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intentions contained implicitly in Nature inadequate, because they do not dwell upon belongs to the true artist. And in this sense power of expression as an essential part of he stands as an interpreter between that rea- genius. For genius is an energy, to use the son which informs the universe and renders language of the schools, and not a simple it intelligible, and the lower race of men latent faculty. Yet both are just in so far as who see with purblind eyes. Connected they recognize the clear faculty of insight as with this power is that by which men are indispensable to genius. The third definition able to express in living words the feelings or worthy of quotation is that of Flourens, the thoughts that remain crude and undigested French physician. Contending against the to the majority of minds. Thus genius be- common paradox that genius is madness, he comes the interpreter of God and of the describes it as the highest development of world to man, and of man unto himself. reason in a man, the fullest power of compreIt is a priesthood and a prophecy, and we bension, and the most keen and healthy wonder not that in old days the man of gen- working of his faculties. Thus the man of ius was called the seer, the priest, the vates, genius need not be possessed of sickly nerves the hero. Hegel's theory of the embodiment and diseased blood, though these often im

a nation's spirit in its great men is here pede his clearer vision. On the contrary, he attached to this definition of genius. For must, quà man of genius, be in healthy corthe creative penetration of the one formula respondence with the world around him, feel becomes, in the other, the full development its workings, see into its secrets, understand of reason in particular and rare instances. its laws. How far these thoughts extend we shall have We have now some data whereon to build to show hereafter. But now we must return a comprehensive theory of the nature of gento one more point involved in the definition ius. It is no longer, as we have seen, a wanof artistic power, which throws much light dering will-o'-the-wisp, coming no whence upon the nature of genius in general. There and aiming no whither; but it is in its essence is a line in one of Michel Angelo's sonnets the strongest and highest gift of reason. And which contains an excellent description of it shows itself, not in eccentric impulses towgenius for the plastic arts :-

ard the unknown, nor in mystical illumina

tions from above, but in a clearer and more “ La man che ubbedisce all' intelletto.”

steady comprehension of things as they are. This corresponds with Sir Joshua Reynolds's This comprehension, however, it must always definition, who made artistic power to be the be remembered, is immediate and automatic faculty of conceiving a great whole and of in the case of true genius. This reservation executing it. The two terms are equally es- is necessary, for if we include in the term all sential. Splendid visions may exist in the patient and conscious efforts after truth, we brain, deep feelings may shake the central lose at once its special meaning. Everything heart; but genius, as we understand it, must in nature is miracle, and the works of genius, not only see and feel, it must be able to in- though they appear miracles, are no more terpret and express, to carry thought and than profound intuitions into nature. We feeling into the realm of concrete being, and call them supernatural and inexplicable, bemake them living, real existences for other cause we do not understand the process by eyes and minds to contemplate and learn which they have been arrived at. Nor, in from. This is the meaning of its creative fact, does the man of genius himself always power.

understand it. He sees and feels, and speaks In this analysis of genius we have some-out what he feels. And when in ruder ages what run beyond three other definitions, men around him called him God-inspired and which in their several degrees throw light Prophet, he did not deny the title, but beupon its nature. Ruskin calls it the power lieved in spiritual revelations, putting the of penetration into the root and deep places faculty of clear insight which he had within of the subject.” Mill defines it the “ gift of his soul outside himself, and transferring his seeing truths at a greater depth than the reverence for self into a veneration for a world can penetrate, or of feeling deeply and higher power. Thus the most general definijustly things which the world has not yettion of genius will describe it as the power learned to feel.” Both of these we consider a highly developed reason to see into things,





a faculty of intuition beyond the ordinary dwells in grass and trees and fields. These range of human sight; or, to use a converse illustrations might be multiplied ad infinitum. image, the power of reflecting the truth and In a word, true genius sees what none has real idea of things upon a less distorted sur- seen before, and by the strength of reason apface than the mind of common men presents. prehends it with so firm a grasp that it can

But since the functions of our reason are readily express it through one of the many very various, and the whole of it is seldom media of communication between man and equally developed in one individual, we find man. For if the idea is fully seen, it cannot that genius assumes many different forms. fail to be expressed. Only incomplete visions That

power of intuition which we have gen- and vague sensations are incapable of uttererally described is specially confined, in cer- ance. Of course, if we adopt this view of tain instances, to some particular branch of genius, we deny that it can be created in man, intellectual activity. The mathematical gen- but we assert that it can be trained and augius sees deeper than most men into the rela- mented to an almost indefinite extent. And tions of things when viewed under the ab- this is specially the case with the mechanical straction of numbers or of lines. The meta- facility of expression which we reckoned necphysical genius has full power over ideas, and essary to complete genius. That must first exviews the world from this one aspect. The ist in a rudimentary state. A man can never analogical genius, which plays so high a part be an artist, unless he is drawn like Giotto in poetry, has the faculty of comparison de- to the chalk, or like Handel to the spinnet, veloped to an extraordinary degree, so that in the faee of all difficulties ; nor a poet, unit perceives the deep-seated points of resem-less he has command of language. But study blance which unite ideas and things. The quickens hand and eye, and increases the vosynthetical genius detects hidden bonds of cabulary. The double nature of genius, its union; the analytical observes the joints at conceptive and its representative faculty, is which division may be safely made. The gen- always to be recognized, but we see it most ius for religion penetrates at once into the clearly in the art of painting. There, a diswants of man, and understands his relation to tinct physical organization is absolutely requiGod; but its province is 80 vast and all im- site for the full production of the inner portant that men bave generally given it a thought. As in all other matters so here, higher name. Nor is there any sphere of ob- art is an index to the laws which govern man ; servation too minute for genius. Leigh Hunt, and no one who cannot express, or learn to for instance, deserves that title as a poet be- express, a thought or feeling deeper than that cause he felt more deeply, and spoke out more of other men has a right to consider himself clearly than most men, the tenderness that a genius.

MR. MAVERHOFFER, in Vienna, the inventor of MESSRS. WEIDMANN of Leipzig will publish various electro-magnetic apparatuses, has lately during the autumn the first half of the second laid before the committee of the Austrian parlia- volume of Mætzner's English Grammar, containment a new “ voting-machine. Every member ing Syntax; the first half of the second volume has two buttons before his seat--one black (No,) of Leo Meyer's “ Vergleichende Grammatik der the other white (Yes)—which, by being slightly Griechischen und Lateinischen Sprache ;” and touched, produce a corresponding ball on two the second part of the second volume of Classen's tables (white and black) at each side of the edition of Thucydides. Speaker, visible both to him and to the whole House. One glance is thus sufficient to show at once to the Speaker, as well as to every member in every part of the House, whether the Ayes or Noes have it. We hear that the committee have reported favorably upon the invention, and that THE fourteenth and fifteenth volumes of Brockthere is every likelihood of its soon superseding haus's “ Colleccion de Autores Espanoles” conthe old-fashioned and most inconvenient system tain the works of Juan Eugenio Harzenbusch, of counting.-Reader.

edited by the author himself.

after year.

From Chambers's Journal. supported by the regular troops ; they are HIGHLAND ROADS AND HIGHLAND unacquainted with the passages by which the CANALS.

mountains are traversed, exposed to frequent •Who'll buy a canal? Who'll make a bid- ambuscades, and shot from the tops of the ding for this splendid work of engineering? hills, which they return without effect.” Who'll have it for nothing, and our thanks This information, the result of hard experiinto the bargain?” The Government virtually ence derived in 1715, determined the Governproclaim this to all the Queen's subjects in ment to stir in the matter; they resolved to reference to the Caledonian Canal, which has employ General Wade and his soldiers in been a millstone round the necks of Mr. making roads in the Highlands.

As they Gladstone and other finance ministers year were made by military men, and chiefly for

military purposes, these new roads became Many are not aware that the nation supplies known as military roads. That which was something every year for maintaining certain begun by General Wade was continued by roads, bridges, and canals in the northern other officers, at intervals for more than half half of our island. It is a matter trorth a a century ; until at length the military roads little attending to; for this appropriation of of the Highlands extended from Stirling across public money to the roads and bridges, if not the Grampians to Inverness ; from Inverness to the canals, has proved to be a useful escep- along what is now the margin of the Caledotion to a general rule. We are, most of us, nian Canal, to Fort George, Fort Augustus, arriving gradually at a recognition of the and Fort William ; and in other parts—-until, maxim, that in a country like ours, it is well by 1785, they extended seven hundred and to leave industrial and commercial matters as eighty-eight miles, with ten hundred and much as possible to the initiation of private eleven bridges over the streams. So much of traders and joint-stock companies, and not to this system of roads as was finished by 1745, intrust them to the government. Roads, rail-greatly aided in suppressing the rebellion of ways, and canals come under this category.


year. At the same time, there may be reasons why

There was an old epigram in vogue at the the state should lend a helping-hand occa- end of the last century :sionally, when there is not available local“ Had you seen these roads before they were capital, and when the public spirit of the made, time is not up to the necessary level. Such You'd lift up your hands, and bless General was decidedly the case in the northern half

Wade !" of Scotland at the early part of the present The apparent Ilibernicism was forgiven on century. Those great civilizers, roads, were account of the usefulness of the roads ; for sadly deficient. Before the power of the that which gave a passage to troops at first, Stuarts was broken in 1745, the chiefs of the was also found available for peaceful traders. clans had their fastnesses and strongholds The soldiers, separated into small partics, among the hills, so placed that regular mili- made the roads and built the bridges, receivtary forces could scarcely get access to them; ing a small increase of pay while so employed; and this was one cause for the long continu- they worked under the direction of a masterance of the struggle. This had been found mason and an overseer, both amenable to especially the case in the time of the first military authority. The roads were nearly Pretender, in 1715. General Wade, report- straight, ascending and descending hills at ing to the king on this subject a few years inclines that would astonish modern roadafterwards, said: “I presume to observe to makers. A satirical critic of the general's your majesty the great disadvantage which doings said that he “formed the heroic deregular troops are under, when they engage termination of pursuing straight lines, and with those who inhabit mountainous situa- of defying nature and wheel-carriages both, tions. The Highlands in Scotland are almost at one valiant effort of courage and science. impenetrable from the want of roads and Up and down, up and down, as the old catch bridges, and from the excessive rains that says, it is like sailing in the Bay of Biscay. almost continually fall in those parts ; No sooner up than down, no sooner down which, by nature and constant use, becomes than up. No sooner has a horse got into habitual to the natives, but very difficultly his pace again than he is called on to stop ;

speed !

no sooner is he out of wind than he must from £4,000 to £5,000 per annum: this begin to trot or gallop; and then the trap being the amount of the imperial present at the bottom that receives the wheels at full made to the Highlands for the maintenance

of the excellent roads in the ten northern However, those military roads did much counties of Aberdeen, Argyle, Banff, Bute, good to Scotland—not only of themselves, but Caithness, Inverness, Moray, Nairn, Ross, also by giving rise to those “ Higbland Roads and Sutherland. There are nearly a thouand Bridges” which to this day take a little sand miles of road, and more than a thousand money out of the national exchequer annu- bridges. The counties, as we have said, pay ally. The old military roads, in many places, the remainder of the cost. were kept in occasional repair at the expense There is a good deal of public spirit shown of the counties; but early in the present cen- in some of the counties which were at one tury it was felt that some of them were too time very poor. In Caithness, for instance, steep and too narrow for general traffic, and almost up as far north as the bleak Orkneys, that others were needed in districts hitherto the beritors, in 1829 and subsequent years, wholly unprovided. A commission for “ High- raised and spent no less than £40,000 in land Roads and Bridges was issued, to rem- making much-needed roads and bridges ; edy these defects by degrees. The work was these they banded over to the commissioners to be paid for in the following way: one- in 1838, to be managed by them for twentyfourth of the expense was defrayed out of one years, on certain terms; the tolls have the national exchequer, and the other three- since that time almost wholly obliterated the fourths assessed on the proprietors of land in debt; and now the commissioners are able to the Highland counties. There was another give the roads back again to the county in a arrangement afterwards introduced, to the capital state, easily to be kept in repair out effect that the county gentry and authorities of the forthcoming tolls. There is really might relieve the commissioners of any fur- very little “ red-tape ” in all this. A small ther liability, and take the tolls of the roads annual expenditure on the part of the Govto repay the cost of maintenance. During no ernment has been the means of developing less than fifty-eight consecutive years have the industrial resources of Scotland in a very these commissioners annually reported what useful way. Whether the railways now they have been doing, and at what cost. forming will lessen the tolls along the chief Scotland has most unquestionably benefited roads so seriously as to touch the coffers of by the system. Roads have been opened the commissioners, or whether they will be through districts before unprovided with the means of developing new traffic on the them ; agricultural produce has been brought branch-roads, remains to be seen. to market in largely augmented quantities ; rate, we cannot look upon the Government quarries and mines have been developed ; and money spent on Highland roads, from the facilities for personal travelling introduced. days of General Wade to the present time, Let us not make the mistake of supposing otherwise than as a profitable national investthat because railways are gradually super- ment. seding many of these roads, the roads them But how about the poor Caledonian Canal selves were not wanted. The population and -are we to pay this also the compliment of traffic which the roads created, rendered rail saying that it represents a certain sum of ways probable and profitable ; and thus the money well laid out? Scarcely. We can roads were the true precursors of the rail. only say that the motive was a good one,

and ways. Generally speaking, the annual re- that the constructers believed the canal would ports of the commissioners contain some such confer a lasting benefit on Scotland. There sentence as this : “ The commissioners have were many temptations to cut a canal through much satisfaction in reporting, that notwith that region. In the first place, there is a standing much wet weather in the Highlands, depression running right across Scotland from the roads under their charge have not suf-north-east to south-west, called the “ Great fered many casualties. The roads have been Glen,” of so remarkable a character, that it maintained throughout in a perfect state of seems like a hint from nature to make a canal repair.” The demands on the public purse there. The Glen comprises Beauly Firth, for these purposes in recent years bave varied | Loch Ness, Loch Oich, Loch Lochy, Loch El

At any


and Loch Linnhe; together with certain riv-nine portions are almost mathematically in a ers which convey the waters of some of these straight line. The lochs themselves were lakes to the German Ocean or North Sea, and naturally very deep, but the short connecting others to the Atlantic. It was a very tempt- canals involved great labor ; for they are one ing spot for such an enterprise. All the hundred and twenty feet broad at the surface, maritime trade from the east to the west fifty feet broad at the bottom, and seventeen coast of Scotland had to be carried round by feet deep-large enough to admit ships of the stormy coasts of Pentland and the Heb- considerable size. As the surface of the water brides, consuming many days of time, and at Loch Oich was found to be ninety-four feet subjecting the vessels and crews to imminent above the sea-level, two vast series of locks danger of shipwreck. Towards the end of were required, to ascend to the summit-level the period when the military roads were un- from the one end, and to descend to the other. der construction, the Government reasoned in These locks, no less than twenty-eight in some such way as this : “ These lochs and de- number, are very large engineering construcpressions in the Great Glen will facilitate the tions, each being about one hundred and cutting of a canal from sea to sea ; the High- seventy-five feet long, forty wide, and has a land counties are too poor to do it; but if we water-lift of eight feet. Eight of them are do it, the tolls on the ships passing through quite close together, and form a series known the canal—either in going from sea to sea, or as “ Neptune's Staircase.” Many powerful in the development of local traffic-may prob- mountain-streams are carried wholly under ably pay interest on the capital spent in the canal, by well-constructed culverts. making the canal, besides maintaining the Such is the Caledonian Canal. It has been annual repairs, and may even possibly pay off a most unfortunate speculation, in a commerin time the capital itself.” James Watt sur-cial point of view. Just sixty years ago, it veyed the Glen for the Government, and many was begun, and in those sixty years Parliaother engineers were struck with the feasibility ment has spent nearly £1,300,000 upon it, of the undertaking; but it was not until 1803 besides the £100,000 which have been rethat the canal was actually commenced under ceived in tolls. So far from paying the cost, Mr. Telford ; and no less than twenty years it does not pay the interest on the cost; 80 elapsed before a ship went through it from far from paying the interest, it does not even end to end.

pay the annual working-expenses. The state It is very easy to be wise after the event, would now actually be the richer if some one and to say that the Government ought not to would take the whole canal and its works as have done this. If the Government could a present. The shippers and captains of veshave foreseen that nearly a million and a half sels have never made much use of it. Various sterling of public money would thus have modes of explaining the fact have been been licked up, and that after all the Scotch adopted ; but a fact it certainly is. There shippers would care very little about the are no towns of any note on the mid-route ; canal, of course they would not have made insomuch that almost the only traffic to be it; but ministers and parliaments must buy expected is through-traffic from sea to sea. wisdom like other folks. A great work it Now, taking one day with another, during certainly is, in an engineering point of view. the last few years, there have only been four Beginning at the Beauly Firth, near Inver- vessels a day passing through or even into the ness, the Caledonian Canal is cut through canal ; and the tolls which shippers are willseven miles of solid rock to Loch Ness, which ing to pay on these four vessels are not suffiis itself twenty-four miles long; then six miles cient even to defray the ordinary repairs and of canal leads to Loch Oich, which is three and expenses. When, as in the winter of 1848– a quarter miles long; then two miles to Loch 49, great floods injure the canal, and call for Lochy, which is ten miles long; then eight an additional expenditure of many

thousand miles of canal to Loch Eil, which opens out pounds, the balance of the account is, of into the western sea. There are thus four course, still more unfavorable. The House of canals, twenty-three miles in length alto- Commons often gets restive on this matter. gether, connecting five firths and lochs, hav- A committee seriously recommended the transing a length of about thirty-seven miles-or fer of the canal to some other authority, if sixty miles from sea to sea. And all these any one would take it ; but nobody will, for

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