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holders are not directly interested in the for example, would be as strong in the Pacific profits of the carrying trade ; but we should without a fleet, against any power but the have risked a war in order to establish a prin- Union, as she now is with one. She could ciple absolutely fatal to the maritime system fit out in San Francisco all the ships she upon which English greatness and commerce could pay for, and the Union would not be alike depend, a principle which triples the bound to interfere. Nor is this argument force of every power on earth except our- open to the remark that England also will selves. It is possible, for example, though benefit by the new principle, for. England we trust for the sake of human sanity not alone amongst the powers is seated in full probable, that we may in six months find our- defensible strength in every corner of the selves at war with the German Diet. That globe. To the possessor of Australia and as a maritime war is not at present a very British Columbia, Canada and India, of the formidable business. The Danes would soon only oak forests and the best forests of teak, open the Baltic, and the Mediterranean fleet of the largest supplies of iron, and the most would be half ashamed of its easy victory numerous race of sailors, aid of this kind over Archduke Maximilian's much loved would be simply oppressive. No statesman squadrons. But there would be another who believes, as English statesmen of all parenemy to be considered. Gerinany would ties in their hearts believe, that maritime ashave a right to build iron-clads in America, cendency is essential to the status, and mariin Holland, and in Russia, to send them to time strength to the very existence of Great sea with no sailors beyond a German captain, Britain, will consent to the introduction of a and to keep them there without any port of principle which in all future maritime wars entry. From every American port over the would turn the universal seamanship of the Atlantic and throughout the Pacific German rest of the world into one vast reservoir of men-of-war would he preying upon our com- power for our antagonists. England is strong, merce, harassing the rich Indian coast, rais- but if every race which dislikes England is ing freights and insurances to a figure which at liberty to arm ships for any power which would terminate freight. The Indian trade, may choose to declare war on her, the day of the Colonial trade, the American trade, would her defeat must be fast approaching: To defy disappear, or be reduced to the dimensions a league of the maritime world might be in within which convoy is possible, and we should certain circumstances an act of magnificent be forced in our own despite to declare war heroism, but carefully to construct such a on America--that is, to do the very act the league in order one day to fight it is one of menace of which from the Federals seems to suicidal folly. ourselves so insolent. The whole balance of Yet it is this, and nothing less, which Earl power, the comparative strength of states in Russell with his aristocratic hardihood has the world, would be, in fact, overset. States- just now prevented. If the rams are let go, men would have to count not only the fleets America has her precedent; if we fight to and the armies of their opponents, but the let them go she has a precedent, to which we possibly hostile resources of friendly dock- cannot hereafter venture to demur. We canyards, to “ conciliate” builders in Pennsyl- not believe that Parliament will for the sake vania as well as statesmen in Paris, to count of the South give her such an opportunity, the shipwrights of California as well as the or that even if anxious for war with the soldiers of German powers. Every war, in North, the House of Commons will fail to fact, would be a war with the maritime retain to itself the right of fixing the time strength of every nation in which popular and the reason for a campaign. Party feelopinion did

not happen to be strongly upon ing goes down before the desire for the greatour side. Every war would become a “ free ness of England, and as for the howl of the fight,” and statesmanship be degraded into a Herald over English want of courage, we have system of guessing by rule. No power with only to let it howl on. England is not careout colonies need keep distant fleets, for ful of taunts, even when embarked in a course everywhere where ships could be built the opposed alike to her interest and her principosssession of a fleet would be a matter for ples, and may well bear them casily when the remittance of money alone, and France, aware that she is maintaining both.

LORD BROUGHAM ON THE AMERICAN WAR | the hollow pretext of making war to free AND ON THE FRENCH OCCUPATION

American slavery,her shame and her curse, OF MEXICO.

as all except slave-owners admit it to be. Lord BROUGHAM delivered an elaborate ad- Hollow we may call it, for those who prodress at the opening of the Seventh Annual claimed emancipation confess that it was a Meeting of the National Association for the measure of hostility to the whites, and dopromotion of Social Science at Edinburgh, on signed to produce slave insurrection, from Oct. 8. In the course of his speech he made which the much-enduring nature of the unthe following reference to the Mexican expe- happy negroes saved the country. My esdition, and American topics in general teemed friend, the prelate who exalts hy his

A great, and but for its success, a very un-eloquence and his virtues the name of Wilpopular expedition has resulted in the occu- berforce which he inherits, declared that the pation of Mexico by the French Government, authors of the measure cared as little for the and the foundation of a monarchical régime, blacks’ freedom as for the whites’; and now nearly upon the principles adopted in France, they call for extermination of the one race to both as regards the power of the crown and liberate the other. But, whatever may have the rights of the people. It is impossible to been the proximate cause of the contest, its question the adantages derivable from the continuance is the result of a national vanity change by the Mexicans, who for so many without example and without bounds. Inyears had suffered all the evils of alternate dividuals subject to this failing are despised, anarchy and the violence and plunder of not hated ; and it is an ordinary expression pretty tyrants. Nor can any friend of hu- respecting him who is without the weakness, manity and of peace begrudge the influence that he is too proud to be vain. But when acquired by France, or cavil at the use made a people are seized with it, they change the of it in favor of Austria. The peace of the name, and call it love of glory. Of the indi. Continent is furthered by whatever brings vidual we often hear the remark that despithese two great powers into a friendly connec- cable as the weakness is, it leads to no bad tion.



actions. Nothing can be more false.. It leads But the establishment of French influence to many crimes, and to that disregard of truth in Mexico is likely to produce an uneasy feel- which is the root of all offences. Certainly ing in the now unlappily dis United States of it produces none of the worse crimes. The America, and may by no remote possibility man who is a prey to vanity thirsts not fyr lead to an amicable intercourse with the South, the blood of his neighbor. How fearfully not perhaps against the North, but in formal otherwise is it when a nation is its slave! recognition of the secession, and in breach of Magnifying itself beyond all measure, and the blockade. The friends of humanity would despising the rest of mankind-blinded and have good cause for lamenting anything so intoxicated with self-satisfaction-persuaded manifestly tending to promote the continuance that their very crimes are proofs of greatness,

and extends its mischiefs. The and believing that they are both admired and term civil war is now hardly applicable to envied, the Americans have not only not been this miserable contest. The people of the content with the destruction of half a million, South are banded against those of the North, but been vain of the slaughter. Their object exactly as any two European nations, differ- being to retain a great name among nations ing in all respects save language, have been for their extent of territory, they exulted in banded against each other—the Austrians and the wholesale bloodshed by which it must be acPrussians, for example. But give it what complished, because others were unable to make name we may, no one can doubt that it is a such a sacrifice. The struggle of above two cruel calamity to the Americans themselves, years, which loosened all the bonds which and, though in a much less degree, to the rest holds society together, and gave to millions of the world, which, with one accord, joins in the means of showing their capacity, has proreprobating their conduct while lamenting its duced no genius, civil or military; while the effects. Each party, of course, seeks to cast submission to every caprice of tyranny had been on the other the heavy blame of breaking the universal and habitual, and never interrupted peace. On one side is the wicked allegation by a single act of resistance to the most flagrant of property in human beings; on the other, infractions of personal freedom. The mischiefs

of the war,

of mob supremacy have been constantly felt; The feeling toward England which prevails for the calamity of rational and respectable among the American people, though arising men keeping aloof from the management of from the excess of national vanity, and its affairs has resulted in the tyranny of the mul- kindred envy, is certainly in part the remains titude. To this tyrant the nominal rulers of the old quarrel that led to the separation. have nerer withheld their submission ; and We are hated and despised; neither feeling is the press, catering for the appetites of the at all reciprocal, but among our kinsfolk it prepopulace, and pandering to their passions, vails in a degree almost amounting to menta. has persisted in every misrepresentation which alienation ; it can be hardly accounted for might most disguise the truth as to passing without recurring to the ancient grudge of the events, exaggerating each success, extenuat- American war; and it illustrates the sounding each defeat, often describing failure as ness of the view taken by those who have victory; while the multitude, if the truth by most considered the great subject of colonial chance reached them, were one day sunk in policy, that we must so govern our settledespair, another elated to ecstacy, almost at ments as to prepare for a separation on friendly the pleasure of their rulers and their guides. terms, always assuming that sooner or later Nor were the falsehoods thus propagated con- their growth will bring about their indepenfined to the event of the war; they extended dence. Some distinguished men in the lite to all things—to the measures of the govern- ary as well as political world have lately ment and the acts of foreign nations. The maintained the opinion that our colonies are public feeling must not be thwarted; the only a burden and that they give us no benefits people desired to hear whatever gratified their worth the expense they entail. This is a great vanity or raised their spirits; and in this de- error, and it is not now for the first time that lusion must they live as long as the war lasts I so describe it. Sixty years ago, while reand the rule is in the hands of the mob. The siding here, I published a work in which the truth they will never hear, because they de- whole subject was fully examined in all its sire to hear what is pleasing and not what is branches, and a demonstration given of the true. But it would be a great mistake to benefits-political, social, and commercialcharge on their false guides the follies and the of colonial establishments, with detailed crimes which they chime in with and do their proofs that their cost falls far short of their best to perpetuate. The people are deter- benefits, and that the wars ascribed to them mined to their course. Far from feeling had another origin. The book was very soon shame at the cruel scenes which modern ages out of print, and I have always refused to al

nay, which Christian times — have seen low a second edition. It might now, hownothing to equal,-a spectacle at which the ever, be of some use, as the information conwhole world stands aghast, almost to incre- tained respecting the colonies of all nations dulity they actually glory in it as a proof of ought to be more generally diffused. The their higher nature, believe themselves to be the lapse of sixty years has no doubt made great envy as the flower of mankind, and fancy that changes, and the work is to be viewed as histheir

prowess would triumph over the most pow- torical with regard to the facts; but the docerful states of Europe! In such illusions their trines have been confirmed by all that has chiefs may not practically join, but the peo- happened ; they are entirely applicable to the ple are, beyond doubt, a prey to them, and present state of affairs and are most worthy of will continue so to the end,

attention from the promoters of social science. “ Hear the just law, the judgment of the skies,

Ilis lordship then briefly passed in review the They that hate truth shall be the dupes of lies; progress made by our colonies in the last sixty And if they will be cheated to the last,

years, and what has been done in the way of Delusion strong as hell shall bind them fast." emigration, and then turned to the considera

tion of topics of general interest only.

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SHORT ARTICLES.-Death of Henry Fitz, the Telescope Maker, 428. General Montgomery's Sword, 428. Boiling Potatoes, 428. Literary Intelligence, 428, 431.

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The year that is drawing toward its close has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies to those bounties which are so constantly enjoyed, that we are prone to forget the source from which they come. Others have been added, which are of 80 extraordinary a nature that they cannot fail to penetrate and soften the heart which is habitually insensible to the ever-watchful providence of Almighty God. In the midst of a civil war of unequalled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to invite and provoke the aggressions of foreign States, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has been maintained, the laws have been respected and obeyed, and harmony has prevailed everywhere, except in the theatre of military conflict. While that theatre has been greatly contracted by the advancing armies and navies of the Union, the needful diversions of wealth and strength from the fields of peaceful industry to the national defence have not arrested the plough, the shuttle, nor the ship. The axe has enlarged the borders of our settlements, and the mines—as well of iron and coal as the precious metals—have yielded even more abundantly than heretofore. Population has steadily increased, notwithstanding the waste that has been made in the camp, the siege, and in the battle-field; and the country, rejoicing in the consciousness of augmented strength and vigor, is permitted to expect a continuance of years, with a large increase of freedom. No human counsel hath devised, nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things, they are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, who, while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy. It hath seemed to me fit and proper that they should be solemnly, devoutly, and gratefully acknowledged, as with one heart and voice, by the whole American people. I do, therefore, invite my fellow-citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea, and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last THU:SDAY OF NOVEMBER next as a day of Thanksgiving and Prayer to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the heavens ; and I recommend to them that while offering up the ascriptions justly due to Him for such singular deliverances and blessings, they do also, with humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience, commend to his tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife in which we are unavoidably engaged, and fervently implore the interposition of the almighty hand to heal the wounds of the nation and to restore it, as soon as may be consistent with the divine purposes, to the full enjoyment of peace, harmony, tranquillity, and union. In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United

States to be affixed. Done at the City of Washington, this the 3d day of October, in the year of our Lord 1863, and of the independence of the United States the eighty-eighth.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. By the President : Wm. H. SEWARD, Sec’y of State.

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