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experiment with that crop. The alfalfa earth is impregnated with a kind of parasite which lives on this plant; and this is a very good thing for the alfalfa, because the plant flourishes on dead parasites. The transported soil will be scattered over the field in which the seed is planted The experiment will be watched with interest.
paper money, performs these journeys, because it is the article in which international balances are settled. It serves this purpose because its value as coin and its face value are everywhere identical. The coin of one country can be melted into that of another without loss.
Hence gold moves about the world regardless of the symbols which individual nations may stamp on its face.
PROBABLY as simple and clear an explanation of the manner in which gold
How coin circulates through the
Travels given by one of our weeklies in the following editorial:
Some coined gold recently made an interesting journey from Tokio to Paris,
iris, by way of the United States, and is now on its way toward St. Petersburg.
Japan has been buying supplies heavily from the United States. Such transactions can ordinarily be settled through bills of exchange, by which purchases and sales on one side of the water are swapped off against purchases and sales on the other. But, because of war needs, Japan bought much more than usual in this country. The "balance of trade" between the two countries turned strongly in our favor, and Japan had to send gold across the Pacific to square the account.
Meanwhile the Government of the United States has bought for forty million dollars the property of the Panama Canal Company, which was owned chiefly in France. It may be that some of the identical gold that came from Japan was used in the payment for the canal. It would have reached Paris just when the French were taking a great Russian war loan.
So, unless Russia uses the proceeds of its French loan to buy supplies in Paris, or to pay for them from that city, this gold, continuing its journey, may go to St. Petersburg, and come into the possession of the country with which Japan is at war. On the other hand, there may be a return movement to Japan of the gold realized by the Japanese loan, which was mostly taken up in England and the United States.
Gold, instead of other metals or of
ACCORDING TO OUR CONSULAR REPORTS, there has been only 5 per cent in
Our Small crease in our trade with South American the South American states
Trade during the last thirty years. To the forty million people in South America, our yearly sales amount South America, our to less than $1.00 per capita. This is a most inadequate and unsatisfactory state of affairs. We sold to the Canadians last year a little less than $24 per capita ; and to the Cubans, without any reciprocity, about $15 per capita. Of the total imports into South American countries, our share is only a fraction more than jó per cent of their trade; and, while we boast of our American shrewdness and superior methods of business, the unsatisfactory condition of our trade in South America is due mainly to a lack of intelligent and well-directed trade energy. We buy from them three times as much as we sell them. We pay them $120,000,000 for their products, and they use the difference between that and $40,000,000 to purchase from our foreign competitors the goods which we might and ought to sell them. In other words, we supply them with funds which enable them to buy from other people things that we grow and manufacture. In the last thirty years, we have purchased from South America $1,700,000,000 more than we have sold it by direct transportation.
THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD has always shown a wise foresight in matters
relating to the future. Railroads The clearing of the for
The clearing OI. and Forestry ests in the Middle West has brought home to the large railroad systems the importance of tree planting,
to make sure of a supply of ties in the attention to becoming proficient in the coming years.
art; but expert handiwork can produce Three years ago at a point near Du many beautiful creations if the designer Quoin, Ill., the Illinois Central planted has an artistic eye. Bright women who 200,000 catalpa trees. This artificial have not the means to present their forest is thriving splendidly; and it will friends with costly cut glass or expensive not be long before many of the ties on imported ware, can engrave a set of the Illinois Central Railroad will be cut tumblers or a pitcher of the commonest from their own forest, planted in the material, and convert it into a gift which heart of Illinois. The same company is the recipient, if a lover of the beautiful, at work on a similar forest in Mississippi. will thoroughly appreciate.
GLASS ENGRAVING may become as FOR TWO YEARS, in Washington, D. C., popular as was brass hammering a few a Naval Board has been experimenting years ago. With the use
with liquid fuel. The reEngraving
of a weak acid solution Liquid Fuel port of its work, reon Glass and a set of engravers'
cently made public, states tools, truly wonderful work can be pro- that crude petroleum is more of a steam duced upon the surface of goblets, tum- producer than coal, and, with slight dis
SPECIMENS OF ENGRAVING ON GLASS. blers, pitchers, and other ordinary uten- tillation, its combustion is less wearing sils. The designs, as will be seen from on boilers. These are two of the conthe accompanying illustration, embrace a clusions reached by the Board ; and they variety of patterns—from leaves and will, without doubt, prove an effective flowers to representations of animals, spur to the development and use of oil birds, and persons. It is claimed that as a fuel in the sections of country where work of a much finer character can be it is plentiful. done than in the case of glass cutting, while very thin ware can be used without danger of breaking. The pioneer glass engraver in the United States was Joseph ACCORDING TO THE REPORT of the Locke of Pittsburg, Pa. He learned his American Consul-General, there are four tra le at Worcester, England, and worked Steel yards in Canada for the in a number of the most noted factories Shipbuilding in construction of steel vesof Great Britain. He had an exhibition Canada sels. One yard is building of his work at the Chicago World's Fair a canal boat that is to carry 7,500 bushels in 1893, which first attracted attention to of wheat, or 23.000 tons of dead weight. the opportunties for working on glass Her cost will be $130,000. This yard has in this manner.
several other contracts nearing compleThis industry promises to become very tion. The steel plates used are now impopular, especially with women, as so few ported free of duty from the United tools are required and the work can States, as they are not made in Canada. readily be done at home. One must. As British-built steel vessels come into however, devote considerable time and Canada duty free, it is impossible to de
velop the industry in Canada successful “I shall oppose the building of warships ly, except for vessels of small size or of a
with turbines, except for experimental pur
poses. The whole thing is in its infancy, design necessitated by local requirements.
and there is not an engineer living who is It is stated that a Nova Scotia steel com willing to swear by it. In London I had many pany intends to manufacture plates; if interviews with Lord Selborne, First Lord of so, the duty of 25 per cent will attach,
the Admiralty ; Rear-Admiral Sir John
Durston; Admirals May and Oram; Sir Wiland the price likely advance. This would
liam H. White, the naval architect; and with probably cause the suspension of steel members of the Cunard Commission, appointed shipbuilding in Canada unless sustained to study the turbine. The Cunard people were by duty or bounty.
not very communicative, being pledged to secrecy; but the naval officials gave me much information. I visited yards in the United Kingdom where turbines are building, and saw
five of the vessels in process of construction. THE STEAM TURBINE is making large These boats were of moderate speed, of the gains in public favor. The immense
triple-screw type. I found no one who was
satisfied with the claim The
of economy of coal power station of the
and weight made in behalf of the turbine. As Steam Pennsylvania, New York
to space, there seemed to be no question in the Turbine & Long Island Railroad, minds of the shipbuilders; and, while all are and the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Sub
anxious to build, none are ready to guarantee
anything but moderate speed, and I am surway system of Philadelphia, are being
prised that the Cunard Line should make an equipped with steam turbines, aggregat experiment on such a large and expensive ing at the start 33,000 K. W. capacity. scale. In my visits to foreign shipyards I Also, the Interborough Rapid Transit
went to Stettin, Hamburg, Flushing, and
through some French yards. I found the Company of New York and the Brooklyn
French yards dabbling in the turbine to a Rapid Transit system have both adopted small extent only. Of all the engines that I steam turbines of the Westingnouse examined, I found the Westinghouse 'doubleParsons type for extensions in power.
flow' the best.” The equipment of these systems will be in units of 5,500 K. W. each, thus conforming to the precedent established by
MORE THAN 50,000,000 POUNDS of Inthe Pennsylvania and Philadelphia systems in regard to the capacity of their clia rubber, valued at over $30,000,000. largest main generating units. The Phil India
were imported into the adelphia Rapid Transit Company have
United States last year.
Rubber In 1800 the quantity was also recently extended their original order for 16,500 K. W. in Westinghouse
only 33,000,000 pounds; in 1880, 16,000,Parsons turbines, by 6,000 K. W., in four
000 pounds; in 1870, 9,000,000 pounds; units of 1,500 K. W. each. A contract
and in 1882, the earliest date at which has recently been closed with the Mer
rubber was shown in the import statistics, chants' Light, Heat & Power Company
it was only 2,125,516 pounds. of Indianapolis, Indiana, for two 750-K.
This rapid growth in the importation W. turbine units for general light and
of crude India rubber is, of course, due power service. At the Cactus Mines,
to the great increase in its use ini manuUtah, turbines furnish electric power for
facturing—for rubber garments, shoes, lighting the buildings and mines, and
etc., and its use in machinery and as tires for all other forms of power throughout
for vehicles. Over $100,000,000 worth the company's property.
of manufactures from India rubber is now turned out from the factories of this country every year, and about half of this
total is in the form of boots and shoes. REAR-ADMIRAL MELVILLE has returned So great is the demand for India rubfrom Europe, where, as representative of ber for use in manufacturing, that not
Opposed to the Navy Department, he only has the importation vastly increased, the Steam investigated the present but, in addition to this, the forests of the
Turbine relation of the steam tur- East Indies are called upon for several bine to marine service. The admiral ex- million pounds each year of a new subpressed himself in the following words: stitute for gutta percha, known as “gutta
joolatong ;" while the highways and byways of Europe and other parts of the world are also ransacked for cast-off rubber, from which rubber is “reclaimed” to be used in conjunction with new rubber from the forests of Brazil, Africa, and the East Indies.
ACCORDING to the United States Census Bureau, the telephone industry
The in the United States repTelephone resents a capital of over
Industry $450,000,000, covering slightly over 4,000 systems, with 2,371,044 telephones of all kinds, over which were exchanged during the year 1902 the extraordinary number of more than 5,000,000,000 telephone conversations. This industry employed 64,628 wage-earners, to whom was paid $26,369,735; and 14,124 salaried officials and clerks, who received $9,885,886. The revenue derived from the industry reached the immense total of $86,825,536. The expenses for the year were $61,152,823. The interest on bonds was $3,411,948, and the dividends paid were $14,982,719. It would appear that, exclusive of the interest on bonds, the expenses were just about 70 per cent of the income.
A STATEMENT issued by the Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Com
Japanese Im- merce and Labor shows ports of Electric- that the exports of elec
al Machinery trical machinery to Japan for the eleven months ended May 31, 1904, were valued at $715,057, as compared with $426,562 for the corresponding period of last year. The exports of scientific instruments for the same periods decreased from $255,833 in 1903 to $131,605 in 1904. Increases are shown in other articles—cars and carriages, from $133,402 to $250,446; builders' hardware, from $129,449 to $148,133 ; locomotives, from $275,042 to $499,073; typewriters, from $14,357 to $21,042; and a substantial increase in most other articles is noted. The war has not thus far had any appreciable effect on Japan's demand for modern things.
2.646 versat than the e
THE Electrical Review contains the following interesting item:
THE DEMAND for motors and all other electrical apparatus, in Scotland is steadProfitable Field ily increasing; and Ameri
for Electrical can companies prepared Eng’ring Firms to compete in these lines of manufacture have now their best opportunity. The application of electricity as a motive power in various industriesfor urban lighting and traction, as light and power for coal mines, and for other uses, examples of which are numerous, mark the real dawn of the electric-power era in this part of Great Britain. American manufacturers have in the past few years furnished some of the heavy machinery for municipal generating stations and private plants, and also a considerable number of dynamos, motors, etc. American-English concerns have done much in this line-in fact, they seem to be well ahead of all others.
A CAPE-TO-CAIRO RAILWAY is becoming a reality far more rapidly than any
Cecil one would believe possible Rhodes's at the time the scheme
Dream was first broached by the late Cecil Rhodes. Last week a train left Cape Town for Victoria Falls, a distance of something like 1,600 miles.
“Our foreign exchanges report that at one of the meetings of the South African Light
Reduction ing Association, to account of Municipal for the shrinkage in the con
Expense sumption of gas, it was explained that the Government of Cape Colony has adopted a standard time which moved forward the day one hour. Now, the people of South Africa regulated their daily affairs by the clock before this change, and they still do so. They rise one hour earlier and go to bed accordingly. This shifting forward of the day in effect extends twilight into the night. Street lamps are lit an hour later-according to the clock-and, as they are extinguished at the regular time, an hour of lighting is saved. It does not appear that the new life is less enjoyed than the old, as doubtless the chickens, cats, and other domestic animals have also adopted the new day. This is surely an exceedingly simple and effective method of reducing one item of municipal expense; and we
municipal plants, each year have the hard problem of making the income meet the expenses."
From Cairo the railroad now penetrates tina, are to be extended, at a cost of far into the Soudan. Roughly speaking, $338,167. two-thirds of the “Cape-to-Cairo" line The value of artificial and chemical is already completed; and in a few more fertilizers annually used in Italy is estiyears Africa will be traversed from one mated at $8,250,000, among which minend to the other by rail. A railway trip eral superphosphate, Thomas slag, Chile through equatorial Africa does not ap- saltpeter, and ammonia sulphate are the pear to offer any advantages over trans- principal items. portation by the Southampton liners; Owing to great losses of cattle by the but, as a commercial undertaking, the
rinderpest in Egypt, the large plantations road will be of the greatest importance in and farmers there are about to introduce opening up the resources of Central Af
steam plows and automobile machines rica. Its strategical and political im- for the cultivation of grain and cotton. portance to the British Empire, as another link of intra-imperial communication, goes, of course, without saying.
THE CAPE-TO-CAIRO RAILROAD is soon to have the highest bridge in the world.
Highest A huge one-span arch The GOVERNMENT of Algeria contem
Bridge in the steel bridge—the main plates giving subsidies
World to Algerian
span 500 feet-is to carry Foreign farmers for the purchase
the road across the Zambesi river, a short Industrial of plows of modern con- distance below the Victoria falls. Notes struction. The governor
The material for the construction will general of that French African province
be transported across the river from one has publicly called the attention of the bank to the other by means of an electric natives to the advantages to be derived cableway. from using modern plows instead of the antiquated implements now in vogue there.
IN HOLLAND AND BELGIUM the dog The Egyptian Government has granted occupies the place which the donkey does $8,500,000 in aid of the construction of a
Dutch in several other countries. line of railroad from Berber to Suakin.
Draught In the former, the sight The town of Pardubitz, Bohemia Dogs of a couple of dogs drag(Austrian Empire), is about to construct ging along a pushcart loaded with vegewaterworks.
tables, flowers, or shining milk-cans is The commercial agent of Canada, rep- a familiar one. The dogs trot along unresenting the Dominion's trade interests derneath the cart, within easy reach of in Australia, reports that the towns and the blunt toe of the sabot worn by the settlements of Tasmania, Victoria, and woman who walks behind to guide the South and West Australia are rapidly cart by the handles attached at the rear. introducing calcium carbide lighting In Belgium the dogs are hitched in front, plants and implements.
three abreast, and are guided by a pair A branch railroad is to be constructed of rope reins fastened to a muzzle about between Alberdi and Sudbeste in Ar the nose of the middle dog. Recently gentina.
the NationalCart Dog Association held its The breweries at Pilsen, Bohemia, will first exhibition of cart dogs. The Flemerect a large electric central station to ish breeders have found that, in crossing furnish that noteil industry with power. Belgium mastiffs with Great Danes, with
The Russian Ministry of Roads and the idea of increasing the size of cart Traffic has decided to operate a branch dogs, and so securing additional strength, of the Baltic Railway by electric power. they made a mistake. The result proved
The municipality of Venice, Italy, has to be animals with weak hind quarters resolved to purchase electric-motor and disproportionate limbs. Now the boats.
breeders are endeavoring to revive the The waterworks of San Juan, Argen- original stock.