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intended to express its own views on the tion, and that she has withdrawn the one man diplomatic situation. In this document, whose name might be " compromised” by an worded with careful attention to the pride over-lavishness of murder. France may be and the prejudices of the West, the Nation- once more called on to listen to the deathal Government defends its policy, asks, with kpell of a people who elected her sovereign a dignity strangely impressive when mani- king, who fought by her side in her epoch of fested by an unknown body, for foreign victory, and for whom she has tried, with huaid and sympathy, subjects the Russian de- miliating persistence, to obtain some moderspatches to a merciless criticism, denounces ate terms, may be required to bear with an the war declared by Russia on social order execution which is for her at once an insult in Poland, and hints most unmistakably that and defeat. Napoleon signed no conditions by Poland it means Poland before the parti- when he seized in a night upon the throne of tion. That document was on Monday repub- France ; but there is one which, as he well lished in extenso on the first page of the Mon- knows, he can never fail to observe. Even iteur, in the largest type which that journal he, with all his privileges, must not trail the ever employs. We do not desire to exagger- flag of France. - English coldness and Ausate the importance of this incident, pregnant trian delays may serve as excuses for a time; as it will appear both in Warsaw and St. but if Poland finally perish in the teeth of Petersburg, but, explain it how we may, it French remonstrance, the dynasty will have can have but one general meaning. The lost in French eyes its only raison d'être. It Emperor of the French is irritated out of is not in order to fail abroad that France has the ordinary international courtesy by the surrendered her right of speech at home. final Russian reply, is not unwilling to give Poland new hope, and does not fear to add fuel to the excitement already prevailing in
From The Spectator. France, by an act for which there is but one
HEROES AND THEIR LIKENESSES. very memorable precedent. That one is the republication, in a precisely similar fashion, WE doubt whether we, 66 the heirs of all of Orsini's will—an act which warned the the ages," have invented any new pleasure Austrian court that the hour of negotiations by which we shall swell the permanent inherwas nearly over. The republication may mean itance of our children much more substanno more than this, and probably does mean tial than that art which cnables us, for a no more ;
but then this is much. For in few pence, to individualize at a single glance France, on this Polish question the emperor our notions of the exterior form ard features is the restraining, and not, as in the Italian of half a hundred distinguished men, whose war, the great impelling force. The mass names are daily before our eyes and achieveof the people, and more especially the classes ments upon our lips. There a set-off to through whom the emperor rules, are eager the advantage of railways and telegraphs. for active operations on behalf of a race in They, no doubt, enlarge the opportunities, whom they instinctively recognize themselves but for that very reason they sadly increase in semi-Oriental costume. If he gives way, the fuss and turmoil, of life. But to buy for the dyke is cut, and the republication is sixpence a card which gives distinctness to proof that he is more and more inclined to our notions of upwards of fisty distinguished believe in the expediency of giving way. men, who are scattered over a whole conti
The events of the winter must, if we are nent, living in tents in the tropics, making rightly informed, greatly increase this incli- their head-quarters behind fiercely assaulted nation. The insurrection will not, it is true, batteries, leading cavalry raids into hostile wholly cease, for life in Poland just now is so countries, bending their careworn heads over little worth having, that mere personal mis- politicians' desks, firing off their random oraery will furnish to the insurgents recruits. tory from pulpits, or concocting their sensaWhen a mourning dress involves Siberia and tion telegrams in newspaper offices, is cerevery man is liable to blows ; when the best tainly a limited, but also a real enjoyment, and ablest are deported in thousands and the which carries no corresponding labor with it. right to landed property has virtually ceased whether it is a privilege in any other sense to exist; when a foreign soldier is posted as a than a literary pleasure is, perhaps, doubtful. spy in every concierge and every household is What we gain beyond an agreeable satisfacinfested with Cossacks covered with lice, there tion of the imagination by seeing, for instance, will be no lack of men who prefer a picnic that the man who gained the battle of Murending in death, but rendered pleasant at least freesborough, and who has just crossed the by vengeance. But it is nearly certain that Tennessee and occupied Chattanooga, is a the Russian military position is daily becom- handsome soldier, with a long straight nose ing stronger, that she can, if she will, com- that descends directly in the line of the foremence the course which ends in extermina- | head, and a mouth about which there is a
pleasant play of military gallantry, it is not light which left the earth when Abraham easy to say. But that it is gratifying to sub- was buying the cave of Machpelah must at stitute this individual face in our minds for the present moment be arriving in some fixed the unknown quantity which we had hitherto star a few trillion miles away, and might, been obliged to connect with the nine letters therefore, with sufficiently sensitive materials, of Rosecranz's name, when we hear of that be made to yield a photographic group of general's exploits, is unquestionable. Who that transaction. And, if that were anyhow does not feel that “ Rosecranz has taken attainable here, instead of only in remote conChattanooga ” gives us a livelier interest, af- stellations, it cannot be doubted one would ter the first word had been translated into a read history with a new relish. But what certain limited amount of visual significance, do we learn by connecting a specific face with than while both the subject and the predicate a catalogue of actions, more than we should of the sentence remained in blank for us, or, know in any case? Even if the photograph at least, only connected themselves in our be a true likeness of the face, will the face minds with a number of other propositions necessarily add to our knowledge of the man? concerning each, as equally without impres- Most men, judging by their own intimacies, sion for the retina ? It may be laid down as would answer in the affirmative; but very a certainty that a piece of personal news is often what we call the expression of familiar interesting in proportion to the number and faces is mere association that we have learned freshness of our mental associations with the to attach to facial movements, only as we subject of it,-much more interesting, even if learn to attach ideas of electricity to the we have once brushed against him in the street sound of thunder. We know that one friend or seen his back as he turned a corner, or frowns when he is thinking hard, and with only so much as succeeded him in a morning him we associate a frown with embarrassed call, so as to say to ourselves, " He was in the thought; another frowns when he is nervous, house a few minutes before I entered it,” and in him the frown denotes shy or sensitive than if the track of our life has never in any feeling—and then we call those lines in their way approached his own. And though it forehead expressive. Yet they are not really would be hard to say that it is instructive to expressive originally at all, but only become have once seen the hat and umbrella of the so by long habit. The first sight of this frown Duke of Wellington vanishing in the distance, in either face would probably mislead instead the time will, no doubt, come when men who of instructing us; we should think it a sign have done so, will read and speak of him with of anger. And thus it is often exceedingly far deeper interest than if they had only read questionable whether the mere vision of a
public man's face, not previously or otherStill more, of course, do photographs of wise known to us, is likely to add to our poseminent men add to the pleasure of reading itive knowledge of him, or rather to give us of their achievements. Do they add much to a false impression about him. Here, for the real meaning of history? We have before example, is a photograph of a three-quarter us, in a single portrait-carte, fifty-two photo- face, contemplative, serene, Shakspearian, graphic heads of modern American generals with the collars turned back, with mousand civilians, some Northern, some Southern, tache but no beard, exceedingly like the with Washington's calm, old-fashioned face, better likenesses of Shakspeare in its upper looking gravely out of the eighteenth century portion, showing a placid brow and heavy at us, in the centre. Here, within the space brooding eyelids, only a thinner and, perhaps, of an ordinary carte, are congregated the ungenial mouth. To which of the Ameriheads that have brewed this storm, so that, can generals do our readers suppose that it sitting quietly at home, we can pierce at fifty- belongs ? To General Lee or General Mctwo distinct points the white mist of words Clellan? No; but to General Butler. And, and names which hangs over that American supposing the photograph true, will it add chaos. It is not easy at first to define our anything to our instruction to remember that gain,--and yet every one knows how eagerly the tyrant of New Orleans, whose military a like set of authentic portraits of the Pelo- severities were even less discreditable than ponnesian generals and statesmen, a good his private gains, has a musing, refined, anphotographic group of David and his associ- tique, literary face, with, perhaps, a flavor ates in the cave at Ziklag, or even one com- of hard and forbidding lines lurking under manding head belonging to one and the same the shadow of the moustache ?. Again, here race in each generation since the Christian is a civilian face, solemn, didactic, important, era, so as to show the gradual fashioning of still young, but going in for“ * judiciousness," time, would be coveted. There are, indeed, the kind of face which one is accustomed to spots in the universe where such photographs see in men who deprecate indiscreet theories, might still by bare possibility be taken. Some and school those still younger, telling them one pointed out, not long ago, that rays of that they will learn by sad experience to take
wiser views in time. Do our readers suppose of the war at his own sole expense. Mr. it must be Mr. Chase or Mr. Memminger, Slidell and Mr. Mason, too, look quite as disbig with financial caution ? No; but Mr. agreeable as one could wish. Mr. Slidell is James Gordon Bennett, the editor of the most the ideal of a man who would think it a prirdiscreditable paper in the world, and who is ilege to get into a scrape himself if he could commonly said to have compensated himself only involve his host and patron too; Mr. once for a severe chastisement, by telegraph- Mason, more of the bull-dog, ready to fasten. ing to his own journal a frank“ sensation on friends and foes alike. And, finally, there heading” as to the stripes he had received, is a great inward peace of mind in making which sold the edition. Then there is an acquaintance with that officer whose hulging amiable, weak, confused, woolly-headed-look- forehead is exactly equal in height to the rest ing military bust, with fat cheeks and head of his countenance, the eyebrows bisecting narrowing towards the top, eminently a“ wor- the head. It is the kind of forehead ono thy” young officer not likely to distinguish conceives a morbid desire to break in, in himself. It is “Stonewall” Jackson. Here, consequence of a moral certainty, seeking, again, is a grave, square, open countenance, however, physical verification, that the forespeaking a frank heart, an earnest devotion to head is cavernous, and not solid. If really freedom, and the compressed resolve to main- solid, it is clear that the figure belonging to tain it at the sacrifice of life. This, surely, it would be in stable equilibrium only on the must belong to a Northerner of the squarcst head, and in stable on the feet, like the Republican type. It is the face of John C. spherical-footed dolls children play with, if Breckinridge, the last Southern candidate for the sphere constituted the head itself instead the Presidency.. Certainly, in none of these of a globe round the feet of the tumbler. cases does the picture of the countenance and Otherwise, it is a good, confused, magnanibearing suggest any addition of value to one's mous face, that expresses the fullest confiknowledge, though it may, perhaps, break dence in its own fuzziness, and belongs to the the chain of former associations.
only officer who always maintained, with On the other hand, there are some heads, much justice that he was not fit for his post. generally either the most powerful or the re On the whole, we gather from looking at verse, which it is a permanent satisfaction to the likenesses of public men that there are have identified in one's mind with the career two classes of human faces and frames- those which has expressed it. Here is the head which properly express their inhabitants, and of Mr. Jefferson Davis, with an imperial eye those which only by time and association get that seems to see the future and control it, certain moral associations with them which and a mouth_strong, thin, compressed, half- friends, by experience, learn to interpret, but ascetic, like Father Newman's, speaking of which are by no means a result of a pre-esvast power of self-denial for distant ends, but tablished harmony. Many men's countewith a shadow of cynicism and intrigue just nances are strictly opaque fortifications, from hanging about it, that tells a nature not in- behind the veil of which their characters capable of breaking faith. Here is Mr. Lin- stolidly survey the world, and are never discoln, honest above all things, not keen, but tinctly seen ; and even by their friends are shrewd, logical as a Scot, anxious as a Yan- known, in spite of their features, the interkee, with a sad humor, and a strong touch pretation of which is as much a gradually acof coarseness,-not a fine face, not a face at quired skill as any part of the social tact of its ease, but trustworthy in the highest de- life. Others, again, have the art or the mis gree, and, for the rest, something between a fortune to mould their bodies into real orfarmer's and an artisan's (too shrewd for the gans of their character, 80 that the merest one, too safe for the other) after he has cleaned stranger can identify them at once. The himself on Sunday morning. Again, there highest class of power of any sort generally is a satisfaction in connecting this clear-eyed, impresses itself somehow upon the face, and courtly Vandyck-face with General Lee; this the lowest sort of imbecility or iniquity inevivery industrious, painstaking face, which sud- tably does so; but between the two there is a denly falls away to nothing, with the Con- large field of an apparently accidental kind, federate General Johnstone, who has always -only some of the occupants of which manbeen going to relieve every place of impor-age to write their qualities in their face. tance, and has never relieved any; in learn- Some there are, of little note, who inscribe ing that this sweet and poetical profile be- their good humor in jovial eyes, their clumlongs to the Federal Lieutenant Mulligan, siness on unmanageable masses of flesh, their whose noble defence of Lexington, in Mis- sincerity in an open gaze and firm candid souri, against overwhelming Southern forces, mouth. On the other hand, there are quite was one of the greatest exploits of the war; as many of the second and lower orders of in knowing that refined and manly head to be ability and goodness whose faces are not Governor Sprague's, of Rhode Island, who blanks, but yet nothing particular, nothing fitted out a regiment at the commencement capable of any interpretation--faces, in short,
190 LETTER FROM HON. JOSIAH QUINCY TO MR. LINCOLN. of which the expressiveness does not lie in the views on that subject, not only of such feature and marked lines, but in characteris- men as Hamilton, King, Jay, and Pickering, tic habits of management, with which you but also of distinguished elaveholders-of must be familiar before you can pretend to both the Pinckneys, of William Smith of understand them. But so much does the South Carolina, and of many others. With imagination love distinctness in petty detail, the first of these I had personal intercourse that even in this case it enjoys possessing the and acquaintance. I can truly say that I evidence that a hero's face is not characteris- never knew the individual, slaveholder or tic, and might have belonged to unheroic non-slaveholder, who did not express a decommon sense.
testation of it, and the desire and disposition to get rid of it. The only difficulty, in case
of emancipation, was, what shall we do for LETTER FROM HON. JOSIAH QUINCCY TO the master, and what shall we do with the MR. LINCOLN.
slave? A satisfactory answer to both these We copy below a letter from the venerable questions has been, until now, beyond the Josiah Quincy of this city to President Lin
reach and the grasp of human wisdom and
power. coln, which appears in the New York Post " Through the direct influence of a good with the following explanatory preface : and gracious God, the people of the United
“ This letter, a copy of which, in the firm States have been invested with the power of and clear handwriting of its author, we have answering satisfactorily both these questions, seen, was not intended for the public eye, and and also of providing for the difficulties inciit has been acknowledged, as we are told, by dent to both, of which, if they fail to avail Mr. Lincoln in terms of the most frank and themselves, thoroughly and conclusively, they cordial nature. We believe that we violate will entail shame on themselves and sorrow no rule of propriety in laying it before the and misery on many generations. public, which we have done after consulta
“ It is impossible for me to regard the tion with some of Mr. Quincy's friends. There power thus granted to this people otherwise honorable to both him and the eminent per- makes those mad whom he intends to destroy. is nothing in it which is otherwise than highly than as proceeding from the direct influence
of a superintending Providence, who ever sonage to whoin it is addressed, and the subject is of such universal interest, and is treated
** The only possible way in which slavery, in such a manner, that few will dissent from after it had grown to such height,
could have the judgment which we have formed, that been abolished, is that which Heaven has the public have a right to read it now, in- adopted. stead of waiting for its future appearance in
“ Your instrumentality in the work is to historic form. One of its remarkable char- you a subject of special glory, favor, and felicacteristics is the hopeful and confident tone ity; The madness of secession and its ineviin which it speaks of the eventual victory of table consequence, civil war, will, in their the cause of the United States Government. result, give the right and the power of uniAge is ordinarily timid and desponding, but versal emancipation sooner or later. If the the age of Mr. Quincy has all the cheerful United States do not understand and fully apcourage of a vigorous manhood.
preciate the boon thus bestowed on them, and
fail to improve it to the utmost extent of the " Hon. Abraham Lincoln: Sir : Old age power granted, they will prove recreant to has its privileges, which I hope this letter themselves and posterity: will not exceed. But I cannot refrain from “ I write under the impression that the expressing to you my gratification and my victory of the United States in this war is ingratitude for your letter to the Illinois Con- evitable. vention ; happy, timely, conclusive, and ef “Compromise is impossible. Peace on any fective. What you say concerning emanci- other basis would be the establishment of two pation, your proclamation and your course of nations, each hating the other, both military, proceeding in relation to it, was dae to truth both necessarily hostile, their territories inand your own character-shamefully assailed. terlocked, with a tendency to never-ceasing as it has been. The development is an imper- hostility: Can we leave to posterity a more ishable monument of wisdom and virtue. cruel inheritance, or one more hopeless of
“ Negro slavery and the possibility of happiness and prosperity? emancipation have been subjects of my "Pardon the liberty I have taken in this thought for more than seventy years ; being letter, and do not feel obliged in any way to first introduced to it by the debates in the take notice of it; and believe me convention of Massachusetts for adopting the “Ever your grateful and obliged servant, constitution, in 1788, which I attended. I
“ JOSIAH QUINCY. had subsequently opportunities of knowing " Quincy, September 7, 1863.”
BY JOHN G. WEITTIER.
Honor to her ! and let a tear
ON HEARING WEEK-DAY SERVICE AT
The walls around and pillared piers
Up from the meadows rich with corn,