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Opinion of the Court.

ute are gambling contracts and void under section 130, Criminal Code, and all notes or securities, part of the consideration of which is money, etc., won by wager upon an unknown or contingent event, as described in section 131 of the code, are also void. 95 and 113 Illinois, supra.

(3) An“ option contract” to sell or buy at a future time grain or other commodity or stock, etc., is void under the Illinois statute, even though a settlement by differences was not contemplated. 130 Illinois, supra.

(4) The keeper of a shop or office where dealing is carried on in stock, etc., on margins, without any intention of delivering rticles bought or sold, is guilty of an offence under the Illinois act of 1887. 134 Illinois, supra.

The cases of Pearce v. Rice, 142 U. S. supra, and Irwin v. Williar, 110 U. S. supra, are referred to in some of these cases as holding that dealings in differences, where the contract provides therefor, are void.

These Illinois cases, it will be seen upon examination, do not touch the case before us, which is a contract for future delivery, where there is no evidence that such delivery was not contemplated and a settlement by payment of differences only intended. The “option contracts” spoken of in those cases are explained in the cases themselves to mean what is commonly called “ puts and calls,” where there is no obligation on the part of the person to sell or to buy, and that class of contracts is the class covered by the statute. There is nothing in the evidence in this record that seems to us to afford any reasonable ground for holding that the contract in this case was on its face illegal as in violation of any statute in Illinois, or that, while valid on its face, the contract was really a guise under which to enable the parties to gamble on the differences in the price of stock sold and bought.

The further objection that these contracts having been made with reference to the rules of the exchange, the parties must in pursuing a remedy be confined to that which the rules provide, to the exclusion of the jurisdiction of ordinary courts of justice, we do not regard as well taken.

The sales were made subject to the rules referred to, but so

Opinion of the Court.

far as regards a remedy for their violation, those rules provide a means by which parties may seek and obtain relief in accordance with their terms. They do not assume to exclude the jurisdiction of the courts, or, in other words, they do not assume to provide an exclusive remedy which the parties must necessarily follow, and which they have no right to refuse to follow without violating such rules, and thereby violating their contract. Any rule which would exclude the jurisdiction of the courts over contracts or transactions such as are here shown would not be enforced in a legal tribunal.

It is also objected that the means taken to obtain a price for the stock after a tender thereof had been refused by Jamieson & Company were inadequate for that purpose, if not fraudulent, and that, hence, there is no proof properly before the court as to the value of the stock on August 31, when it was tendered, or September 22, when it was sold, and it is also contended that there was no fair sale, but a mere sham, colorable in itself and fraudulent as against the defendants Jamieson & Company; that the only price of the stocks contemplated in the contracts at the time they were entered into and in case of a violation thereof, was the price to be fixed by the stock exchange by actual sales on the delivery days, and that as the exchange was closed from August 3 until November 5 following, no means existed by which that price could be ascertained.

We think the course pursued by the complainants was a proper one. On August 31, the exchange being closed, Schwartz & Company, acting in behalf of the complainants, tendered to Jamieson & Company 1150 shares of the stock in question, 700 of which included the shares sold by them for the complainants. This tender was refused. It is objected that the stock did not belong to the complainants when tender thereof was made to Jamieson & Company. That was not material. Their agents, Schwartz & Company, who did own the stock, made tender of it to Jamieson & Company and demanded the contract price in payment thereof. If that price had been paid and the delivery of the stock made to Jamieson & Company it would have been a good delivery. They would have had the title to the stock as against every one, Schwartz & Company

Opinion of the Court.

included. It was a matter, therefore, of no importance that the complainants at the time this stock was tendered did not have the legal title to it. Under these circumstances, what could the complainants or their agents, Schwartz & Company, do? A tender of the stock had been made and had been refused. The stock exchange was closed by order of its governing committee, and Jamieson had voted in favor of its closing. Were there no means by which the value of the stock at or about this time could be ascertained while the stock exchange was closed? We think there were, and we also think that the course pursued by the complainants was a proper and appro priate one.

Accordingly Jamieson & Company were notified that the stock would be sold to the highest bidder at a time and place mentioned, and that they would be held responsible for any loss that might result from their refusal to take and pay for the stock as agreed upon. They were also informed at or about that time that the sales made by Schwartz & Company had been made for complainants as to 700 of such shares. On the day named the stock was put up for sale, and it is not an important fact that it did not belong to the complainants. It was stock over which they had control, and it was offered for sale on the part of the complainants with the approval and assent of its owners, and if it had been bought by any individual at the sale other than the one who did bid it in such purchaser would have obtained a good title to the stock on payment of the price bid. Wide publicity had been given on the part of the complainants of the time when and the place where this sale would occur, and the highest bid was made by an individual who was a member of the firm of Schwartz & Company, but there were many other people there who had the right, and, as it appears, were urged to bid, and there was neither fraud nor deception in the fact that a bid was made by a member of the firm as stated. The price at which the bidding closed was fixed after a chance for full and open competition upon the part of all who were present, and although the complainants entered into some arrangement with their agents by which the latter produced the stock and offered it for sale on account of and for

VOL. CLXXXII-32

Opinion of the Court,

the complainants, yet no injurious effect upon the transaction was thereby caused, and it in no way injured Jamieson & Company. That the bid was a fair indication of what was then regarded as the value of the stock, we think admits of very little question. When the exchange opened in November the stock sold at $130, and continued near that figure for some time.

Under all the facts in the case we think the complainants were justified in the course they pursued, and that the price at which the stock sold was a fair basis upon which to determine the amount of damages sustained by the complainant by reason of the refusal of Jamieson & Company to fulfill their contract of purchase. For these reasons the decrees of the Circuit Court of Appeals

and the Circuit Court must be reversed, and the case remanded to the latter court for such further proceedings therein as are not inconsistent with the opinion of this court, and it is so ordered.

MR. JUSTICE Harlan, dissenting.

I dissent from the opinion and judgment in this case upon the ground stated by the Circuit Court of Appeals, namely, that the transactions involved in this litigation constituted gambling in differences," in violation of the statute of Illinois.

Opinion of the Court.

CALHOUN GOLD MINING COMPANY V. AJAX GOLD

MINING COMPANY.

ERROR TO THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF COLORADO.

No. 196. Argued March 13, 14, 1901.-Decided May 27, 1901.

The rights conferred upon the locators of mining locations by Rev. Stat.

$ 2322, are not subject to the right of way expressed in 2323, and are not

limited by § 2336. As to $ 2336, by giving to the oldest or prior location, where veins unite,

all ore or mineral within the space of intersection, and the vein below the point of union, the prior location takes no more, notwithstanding that § 2322 gives to such prior location the exclusive right of possession and enjoyment of all the surface included within the limits of the location, and of all veins, lodes and ledges throughout their entire depth, the top or apex of which lies inside of such surface lines extended downward, vertically. Held that § 2336 does not conflict with § 2332, but supple

ments it. A locator is not confined to the vein upon which he based his location, and

upon which the discovery was made. A patent is not simply a grant for the vein, but a location gives to the loca

tor something more than the right to the vein which is the subject of

the location. Patents are proof of the discovery. They relate back to the location of

the claims, and cannot be collaterally attacked.

The case is stated in the opinion of the court.

Mr. W. E. So Relle for plaintiff in error.

Mr. Joseph C. Helm for defendant in error. Mr. Ernest A. Colburn and Mr. Charles H. Dudley were on his brief.

MR. JUSTICE MCKENNA delivered the opinion of the court.

This action was brought in one of the District Courts of the State of Colorado by the defendant in error to recover damages from plaintiff in error for certain trespasses on, and to restrain it from removing ore from ground claimed to be within the

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