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By Bailey

The youth just past the threshold of manhood does not generally ask himself the question, "When should I marry?" Rather, he asks, "How soon can I marry?" The fact that his small salary interferes with his instincts is probably a good thing, in the long run, for the human race. Just how and why this should be so is most interestingly and convincingly set forth in this article by Mr. Millard, -The Editors.

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HOULD the young man marry when he starts in life, and share his early struggles, his hopes, despairs, triumphs, and disasters, with a loving and helpful mate? Or should he fight these early battles alone, and wait until he has won a fair degree of success, to share with the woman to whom he devotes his life?

Many sociologists, clergymen, and keen observers point to the hiatus between the time when the sex impulse exerts its strength, and the time when the conditions of modern urban life enable a man to support a wife-a gap of some ten years or more-as the fundamental cause of the immorality which they say is sapping the virility of the race; and they point to the absence of vice and the comparative amount of chastity in those agrarian communities where early marriage is possible, as a convincing proof of their position.

Eugenists and genealogists as loudly decry the early marriage. They assert that it undermines the virility of the race. far more than the immorality pointed out by their opponents could do; and they assert that of the two evils, early marriage is by far the greater. And they cite as evidence the degraded Digger Indians, the lower classes of India, and the

Millard

aboriginal inhabitants of the islands and archipelagos in the Pacific.

Grant that the high cost of living is one of the great reasons why young men delay matrimony. Is this a racial detriment, or might it not prove in the end a racial blessing?

Let us look at the facts, as they are set forth by a noted New York physiologist.

"I have seen mothers of fourteen and fifteen years of age taken to the Vanderbilt Clinic," said he recently. "They were pale and anaemic and a physician could see at a glance why they had so early become a prey to disease. They had been using up their vital powers by bearing children long before they should have been permitted to do so.

"Here and there a prematurely developed young woman who is fully capable of child-bearing at the age of fifteen or sixteen, may be found; but that is a rare exception. I am for marriages at not less than twenty-five years of age for men, and twenty-two for women."

If youths and maidens were permitted to follow their natural inclinations, most of them would be married by twenty

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one.

The physiological effects of early marriage are known to be disastrous. In the human system the result of this premature generation and reproduction is a dissipation of the newly forming youthful energy. On the part of the woman anaemia and its resultant evils-nervousness, indigestion, and catarrhal and tubercular troubles-often follow. Also, because of lowered vitality, there is less resistance to germ diseases of all kinds.

One may easily see the debilitating effect of child-bearing at an immature age, by observing the tend

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law at Yale, in pointing out the fact that most of our best educated young men are coming to postpone marriage until after thirty, says that for a man to graduate from college at twenty-two or twenty-three, to spend three or four years in technical or professional study and to start in business with what is the best decade of his life half gone is responsible for many delayed marriages.

But is this a curse? Let us look at the other side of the picture. Many a young man marries before his college course is completed; and what happens? At a meeting of an association of stu

ency of our foreign-born population in its marriage practices. Among the Poles and Italians many girls marry at ages closely following childhood. They are old women at thirty, with withered faces and dragged-out forms. But where marriage is deferred to twenty, or beyond, the women of these races are, as a rule, robust and capable of great physical endurance.

Higher education tends to delay marriage. Governor Simeon E. Baldwin of Connecticut, formerly professor of constitutional

AN INJURY TO CHINA

Such a child bride as this is sure to impair the race, by giving birth to weaker

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A MENACE TO THE RACE The children of these Moravian childmothers will not introduce an element of weakness into the American race, if they marry late; but if they follow the example of their parents, they will establish a line of weaklings.

ADMITTING WEAKNESS INTO THE NATION

The birth of a child by this sixteenyear-old immigrant girl launches a soul into American life, that will produce disastrous results, unless the principles of eugenics are so used that the weakness is "bred out" at once.

lived long enough to acquire any great knowledge or experience. They cannot transmit to their offspring what they do not possess.

These eugenists further claim that too youthful parents transmit immature mentality. A child born to them in their older and wiser years would receive hereditary mental traits of a far higher order. This is more true of the last of a

and a third years or less at the time the succeeding persons in the pedigree were born.

Now, as much more than half of all people come within the three-generationto-the-century class, it would seem at first glance that to say no person of the highest order of intellectuality ever was born in that half would be absurd. Yet close investigation shows this statement

PROVIDING FOR THE FUTURE OF THE RACE If the couples standing in such marriage license" lines throughout the country are not old enough, or if they are not economically able to maintain families, they will debilitate the virility of the American nation.

line of several successive generations of parentage than of a single generation. The end of a long line of early-marriage progeny is foredoomed to a low or mediocre mental capacity.

Some eugenists go so far as to assert that no superior individual ever was produced by breeding human beings at the rate of four generations to the century.

One even declares that no man of great eminence ever was born of a line of ancestors that numbered even three generations to the century. This would give

to be so nearly correct that if there be any exception it is negligible. In the American Hall of Fame the most distinguished of the twentyfive men had fathers who were over forty years at the time of the birth of their famous sons, while not a single one of the twenty-five had a father who was under twentyfour and a half years at the time of the famous man's birth or a mother under twenty-two.

The father's age at the time of the son's birth is designated by Casper L. Redfield, a Chicago genealogist, as that son's birthrank. On investigation he found that the birthrank of Benjamin Franklin was 51, that being the father's age at the time Benjamin. was born. Franklin's father had birthrank of 57, his mother of 50, and his paternal grandfather of 65; so that we have here less than two generations to the century. Audubon's birthrank was the century. 57, Irving's 52, Farragut's 46, Lee's 51,

Adams' 43, Webster's 43, Beecher's 38, Mann's 40, Washington's 38, Goethe's 53, Milton's and Confucius' 45, Bismarck's 44, and Edison's, the world's greatest inventor, 43. Shakespeare's father and grandfather were each about 40 at the birth of their sons. The mothers of most of these men were also well on toward middle life when their distinguished sons were born.

A year ago Mr. Redfield sent to the

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