway is becoming a reality far more rapidly than anyCecil one would believe possible
Rhodes's at the time the scheme
late Cecil Rhodes. Last week a train left Cape Town for Victoria Falls, a distance of something like 1,600 miles. From Cairo the railroad now penetrates far into the Soudan. Roughly speaking, two-thirds of the "Cape-to-Cairo" line is already completed; and in a few more years Africa will be traversed from one end to the other by rail. A railway trip through equatorial Africa does not appear to offer any advantages over transportation by the Southampton liners; but, as a commercial undertaking, the road will be of the greatest importance in opening up the resources of Central Africa. Its strategical and political importance to the British Empire, as another link of intra-imperial communication, goes, of course, without saying.
The Government of Algeria contemplates giving subsidies to Algerian Foreign farmers for the purchase
Industrial of plows of modern conNotes struction. The governorgeneral of that French African province has publicly called the attention of the natives to the advantages to be derived from using modern plows instead of the antiquated implements now in vogue there.
The Egyptian Government has granted $8,500,000 in aid of the construction of a line of railroad from Berber to Suakin.
The town of Pardubitz, Bohemia (Austrian Empire), is about to construct waterworks.
The commercial agent of Canada, representing the Dominion's trade interests in Australia, reports that the towns and settlements of Tasmania, Victoria, and South and West Australia are rapidly introducing calcium carbide lighting plants and implements.
A branch railroad is to be constructed between Alberdi and Sudbeste in Argentina.
The breweries at Pilsen, Bohemia, will erect a large electric central station to furnish that noted industry with power.
The Russian Ministry of Roads and Traffic has decided to operate a branch of the Baltic Railway by electric power.
The municipality of Venice, Italy, has resolved to purchase electric-motor boats.
The waterworks of San Juan, Argen
tina, are to be extended, at a cost of
The value of artificial and chemical fertilizers annually used in Italy is estimated at $8,250,000, among which mineral superphosphate, Thomas slag, Chile saltpeter, and ammonia sulphate are the principal items.
Owing to great losses of cattle by the rinderpest in Egypt, the large plantations and farmers there are about to introduce steam plows and automobile machines for the cultivation of grain and cotton.
The Cape-to-cairo Railroad is soon
to have the highest bridge in the world.
Highest A huge one-span arch
Bridge in the steel bridge—the main
World span 500 feet—is to carry
the road across the Zambesi river, a short distance below the Victoria falls.
The material for the construction will be transported across the river from one bank to the other by means of an electric cableway.
In Holland And Belgium the dog occupies the place which the donkey does Dutch in several other countries.
Draught In the former, the sight
ging along a pushcart loaded with vegetables, flowers, or shining milk-cans is a familiar one. The dogs trot along underneath the cart, within easy reach of the blunt toe of the sabot worn by the woman who walks behind to guide the cart by the handles attached at the rear. In Belgium the dogs are hitched in front, three abreast, and are guided by a pair of rope reins fastened to a muzzle about the nose of the middle dog. Recently the National Cart Dog Association held its first exhibition of cart dogs. The Flemish breeders have found that, in crossing Belgium mastiffs with Great Danes, with the idea of increasing the size of cart dogs,and so securing additional strength, they made a mistake. The result proved to be animals with weak hind quarters and disproportionate limbs. Now the breeders are endeavoring to revive the original stock.