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From The Saturday Review. things for what they seem to be, rather than
HATRED.

for what they really are.

The mask imposes MENAGE says, somewhere or other, that we upon youth, and acts upon the young imagishould be careful not to hate gratis-that is nation as a scarlet cloth upon a Spanish bull. to say, he explains, “ from antipathy.” It Thus the tender girl, who comes out for her required much acuteness and much knowledge first season in London, is apt to fancy that of the world to load words so slender with every man with a big beard and a stern counsuch a weight of meaning. For if life is fall tenance is a Socrates, of a stern, superhuman of disappointments in lore, it may be said, in disposition, who lives in contemplation and another point of view, to be equally full of the clouds. If he has bard features, she imblunders in hatred. Fielding tells us that mediately concludes that he has a hard heart the great lesson in life is to learn to buy noth- and a bad temper. But if his face is smooth, ing too dear ; and Ménage’s application of his brow clear, and he has a laughing blue the rule is, not to sell your hatred for noth-eye, though he be a very Iago of deceit and ing. But although this is the humorous sense cruelty, she will endow his disposition with which lies on the surface of his words, they all the soft attributes of his countenance. cover one of the widest and most painful Nor is she to be blamed. Are not men, to tracts of human feeling. As soon as we be- their dying day, beguiled by pretty faces and gin to put two thoughts together, we begin soft voices in women ? Even La Rochefouto hate, no less than to love, and the whole cauld thought the subject worth speculating universe of things and men seems at first to upon, and puzzled his clever brain to account be roughly divided between our loves and for the discrepancy between the appearance hatreds. And those whose feelings run fur- and the reality. It may, indeed, be said thest in one direction are apt also to go to the that the instinctive aversions of childhood other extreme. Lise might almost be described and youth are often more rational than they as one long training of our sympathies and seem. The voice of nature is never to be deantipathies. We must all of us be conscious spised. And probably the instinct of youth of the gradual shifting, the gradual wear and is co-extensive with its wants. Nor does it tear, the slow detritus of our early antipathies. follow, because in later life we have learned Later life is generally much less prone to in- to love and appreciate a character which restinctive aversion. Men gradually learn not pelled us as children, that such a character to give their hatred gratis. They have come ought, when we were younger, to have suited to know the price of their whistle. Perhaps us. A child is not expected to sympathize the temper of mind they have arrived at is with boary statesmanship and learning hidden less lofty, but it is more rational, and nearer behind the mask of rugged visage and uncouth the truth. And if their sentiments of hostil- form. Still, on the whole, the balance of ity savor more of calculation than of romance, experience is that our early aversions are too they are less likely to fall into the illusion of often misplaced, and that, as we grow older the young mouse on her entrance into life, and wiser and more worldly—as our intelwho thought the gallant cock the most terri- lectual and moral wanis become more manible of monsters, but fell straightway in love fold and intricate-80 the early milk of purely with the cat as the most angelic of beings. external good-nature, which is the child's

In earlier days, as in their love, so ardent ideal, ceases to satisfy us, and we learn to characters take a conscious pride in the spon- sympathize with and see the use and exceltaneity and exuberance of their hatred. Ha- lence of many characters and many views tred for its own sake seems more natural than some of which were in the highest degree rehatred for an injury. “I hate him, because pulsive to us. Nor can anything be objected I hate him," seems more noble, just as “ 1 to this, for, after all, the process only brings hate him, because he has done me harm,” |us nearer to that Power which looks intelliseems too sordid and mean in the eyes of gen- gently and benignly on the infinitude of erous youth. Thus the first tendency of the things and men. very young is to hate things for what they It may be doubted whether many people are, rather than for the way in which they speculate upon the nature of hatred in genaffect one's self. But it would be more ac- eral, or examine very carefully into the nacurate to say that early hatred attaches to ture of their own hatreds in particular. Like

are,

fire, hatred, however it may burn, is an awk- | be admitted that, except in peculiar cases, ward thing to handle. And we seem more hatred gradually disappears with increased busy, when we are once ablaze, to find ex- familiarity-and a great consolation this is. cuses for being on fire, and for letting the fire On the one hand, we make more allowance burn out, than anxious to put a stop to it, or for defects which we can understand, and for to understand its exact bearings. Hatred consequences which we can calculate and and love are, it is true, at the opposite poles guard against. On the other, a more intito one another. But it does not seem that mate acquaintance corrects many errors, and either indifference or friendship lies on the line dispels many illusions into which people are between the two. Indifference and friend- apt to fall regarding those whom they do not ship do not strictly belong to early youth. know. They are later and artificial developments. There however, certain characters, and A child loves or hates, likes or dislikes. A those not by any means the worst, to whom child is rarely indifferent, and can scarcely the indulgence of a good hot hatred is as understand friendship-which is a limited, refreshing and delightful-we should rather defined, and, as it were, constitutional form say, delicious—as the luxury of love is to of attachment, with its tacit customs, rules, others. And this is intelligible. Love and and laws, essentially distinct from the “ all hatred being on the same line of passionate or nothing” of love, but, on the other hand, emotion, the only difference with them is, requiring far more delicate management. that the habitual emotion which constitutes There is, indeed, friendship and friendship; their life lies nearer to the pole of hatred. and we may pass from indifference to some One might almost say, but for the fear of a kinds of friendship, and from friendship to paradox, that hatred is, in fact, the form love indifference, more easily than from either to takes in them. It is their form of passionate hatred or love. But it is easier for hatred to care and attention. Instead of the slow and pass into love, or for love to pass into hatred, agonizing simmer of love, theirs is the slow, than for either to pass into real indifference. and to them delicious, simmer of hatred. Where real love or hatred has ever en- Nor is this state of things without logy tered, a flutter of attention commonly outlives among the lower animals. The male spider its departure, which shows that true indiffer- so loves the female that he puts her to death ence will never more be possible. Perhaps a and cats her if she does not run away. This, touch of indifference is the safest foundation however, she takes very great pains to do, on which to build a lasting and delicate though she does not always succeed in doing friendship. Nothing on the direct line of it, and then she pays the penalty of having passion which runs between love and hatred inspired that form of love which is hatred. is ever quite safe. And a touch of ice lends So among men, who among them all embody charms to the warmest feelings and the most the perfect circle and encyclopædia of subluloyal attachments, which none but very highly nary sentiment, there are those to whom a organized minds can appreciate. The worst good hatred is naturally congenial. It is a that can happen to a friendship which has perpetual source of life, and a filip to the full arisen out of indifference is to return to in- sense of overflowing existence. Love, even difference. But passionate love is never se- the most passionate love, is probably not to cure from sudden gusts of hatred, as it is be compared for intensity of sensation with a never certain that hatred may not pass into full-blown hatred. It is, in fact, in the naardent love. It is, indeed, true that, from ture of a sweet emotion, though the fruit be indifference, men and women are often known bitter. So, in nature, the most poisonous to pass into love, through friendship. But plants may bear lovely blossoms to the sun, such love will generally be a feeble love, a and their fruit may have a certain beauty to weakling passion. A love like this is too the eye. And these plants have a growth feeble to travel into hatred, and gradually and an enjoyment, so far as life is an enjoyfalls back into indifference. La Bruyère says ment, of their own. And as poison is the that the most difficult form of love to cure is life of these plants, hatred is the life of cerlove at first sight. And so hatred at first tain natures. They regard a state of hatred sight ought also to last the longest. Possibly as veterans regard the state of war--namely, it does. Be this as it may, as a rule, it will as a glorious and noble, and not unlovely,

condition, to which death may indeed be inci- tion of deep and lasting enmities towards perdental, but only under more chivalrous rules. sons wholly innocent of such terrible conseThose who bate in this manner are not unfre- quences ! Ilatreds like these may and do arise quently otherwise of a very noble and lofty out of what may fairly be called nothing. They disposition, filled with the most magnificent may also have a solid foundation in substansentiments. Such persons are apt to be even tial and irreparable hut unintentional injury, more jealous than the most loyal friend can and even then the person who has committed be, towards those whom they hate, of all the it may be wholly unaware of the sentiments recognized formularies, of all the courtesies entertained towards him or her. The discovand amenities of warfare. Many a short-ery of unexpected hatred is one of the most coming which a friend would innocently per- painful experiences in lise-80 painful that it mit himself to fall into towards another friend, is not to be wondered at if Englishmen, perthey would be inconsolable if they were guilty haps the most sensitive of human beings, beof towards the tenderly cherished object of come in the long run so guarded, reserved, their tenderly cherished aversion. It would and fenced about in formalities. almost seem as if this form of hatred were in If it is melancholy to look back upon the the nature of the intensest occupation vouch- long desert of feeling and waste of life implied safed to mankind.

in misplaced and bootless affections lavished We have said that the instinctive hatreds upon objects worthless or unattainable, there of youth grow fewer in number with increas- is not unfrequently some compensation in the ing years. It may be questioned, however, softening and elevating influence of the feelwhether intercourse with the world, and the ings themselves. But there can be little comhabits of mind engendered by active pursuits, pensation for the poignant regrets with which do not expose men to other fits, equally blind, men must look back upon the corroding effects sudden and uncontrollable, of hatred, arising of inveterate hatreds, if at any time they disout of sudden misconception, imagined slights, cover that in reality they have been blind fancied insuits, and hypothetical wrongs. A victims of a wretched hallucination, and novelist may come to the irresistible conclu- that, had they but known it, the objects of sion that such and such a journalist, and no their ignorant aversion were actually most other, must certainly be the man who wrote worthy and deserving of their love. But, that horrid article upon his or her pet novel. even without such a discovery, the time will Or a politician may be quite sure that such a usually come when a reflecting mind, in writer, and no other, made that offensive re-calmer moments, considers the nothingness mark about him in a leading article. One of of the object in comparison with the immenthe most curious parts of a journalist's expe-sity of the emotion. Perhaps, indeed, the rience who happens to be behind the scenes is particular hatred may have become a babit to observe how many persons feel quite sure, and a necessity. But the object of it has first, that particular articles are written by dwindled into nothing, the body lies shrivparticular men; and, next, that such and such elled up within the hardened shell, beyond passages were especially aimed at them. It the power of remaining years to resuscitate is needless to add how, almost universally, or soften it. Those who are subject to this they are at fault. Again, how frequently form of hatred make no display of it. They does it happen that a look, a word, an up- are only conscious of a petrifaction, lying lifted eyebrow, the twinkle of an eye, an im- somewhere in the heart of their being, inert, perceptible smile, a cut in the street, a yawn, innoxious, but hard, round which the daily a joke, a tone of voice, an infinitesimal slight, ripple of their sensibilities oscillates and plays perfectly accidental and unintentional, prob- without response, as the tide frets round the ably unconscious—or if not unconscious, with- basement of the unconscious cliff. These are out any reference to present circumstances, or not, perhaps, the commonest cases, but to deif with any such reference, of the most casual scribe all the varieties of hatred would be to kind, and forgotten the next moment-how pass half the morbid anatomy of the human often do trifles such as these lay the founda- mind in review.

BY J. M. LUDLOW.

From Macmillan's Magazine. | punishment as I choose to inflict, and of not SERVITUDE FOR LIFE (A BRIEF DIALOGUE). being believed on oath if you go and peach

against me, and of being sold down South [Most of the readers of Mr. Carlyle's little when I please, and of being converted by any article in our last have been astounded that parson whom I choose to allow. the question between the North and the

T. C. N. Hm. Wife and chil'n my own South should have been stated as it was there

dis time, massa ? stated—that Slavery should have been de

F. M. IIa ! ha! ha! Yes-till I or Mr. scribed by any one simply as “ a hiring for life.” As Mr. Carlyle must have had all Overseer want them. But you have the privithe grounds of this astonishment (even those lege of taking another wise as often as I allow which our respected contributor now brings it, and of having as many children as it pays forward) familiarly in his mind when he used me to bring up. his phrases, it must be supposed that he had

T. C. N. Beg pardon, massa, but what for somehow convinced himself of their substantial fitness nevertheless. Perhaps he had not you call me servant bired for life? Slavery only in view, but the whole visible

F. M. What for, you rascal ? Because a difference of dispositions between South and great man, after whom I named you, when North, as extending to their modes of pro- he had written a d-d good book on the viding themselves with all kinds of service-“ nigger question,” says that is all the difthat of politicians and leading men included. ference between you and those mean whiteBut, doubtless, Slavery was mainly in his livered Yankee working men, who are hired thoughts.- Editor.]

by the month or the day. Frederick Maximus. Harkee here, Dan, you T. C. N. Massa, if him book good book, black nigger rascal. You’re no longer a slave, why's I not priv'leged to learn read it ? you're a servant hired for life.

F.M. Read, you infernalscoundrel! Why, T. C. Niger. By golly! Wife and chil'n if any one were to help you to learn, the law servants for life too, massa ?

gives him fine and imprisonment or lashes, * F. M. Yes, all you niggers. But you must and what do you suppose you'd get? So off work all the same, you know.

with you. . . . Stay-how old is that yellow T. C. N. Iss, massa. What wages you nigger, your wife's daughter ? gib?

T. C. N. Born three wecks 'fore Miss F. M. Wages, you rascal? Quart of corn Susy, massa. a day and three shirts and pantaloons a year, F. M. She'll fetch a right smart price at for legal hours of work ; fourteen hours a day Mobile, now that New Orleans for half the year, and fifteen the other half.* T. C. N. (Aside, while going away.) Dey

T. C. N. Any privileges, massa ? say de Yankees aint bery long way. Wish

F..M. Privileges ? Ila! ha! Yes, priv- dey was heeah. Wish dey'd gib me a rifle ileges of John Driver's whip, or of such other 'fore I dies. * Laws of South Carolina.

* Laws of South Carolina.

A PASSAGE in the speech with which the Min- | and this is well ; but we have no national eduister of Public Instruction -- Duruy — accompa- cation, and this is bad. The emperor wishes nied the distribution of prizes in the Sorbonne this to be altered. A happy fate has granted to this year is so characteristic that we shall quote me, that I stand in near relation to the one upon it in full. After having made the announcement whom the wishes of the world are directed, and that henceforth Modern History up to the present who of all princes loves your studies best and day was to form part of the instruction, the min- | knows most of them. Believe that from a man ister continued : “Our pupils are well acquainted who has never yet flattered any one.

You are with the history of Sparta, Athens, Rome, and the France of the future, and you may bear high the Middle Ages. But they do not know the your heads and your hope : for he who holds the state of that modern society of which they are destiny of our country in his mighty hands has active members. Through their studies they are a great heart and a noble understanding. The the contemporaries of Pericles, Augustus, and really most liberal man of the empire is the Louis XIV., but not of Napoleon III. Hence so emperor.” It must not be omitted at the same much ignorance of things in the midst of which time that, in the further course of his speech, they are to live-so much error, deception -So the Minister called France The Moral Centre many people who belong neither to their time nor of the World."--Reader. to their country. We have a classical education,

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From The Reader. | burly doctor. Marie Antoinette is another A BOOK FOR THE BEACH.

favorite seaside subject; Napoleon BuonaA Book for the Beach. By Blanchard Jer- parte a third, especially as set forth by the rold. Two Volumes. Skeet.

wife of General Junot in her amusing meWe heard some time since of a bazaar, moirs. The trite reigns by the seaside. Noheld in the north of Scotland, with the laud-body wants to learn anything new between able motive of regenerating the Gael, the July and September; nevertheless, such is success of which was most apparent in the the force of babit that even the after-dinner instance of one stall furnished from the doze is not perfect without its accompanying penny-toy department of the German Fair in volume. One reads the preface, if it exist Regent Street, London. These penny trin-|(it is a pity prefaces are out of fashion), and kets sold at about two thousand per cent. perhaps half through the “ Contents”—the profit; and it is to be hoped that the poor rest is a dream! but it is important what Gael appreciated properly the sacrifice of that dream shall be ; and, as this depends conscience made on his behalf by the fair more or less on the matter perused, prefaces ones of the north. But, setting aside our and “contents” relating to murders, burseverer convictions on the subject of bazaars glaries, and witchcraft are dreary and thereand of Gaels, we think there was a modicum fore objectionable—to love-episodes, better, of justice when the penny toys were insinu- but too exciting. After all nothing is so ated into the pockets of easy Scotch folk good as Dr. Johnson in Fleet Street, or Naand half-crowns taken in their stead. Were poleon at St. Helena. pot London penny trinkets worth half a crown We should have been glad if Mr. Jerrold in the far north ? Indeed, it was worth half had given us Dr. Johnson over again ; but a crown to us to picture the noble savage his “ Story of a Hero, related by his Valet,” grinning with infinite delight, and the wild is sure to be a general favorite. The hero is eyes of the bairns, as the gudewife revealed Napoleon I.; the valet is Santini, of whom the newly acquired treasure from beneath Mr. Jerrold writes thus :her warm tartan shawl. Let it be granted, • Jean Noel Santini was of humble parthen, that goods should be valued with ref- entage, and was born in a poor little hamlet erence to the part of the country in which in the arrondissement of Bastia in Corsica, they are meant to be sold, and to the class in the year 1790. lIaving no example before of persons who are meant to buy them, and him in childhood but that of the rough and " A Book for the Beach” is a good book. bold mountaineers of his country, and the It consists of a collection of divers papers, lechoes of which reached the thatched roof

triumphal songs of the Grand Army—the with titles such as the following: “My of his parents—being his only lullaby --SanAlias," Concerning Cravats," " Eccentric tini was proud, like every son of Corsica, to Mac,” - The Work-a-Day World of France,” | be the countryman of the conqueror of Italy “ The Story of a Hero, related by his Valet,'' | -of the hero whose name filled the world. · The Mudern a'Becket,” etc. It would be He thought of nothing save battles and a better book than many anywhere; but, Buona parte ; and, instead of waiting till he to secure justice to its merits, it should be draw for the conscription, the enthusiastic

had attained the age required by law to read and criticised on the seashore, where lad was admitted in 1804' as drummer to a we have been listening, in the intervals of battalion of Corsican sharpshooters, then in reading, to the moan and the drone of the garrison at Antibes. The boy's golden

dream-his daily hope—was to see NapoIt is a phenomenon we have often remarked leon; to hear the cannon roar, and balls —and we will note it here for the benefit whistle--but to see Napoleon above all. The of moral philosophers--that, at these

hope was soon to be realized. The command of teinporary retirement from the world, cer- hands of the Count d'Ornano, and the sharp

of the battalion bad lately passed into the tain portions of history and biography are shooters were now ordered to assemble under apt to turn up again and again for study and the standard of the First Consul at Ambleresearch. We know a young lady who goes teuse. Santini was happy, his ambition was to the seaside every year, and every year achieved : his dream became reality.” reads Boswell's “ Life of Johnson,” each After following his beloved master through time contracting a renewed passion for the many campaigns, he arrived with him at.

waves.

seasons

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