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ness or individual morality, the world is ever belief in the higher nature of Christ, have stirred. The idea of Jesus was much more an interest in these aspects of his history; profound ; it was the most revolutionary idea we also find ourselves thinking fondly of that was ever conceived in a human brain; it

those distant landsmust be taken in its totality, and not with those timid suppressions which retrench from Over whose acres walked those blessed feet, it precisely that which made it effective for That, eighteen hundred years ago, were nailed, the regeneration of humanity. Fundament. For our advantage, to the bitter cross,' ally, the ideal is always a Utopia. When and longing that they were less vague to us, we wish at present to represent the Christ of and that their scenery, and the whole social modern consciousness, the consoler, the judge and intellectual movement of which they of these new times, what do we do? That were the theatre at that momentous epoch which Jesus himself did 1830 years ago, when Christ walked over their acres, were We

suppose the conditions of the real world altogether other than they are ; we represent presented to us afresh by some modern pen a moral deliverer breaking, without arms, the in minute connection with his sacred biograchains of the negro, ameliorating the condi- phy.” And so, we can fancy, many a pious tion of the poor, freeing the oppressed na- reader of M. Renan's book will feel his hortions. We forget that this supposes a world ror at what he finds denied or set aside in it turned upside-down, the climate of Virginia partly compensated by the vivid positive pictand that of Congo modified, the blood and race of millions of men changed, our social ures which it does exhibit of Christ's human complications brought back to a chimerical history-fit to be appropriated thankfully by simplicity, the political stratifications of Eu- any Christian imagination, and to be wrought rope tilted out of their order.

with rich effect into a form of religious faith

quite different from M. Renan's. Our desire, it will be seen, has rather been

In the second place, it cannot be but that to give some account of M. Renan’s book skeptics of that harder and more determinate than to criticise it. But a word or two re-school which Strauss may still be taken to specting the effects which the book is calcu- represent, and along with them, many edulated to produce on the different classes of cated Christians who have been instructed in readers that are likely to take it up may the principles of historical criticism, but now be added in conclusion.

have never found their faith in the Gospel That general Christian opinion will be History substantially shaken by the applicashocked by the leading peculiarity of the tion of them, will have a serious objection book as avowed in it from the outset, and to make to M. Renan's book as a whole. shocked in detail over again by many sepa- They will ask by what right, other than his rate passages in it, we have already said. own mere instinct, his mere pleasure, at the We are not sure, however, but that the most moment to vote this true and that false, he pious and orthodox Christians who may read accepts the non-miraculous parts of the Evanthe book through will find, and will acknowl- gelical narratives while rejecting the miracedge that they find, something like a com- ulous parts. If there is such a thing as pensation in it for all the strain and pain it myth-making in the world, there will, it may must give them ; and we are confirmed in he said, be non-miraculous myths as well as this by what we have already heard of the miraculous myths, and perhaps in greater impression made by the book on some candid abundance. The miraculousness of a story orthodox minds, " Why was it left," they is not the sole test of its being a myth ; and may say, “ to this skeptical French thinker a legend may be non-miraculous and yet lack to do what orthodox Christians would have all evidence of being true. Simply to weed been glad, at any time for a century or two a written story, therefore, of its miraculous past, to have seen done for them—to follow, particles, and then, with an occasional “ It with reverent care the human history of seems ” or “ As I fancy,” to comb out the Christ as it enacted itself in Galilee and rest into possible sequence and order, is an Judea, and to tell that his history circumstan- utterly unhistorical proceeding. And all tially, in the modern manner, and with the this, with some show of justice, both the aid of modern geographical and antiquarian classes of critics we have mentioned may knowledge, so as to rivet the imagination and urge against M. Renan’s “ Life of Jesus.” elucidate the Gospels? We also with all our They may maintain that it is simply M.

Renan's imagination of the life of Jesus, as ces populations bienveillantes et naives, ne sisting itself by a treatment of the materials savait échapper." And again, in another entirely arbitrary, and not in the least criti- place, “ Sa prédication était suave et douce, cal. They may, at least, demand from M. toute pleine de la nature et du parfum des Renan a more detailed explanation than he champs. Il aimait les fleurs, et en prenait has given in his book of the principles which ses leçons less plus charmantes. Les oiseaux have guided him in retaining so much as his- du ciel, la mer, les montagnes, les jeux des torical while he has rejected so much else as enfans passaient tour à tour dans ses ennon-historical.

seignements.” These passages, indeed, do Lastly, there are not a few, we fancy, who, not representthe final and complete impreswhile not objecting to M. Renan's method, sion which M. Renan leaves of his concepand quite willing to accept an adequate ac- tion of the character of Christ. More count of the human character and history of especially towards the end of the book, eleChrist arrived at by such a method, will still ments of severity and even of terror are refuse M. Renan's account, as being, with infused into those sweeter and more idyllic all its carefulness and all its reverence, essen- representations of the beginning. We are tially inadequate. They will have their own not sure, however, but that the Teutonic imagination of Jesus formed from the rec soul generally will object to M. Renan's total ords; and that imagination will not be M. imagination of the character of Christ that Renan's. Unless we are mistaken, the com- it lacks tremendousness and strength. Alplaint in this quarter will generally be that bert Dürer and the German painters generalM. Renan’s interpretation of the character 'ly had quite a different ideal of Christ from and life of Christ is too merely sweet, too that of the painters of the Latin nations, idyllic, too French. * Son caractère aim- and rejected or greatly subordinated the able,” says M. Renan in one place, “et, sans “ ravissante figure” and the “prédication doute, une de ces ravissantes figures qui ap- suave et douce" by which these painters set paraissent quelquefois dans la race juive, so much store. In this matter, among the faisaient autour de lui comme une cercle de readers of M. Renan's book, there will, we fascination auquel personne, au milieu de fancy, be Albert Dürers yet

OUR DUTY TOWARDS OUR NIGGER.--The dif- practising just what the Apostle tells them a ferent clergy of the Confederate States have rather sarcastic significance. The pretence of addressed a manifesto to their “Christian Breth- obedience to St. Paul in upholding Slavery and ren” throughout the world against the Yankees. resorting to Secession, certainly does sound As against the Yankees, there is perfect truth in something too much like the combination of a this protest; but there is one part of it which as- snufile and a sneer.-Punch. serts Slavery to be a providential institution. This winds up with a quotation from the First of THE stream of Anti-Renan publications still Paul and Timothy on the very different matter flows on in France. There have been several of servitude as it was in Timothy's diocese, pre- fresh ones last week, though not so many as in scribing rules for the conduct of servants, de- the preceding week. One of M. Renan's opponouncing any man who should teach otherwise, nents, M. Delaporte, “Professeur de Dogme a la and ending with the words “from which with- Faculté de Bordeaux, " has published, in addidraw thyself.". . Whereupon these evangelical tion to a pamphlet against M. Renan, another gentlemen subjoined the following observa- tract, with this special title, “ Le Diable existe

t-il, et que fait-il?” a tract, which should be

worth seeing “ That is what we teach; and obedient to the last verse of the text, from men that “teach otherwise '-hoping for peace—we withdraw'

THE second volume of the Baron de Bazanourselves.”

court's French military history of the Crimean

expedition has just left the press. The inverted commas with which these reverend divines accentuate their extracts from the As was to be expected, M. Renan's “ Vie de apostolic text in taking them to themselves, ap, Jésus” has been prohibited by the “ Congregapear to give their profession of preaching and tion of the Index* at Rome.



From The Saturday Review. the east stretches the chain which divides the NOTES FROM THE ALPS IN 1863. Valais from Italy. Right in our front, but A BLOCK of ice placed on a dinner-table con- separated from us by the entire valley of the veys a sense of freshness which has no adequate Rhône, is a tower of rock—the " barometer physical cause. The solid mass acts on the im- of this neighborhood; for when it is clear of agination, and through it refreshes the system. clouds the inhabitants of these Alps prepare And could we but convey a mere image of the for fair weather. It now stands upon an emscene now before us, it would probably, in inence bare and alone, like one of the “ round like manner, refresh our readers in the thirsty towers of other days " sung of by Thomas atmosphere of London. The sky is without Moore. Its formation probably illustrates a cloud, and the sun shines down upon the the formation of the Alps themselves, being green bills with concentrated power; but in sculptured by the weather from the mass to front of and beyond the valley at our feet, which it first belonged. These mountains the everlasting snows defy his action. There assuredly were never lifted in their present they settle by degrees into firm ice, which forms by the operation of subterranean forces. stretches in frozen tongues along the valleys No man of philosophical mind will assume down to the habitations of men. Grandest that under every pinnacle and under every of all the eminences in view, set in the crys- chain a special focus of action existed which tal air as if it were but air of denser charac- raised that pinnacle or that chain above the ter, is the Weisshorn—a magnificent snow surrounding level to its present elevation. It cone buttressed all round by mountains, each may suit the poet to speak of a mountain beof which, though here subdued in the pres- ing raised like a bubble from the earth's molten ence of the grander central mass, would, if centre, but the physical investigator sees in planted in Cumberland, dwarf Helvellyn to a the present mountains residual forms which hillock. Next to the Weisshorn, on the left, ice and water, acting through geologic ages, is a lonely pyramid merely sprinkled with have carved from a general protuberance, snow, the steepness of its sides rendering ac- raised in this portion of Europe by forces opcumulation impossible. Compared with this erating through the whole area now occupied dark chieftain of the Alps, the Weisshorn, by the Alps. and the noble cones of the Mischabel to the The pastures seem all alive; for every blade left of it, seem friendly to man. Indeed, each of grass there seems a jumping or a buzzing of these has already felt the foot of the moun- insect-playful, harmless flies, which sip the

its head; but the black pyramid dew and feed upon the honey of the flowers, of the Matterhorn is still a virgin fortress or thirsty bloodsuckers, which worry and which has hitherto repulsed every attack. poison you if you let them. And here they There is something mystical in its isolation, jump and fly and chirrup regardless of man, and perhaps it is well for the enjoyment of coming with the summer and vanishing with those who love the mountains that one wild the winter, asking no man's leave and minispeak should remain to which they can look tering to no man's needs-appearing here by up with the wonder which attaches itself to a patent as valid as that which authorizes the unexplored.

man himself to set his foot upon the earth. To the left of the pointed “ horns ” of the And all man's powers, both physical and Mischabel is the Alphubel, called a “ Tanz- mental, are here mirrored in a distorted or berg" by the guides, from the circumstance microscopic form. They eat, they fight, they that a dance might be held upon its flattened caress, they devour each other, they plan, head. It is the frustrum of a mountain, the they build. The same powers which in the upper third of the cone being sliced away as human form find their culmination are preif by the horizontal sweep of a scimetar. sented here in rudiment. Then comes the crown of the Alleleinhorn, We have spoken of the Alps being sculpt-. here of scarcely sufficient prominence to break ured to their present forms by the action of the sky-line; then the odd-looking Rympfisch- ice and water. To state the magnitude of horn-mainly snow, but with a crag stuck like the ice operations to which this region was: an oblique feather in its white cap. Then once subjected would be to raise a smile of the huge mass of the Fletschhorn, and so on incredulity on the countenances of the majorto the Monte Leone, while many a league to ity of those who visit the Alps. From the

taineer upon

spot where we sit to the bottom of the valley of the Artic circle now embraces Greenlandis a vertical depth of at least three thousand sending glaciers down to the sea, where the feet. The valley is now covered with trees ice detached itself in iceberge which floated, and verdure; wooden villages dot it all over, laden with boulders and débris, over the and on the green Alpine slopes the merry neighboring ocean? So great were these opcow-bells tinkle; yet every square foot of erations that an important portion of the this fair region was once occupied by ice. strata of England is composed of the material Look to those rocks—their edges are not deposited by the liquefied “ bergs.” The sharp and cliffy like those upon the crest of presence of so much ice naturally suggests yonder ridge. They are unnaturally smooth. the operation of intense cold, and to account All their asperities have been ground away, for this cold the intellects of philosophers and by what? By a vast glacier which once have long been exercised. Two very famous filled this valley to the brim, which also held speculations may be noted here. Suppose a possession of the basin now occupied by the thermometer plunged in space and defended Lake of Geneva, and which rolled its frozen completely from the action of the sun-say waves over the plain of Switzerland till it at a point of space so distant from the sun met a barrier on the distant chain of the that his heat is insensible. That thermomeJura. Down the valley the glacier moved, ter would indicate the temperature of that with slow but resistless energy. It was the particular portion of space which it occupied. moulding-plane which rounded these rocks ; Let it be removed to another distant region it was the plowshare which scooped out these -it would here show the temperature reignhollows in the hill sides, and left behind it ing in its new position. Now, some philosothose long ridges of moraines. This mighty phers have supposed that different portions tool, operatinz through the uncalculated ages of space possess different temperatures ; and of the glacial epoch, must have profoundly as it is known that the entire solar system is modified the surface over which it passed. moving through space with enormous velociWere that protuberant surface perfectly uni- ty, it has been thought that it passes, during form, and were it composed of materials of the ages of its transit, sometimes through the same hardness throughout, the water colder sometimes through warmer regions of falling on it or the ice moving over it would space. The theory of the glacial epoch from have planed it uniformly down ; but there this point of view is, that while crossing one is nothing uniform in nature. Such a swell- of the cold portions of space, the temperature ing of the land as we have supposed must of our system became so much lowered as to have its accidents — its fissures, eminences, produce the vast glaciers whose traces now hollows, and undulations—accidents, in short, fill us with wonder. Other philosophers which determine the direction in which wa- again have accounted for the cold hy briefly ter or ice spread over its surface must move. assuming that the emission of heat from the Once committed to a line of motion, the wa- sun is not constant-that the heat emitted in ter or the ice widens and deepens its track, some ages exceeds that emitted in others, and in this track erosion goes on. Thus the and that the glacial epoch appeared during valley sinks and the adjacent eminences rela- one of the periods of feeble solar emission. tively rise, and thus we believe, in the course The philosophers who advance this theory do of geologic epochs, those mountains have been not attempt to account for the variation of carved from a formless wen. To sum up, the heat which they assume ; but, given the feeforces underneath swelled this portion of Eu- ble emission, they consider that those vast rope into a protuberance more or less broken, masses of ancient ice follow as a matter of no doubt; and then the command was given course. to the elements to chisel this mass into moun Here, however, they are radically wrong. tains and gorges, into mighty pyramids and Indeed, both of the hypothesis referred to far-stretching ranges of hills. The elements originated in too close a contemplation of the obeyed, and the result of their operations is nearest facts. The presence of ice suggested the Switzerland of to-day.

80 strongly the operation of cold, that the But whence were the mighty masses of ice equal and opposite operation of heat which derived which in former ages covered Switz- the formation of glaciers necessarily involves erland, and even our own islands, as the ice was forgotten. Whence came the ice of

those ancient glaciers ? From the same i would raise 5lbs. of cast-iron to its melting source as that which feeds the glaciers now point. We thus arrive at the indubitable existing-namely, from atmospheric snow. result that every glacier, ancient or modern, Whence came this snow? From the conden- required, as a first step towards its formation, sation and congelation of atmospheric vapor. the outlay of an amount of solar heat compeWhence came this vapor ? From the action tent to raise a mass of cast iron five times the of the sun's heat upon the aqueous portions weight of the glacier to its fusing point.of the earth's surface. Thus, tracing the Imagine the glaciers removed, and the white glacier to its origin, we find that origin to hot metal in their places. Imagine, for exbe the heat of the sun. You cannot have a sample, the Grand Aletsch glacier and its nosingle pound of the ice, either of ancient or ble tributaries all displaced—and the Jungof modern glaciers, produced without the frau, Monk, and Eiger, the Aleleschhorn, previous evaporation of a pound of water by Gletscherhorn, Trugberg, and the numerous the sun.

And simply to reduce a pound of other mountains which send their annual water from the liquid to the vaporous condi- snows into the main valley, all wrapped in a tion requires as much heat as would raise casing of cast iron at a welding temperature, nearly 6lbs. of ice-cold water to its boiling until a quantity of this iron five times the point. Expressed in another form, every one mass of the present glacier and its nutritive of those ancient glaciers involved in its pro- snows should load their shoulders and fill the duction a quantity of solar action able to valley—it would express the exact amount raise a mass of cast-iron five times the weight of solar action which has been expended in of the glacier to the white heat of fusion. the production of the present glacier. And It is perfectly manifest from this reasoning to express the solar action involved in the that, by reducing the emission of heat from production of the ancient glaciers, we should the sun, or by plunging the solar system need an incalculably greater amount of the into

space of a low temperature, we should be white hot metal. Supposing the material cutting off the glaciers at their source ; we thus changed—supposing that, instead of should be rendering in possible the very first being filled with the ice, the valleys had been step necessary to their formation by the en- filled and the mountains clothed with the feeblement of the agent which generates the iron—then the diminuation of the quantity aqueous vapor. The process is one of pure of the heated metal from the glacial epoch to distillation, and no distiller would think of the present time would naturally lead to the augmenting the quantity distilled by taking inference that solar action was becoming less. the fire from under his boiler. Still, this is And if we adopted the hypothesis of differreally what they do who would produce great ent space-regions of different temperatures, glaciers by the destruction of solar heat. we should have to assume that it was during Let us put the question in another form. the glacial epoch that the region of high We know from experiment the exact amount temperature had been traversed. Thus, by of heat necessary to evaporate a pound of simply changing the material, and without water, and we also know the exact amount in the least degree altering the quantity of of heat necessary to raise a pound of cast- heat expended, we should be led to a reveriron from its ordinary temperature at the sal of the hypothesis which would account earth's, surface to the white heat of fusion. for the glacial epoch hy supposing that durComparing both together, we find that the ing its continuance the solar system was heat necessary to evaporate 1 lb. of water passing through refrigerated space.

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