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“ The Tiger.

have the complexity of experience. “Blake “ Tiger, tiger, burning bright,

is damned good to steal from," said Fuseli ; In the forests of the night;

and so he was. For his pictures were all à What immortal hand on high *

priori, suggesting new ideas, new lights, new Framed thy glorious symmetry?

combinations of things in infinite variety of “ In what distant deeps or skies

movement and expression, but only giving Burned that fire within thine eyes! On what wings dared he aspire ?

the form, the base, the à priori idea on What the hand dared seize the fire ?

which others could engraft a deeper complexAnd what shoulder and what art

ity of human experience. His human faces

are almost all natural types, instead of girCould twist the sinews of thy heart? When thy heart began to beat

ing infinitely blended shades of expression. What dread hand formed thy dread feet? His idea of a good man is a very simple idea, “ What the hammer, what the chain,

-an innocent Adam, such as he paints Job Knit thy strength and forged thy brain ?

in all his phases of anguish, terror, hope, and What the anvil? What dread grasp

trust. His idea of a good woman was of an Dared thy deadly terrors clasp ?

emanation of the man," who, like Mrs. • When the stars threw down their spears,

Blake, would give herself up to reflecting the And watered heaven with their tears, masculine will. “ In eternity,” he said, in Did He smile His work to see?

his usual peremptory way, " woman is the Did He who made the lamb make thee ? " emanation of the man ; she has no will of There are more beautiful things than this in her own; there is no such thing in eternity Blake's poems, but few that show so strongly as a female will." Blake was always/santhe elemental sort of energy that breathes in guine. the author of the “ Inventions to Job,” as

The book is by many degrees the greatest well as the glimpses of pure beauty, through monument of unique though creative genius the parting shadows of divine strength.

we have read for many a day, and it is with But while Blake is singularly great in im- difficulty we can lay it down. Let those who parting a kind of temporary soul to things, would understand Blake, after studying his (for example, one of his most marvellous con- own letters, poems, and pictures read the ceptions in a small way, is his vision of the wonderfully graphic and delightful extracts ghost of a flea, that is, the human counte- from Mr. Henry Crabb Robinson's journals nance of a man so bloodthirsty that he had of interviews with him. There you see the been, said Blake, transformed into a fea in real picture of the visionary, mounted on the order to limit the amount of mischief he could clear field of a shrewd, Incid, and yet genueffect by his thirst for blood,--and certainly inely literary intellect, deeply impressed with he seems to need it, his cruel head and re- the genius of the artist. One of Mr. Robintreating forehead looking something like a son's anecdotes is too characteristic to be lost. man in unclosed visor, while his opened mouth. When Blake in his usual visionary way, reveals a double round saw adapted to the had been telling of a spiritual interview with most horrible rending),—while Blake, we

Voltaire, Mr. Robinson asked suddenly what say, is singularly great in thus imparting a language Voltaire spoke. “To my sensatemporary soul to things, it is very rarely, tions," said Blake, “it was English. It was indeed, that his pictures and poems are in- like the touch of a musical key: he touched it, stinct with what we call experience. One set probably, French, but to my ear it became of his poems are called " Songs of Experi- English." The visionary, it will be scen is as ence,”—but they are rather songs of a man

acute in dodging a snare as fraud itself. revolted by the attempt to gain experience

It is not easy to praise too highly the finish and determined not to gain it. So, too, his given to the unfinished work of Mr. Gilchrist pictures are full of elemental symbols and by Mr. Rossetti's artistic and poetic band. thoughts and natural emotions, - but never

He sums up the peculiar genius of Blake in

two or three lines of such truth and beauty * Mr. Rossetti prints this—"what immortal hand that we will close our notice with them. or eye." Certainly this is not

the version to which the man, he says, who can understand and The eye might discern, but could not frame the tiger's enjoy Blake's pictures will gain from them symmetry.

some things as he first knew them, not en

cumbered behind the days of his life; things poetical greeting from his own highest genius too delicate for memory or years since for- as an artist :gotten ; the momentary sense of spring in winter sunshine, the long sunsets long ago,

6. But there's a tree, of miny, one, and falling fires on distant hills.” That is

A single field which I have looked upon,

Both of them speak of something that is gone ; Blake's essential function,-to recall by paint

The pansy at my feet ing,—now and then by poetry,—that lost Doth the same tale repeat ; sense described by Wordsworth, which moved Whither is fled the visionary gleam? Blake, says Mr. Robinson, to “hysterical Where is it now, the glory and the dream ?” rapture,”-and well it might, for it was a

Among the communications of great interest the soil are planted with trees ; while in the The which have recently been presented to the French iss provinces only about 0.03 have any at all. Academy, M. Blanchet's continuation of his re- By detailed statistical items the lecturer further searches on the application of the catheter to dis- proved incontestably the close relation of tree eases of the duodenum must here be recorded. plantations and the distress in special counties. The first four operations of this kind, attempted for the first time by M. Blanchet, were either to facilitate the expulsion of foreign bodies fixed in

MR. Wenham has communicated the following the digestive tube, or to remove certain intestinal note, most interesting to microscopists, to the obstructions, and re-establish the circulation of Microscopical Journal for October : Some the contents of the intestine. The sensations ex- years ago, in one of my communications to the perienced by the patients seemed to prove sufïi- society (On obtaining Photographs of Microciently that the probe had penetrated considera- scopic Objects), I mentioned the very peculiar bly beyond the pylorus. Experiments made upon

distinctness with which markings on test-objects a dead subject have, in fact, shown that there were shown on the screen, and expressed my opinwas no serious difficulty in penetrating with the ion that the photographs might aid in determinæsophagian probe, the duodenum, and the first ing their structure. Dr. Maddox's remark having part of the jejunum. This new mode of cathet- revived this impression, I placed my microscope erism will be an assistance in the diagnosis of or- in strong sunlight, illuminated the object with ganic affections of the pylorus and of the intestine, the concave mirror and an achromatic condenser of contraction, tumors, obstructions, etc.; it will of large aperture. As a consequence, the illuallow nutritious and medicinal substances to be mination was so intense that no object could be carried below the pyloric orifice, when they can- looked at directly through the microscope, as the not be supported by the sick stomach ; it will eye would not endure the light for an instant. allow of the evacuation of the gases which To look for markings was precisely like attemptsometimes accumulate in the intestine, and are ing to discern spots on the sun's disc through a productive of serious results. M. Blanchet's telescope without the protection of sun-glas; fifth operation was for the purpose of introducing but, by taking the red and green glasses off iny into the small intestines below the duodenum sextant (which, combined, gave a pleasant neusome nourishment for a sick person whose stom- tral tint to the sun), and laying them on the ach was incapable of taking anything.

caps of the eye-pieces, the light was toned down to just the right pitch, and the markings on all

the most difficult tests were easily and quickly Tile eminent Hungarian agriculturalist, Ladis- brought out with remarkable distinctness.

In laus von Korizmick, at the recent meeting of Hun objects of extreme difficulty, the parabolic congarian physicians and naturalists in Pesth, read denser may be employed, directing the sunlight a paper on the present drought in Hungary.

with the plane mirror. With the achromatio After first pointing out that the meteorological

condenser and direct sunlight, the sap circulaconditions in 1790 were the same as those of the tion in Anacharis is beautifully shown." This present year, he stated the want of plantations note of Mr. Wenham's is followed by another of trees and the unequal division of water to be from Mr. Maddox, which renders it very evident the chief reasons of this misfortune. Of the en- that this method of observation is of much more tire country of Hungary, only 22.66—at most importance than its very great simplicity would 23-parts are planted with trees, which in itself ead us to imagine. would not be so bad a proportion were the plantations not so unequally divided. In the Marma “ Dieu le Veut : Croisade pour la Pologne,” rose Comitate, for instance, about 23 parts of by Belmontel, has appeared.

From The Saturday Review. that are most fastidious. Indeed, it depends REFINEMENT.

on the age he lives in whether a man of this It is a received opinion that ours is a re- quality of mind is coarse, as he would have fined age. Our manners, our language, our been a hundred and fifty years ago, when it social arrangements, all that meets eye and was permitted to him to utter bis ideas, or ear, testify this of us in notable contrast to fastidiously refined, as he is now, when he former times, of which we read, and on which can only imply them and act upon them. It we speculate, with a shudder. There are is the habitual occupation of the thoughts that writers who, allowing to Shakspeare ideas in constitutes the difference between the two. advance of his time, argue that his more del- That mind is refined which exercises itself by icate feminine conceptions must have been preference on noble things—which recoils drawn absolutely from imagination, not only from impurity, but never looks for it, and, unassisted by, but in spite of, his observation where it is possible, eliminates the gross from and experience of womankind--so utterly lost what it sees, and dwells on its purer aspect. in the grossness of plain-speaking, beef and That mind is unrefined, whatever its pharisaale, were the ladies in those old days of ruff ical pretensions to a discriminating purity, and fardingale, from which we find ourselves that sees only the low and material in things separated by a gulf of restraints and scruples. which have a fair and perhaps an elevated Now refinement, if it means purity of mind side to them. Refinement is not suspicions reflected in the manners, is indeed the most or jealous; simple minds alone can really poscxquisite form and mark of progress; but sess it as a characteristic; and thus it conwhen people boast of refinement, is it refine- stantly sees only fair where others see foul, ment that they mean? Could an individual, and can sympathize with the one pity-stirred at any rate, boast of refinement and at the human heart in the unwashed multitude, same time possess it? We think pot. Re- absolutely forgetful that it is unwashed, finement, like modesty, consists in negatives. while fastidiousness prides itself on smelling It is not coarse, or rude, or impure. It ex- the mould beneath the rose. Refinement is presses a nature free from base earthy alloy, poetry; fastidiousness is often very bare prose in wbich case the precious ore shows itself indeed. It is good to have to do with the necessarily without consciousness or effort. really refined, whose simple, trusting tone And this very unconsciousness is a safeguard and manner argue a mind free from taint, at once froin contamination and from suspi- seeming to say,cion; so that in no age is individual refine- “ By the pattern of mine own thoughts I cut out ment impossible. Refinement is not quick to The purity of his.” impute evil; it interprets what it sees on the It is a very different sensation to find ourselves principles of charity. A man is not more with persons who, under studied smoothness refined than another for suspecting the loaf and polish, and affected delicacy of expreshe eats because human hands have kneaded sion, betray a consciousness of all they depit, and assuming, therefore, that the kneader recate, and disclose thoughts at work on dead was a dirty fellow. In truth, refinement, men’s bones-with an assumption, moreover, being clean itself, supposes that others are that other people's thoughts are similarly clean, also, until forcibly undeceived-in- occupied. deed, resolutely prefers to trust, rather than To our mind, we are too busy just now lookhave the imogination polluted by the repul- ing into the wrong side of nature, breaking sive details of over-curious investigators, and our pretty things to see what they are made would sooner swallow one spider, whether of, and also too complacently absorbed in our moral or physical, in ignorance, than have necessary purification, to possess true refinethe gorge perpetually rising at possible spi- ment, though we may be in the way to it. ders. When persons or nations boast of re- If refinement is purity of thought, it cannot finement, they are proud, not of being re-, conduce to it to be forever on the lookout for fined, but of being fastidious. Now we know the impure. Let us ask, for instance, if those that fastidiousness passes with some minds perpetual allusions to the “ tub," and to our for little more than a mere synonym for re- frequent washings, which pervade our light finement; it is refinement carried to excess. literature are not a mistake, a grossness, an But really it is often the least pure minds impertinence, and, besides, an adınission that

cleanliness is not a mere matter of course, but Irlaing not only to partake of the general re a new national accomplishment. The Dar. finement of the nineteenth century, but to be dani, we are told, washed but thrice in their in advance of all the rest of mankind, and existence-when they were born, when they more especially of the mother country, in this married, and when they died. If suddenly elegant particular. Refinement in New York converted to the more domestic and familiar and Boston is ahead of us all ; and so, no uses of ablution, would they not make it a doubt, it is, under a certain interpretation great subject of conversation, write about of the term—that is, people think more there their new virtue as we do, and boast over of words and things unrefined and suggestive their neighbors who still esteemed the bath a of improprieties than any other nation under ceremonial and typical institution ? And, on the sun. the other hand, when a generation or two Every record of antiquity shows us how had washed themselves, would they not get much men's ideas have changed in matters to treat their cleanliness as a matter of course, connected with this subject, and we are ready and prefer ideas less connected with the im- to grant that the West, in more senses than purities of poor human nature to think of and one, is furthest from the East, the New to talk about? When we have settled ah World from the Old, in its notions of what manures, and made our drains, and finished is graceful and permissible. It has more building our baths and wash-houses—when entirely broken away from primitive habits we have left off smelling and sniffing with of thought, and especially from that 'deepthat nose in the air which is the characteris- seated reverence for the sacredness of the tic of prosaic nicety, we may then hope for body which marks the earliest antiquity-a refinement. At present, perhaps, it is no sacredness which pure, lofty imagination alblame to the pioneers of this grace that they ways recognizes, and which fastidiousness exalt their own trade, and believe in nothing ignores. The Hebrew poet ennobles the but leather. Nevertheless, as a fact, an ex- lowly offices, the humble services, the inevipert in this line, who spends his life in ex- table pains and sorrows of humanity, and posing our negligences, sees nothing but dirt makes them symbols of the unseen, the imand impurity wherever he goes. He lives in mortal, the divine. American refinement a conscivus, heart-and-soul encounter with wonders how this can be. It cannot com them ; every object takes this one color. Our prehend this poetizing of things that modold homes are not, with him, the haunts of ern civilization has agreed to keep out of memory, hung about with associations, but sight - this exaltation of the humblest inmere pest-houses, gathering on their neglected evitable incidents of humanity into parables, and unsuspected walls the physical traces of making them the expressive figures of high diseased humanity. If he were to penetrate mysteries; and it betrays its perplexities into the bower of the Sleeping Beauty herself, accordingly. It knows nothing of that trans those tresses and closed lids of hers would figuring power of highly wrought, vigorous have no power over his imagination. His imagination which can hold its conceptions attention would be wholly engrossed by sinks in their original shape; unsoiled and unand drains unflushed for generations, by to changed by the suggestions of sense, and, kens of defective ventilation on the staircase, therefore, finds itself at odds with the lanand by the crying necessity for a new coat of guage that expresses it. It is this strength paint and whitewash over walls on which of grasp which strikes us as especially wantfaint odors and accumulated breathings had ing in the American mind. It may be said mantled and generated miasmas for a hun- to be wanting in the modern mind altogether, dred years. And if we are thus occupied but, in so far as we are less " refined" than with physical impurities, what shall we say our cousins, we have not so utterly lost it. of that moral cesspool into which it has Nothing illustrates what we mean more than pleased the politest of our neighbors to pry the changes which the American Episcopal and inquire with a growing ardor through Church has thought it fit and necessary to the greater part of this so-called age of re- make in our Book of Common Prayer to finement ? But it is not on them that our adapt it to the finer sensitiveness of American thoughts at present rest in connection with congregations-changes which make us conthis subject. The New World, it seems, scious of a connection with past ages and

primitive habits of thought which the de-quiry as to what goes to the composition of scendants of the Pilgrim Fathers have re- them, still more strikingly reveals itself. f nounced, esteeming themselves all the better Swift had written this, we might have called and purer for the breach.

it coarse. And this reminds us that perhaps There is not, at first sight, much in com- there is no test so unfailing whereby to dismon between the social decorums of Cincin- tinguish between true refinement and its pati and the far West as portrayed by Eng- counterfeit as the jest and badinage with lish satirists—where it is shocking to name which each is apt to point its conclusions. a shirt, and the piano's legs are put into pet It must be granted that the quality that ticoats - and the elegant refinement of the most often gets called refinement is a thing accomplished author of “ Transformation.” of manners, and not of soul. This was the Yet we cannot read his works, especially his refinement to which Burke gave a half-allelatest work, without being aware of an affin- giance, though he knew that vice lay hid ity between the two. He is revolted where beneath. Yet the best acting here simulates we should not be revolted, and he beholds nothing — it is a mere freedom from oppowhat is coarse and base beneath things where sites. Nobody can describe refinement, or our eyes are content to rest on the outside, can pretend to be refined by definite acts or and see no harm. In both, there is a certain positive statements. We doubt if the idea fuss about refinement which seems to inter- is once put into words by Shakspeare. When fere with poetry and sentiment. In both, a he would convey it to us, it is cunningly curiosity to look too far into all the bearings done by contrasts ; as where Perdita—who, and all the possible suggestions of an object if not a picture of the refined lady, the real interferes with the simple appreciation of princess, of that day, was surely prophetic its fair appearance or obvious uses. And it of our own ideal—is shown in her graceful, is uniformly when Mr. Hawthorne's patriot- oaiet serenity, not directly, but through the ism is prominent that this family feature upbraiding memories of her foster-father, as shows itself. When he cannot look on the she recalls the former mistress of the revels smooth shoulder of an English girl, and thx.t and her energetic bustlings from end to end skin of hers, whiter than snow, without spec of the long table of guests : ulating on the amount of " clay” beneath

“ Now here, that rounds its outline, he shows himself an At upper end o' the table, now i' the middle; American, and not of the Old World, whether On his shoulder, and his; her face o’ fire island or continent. We are content to ad- With labor, and the thing she took to quench it.” mire beauty without a thought of what lies In one sense, refinement must always have beneath the surface; but transatlantic imag- been a shifting, changing, perhaps progresination must analyze; and when he boasts sive, quality. The refined of one age may that his eye cannot rest on maturer dimen- quite innocently shock the scruples of ansions without a thought of what the sur- other; but all true refinement must be based geon's (or perhaps not the surgeon's) knife on the same early habit of selection and exwould reveal beneatk,—which he declares to clusion—a habit formed before thought can be an irresistible impulse in the presence of array itself in a garb of reasons, or before British female embonpoint,--the national the- the judgment can consciously criticise the ory of refinement, intolerant of vulgar weight words and actions of others. and bulk, and sparing no minuteness of in

MESSRS. HUNT AND Co., of Holles Street, will / Messrs. MoxON AND Co. have in the press The shortly publish, in one vol. 8vo., under the gen- Poetical Works of the late W. Mackworth Praed, eral title of The Distinctive, Protestant Principals M.P., collected by his Widow, prefixed by : of the Church of England, eight Essays, by Canon Memoir by the Rev. Derwent Coleridge. We unStowell, the Rev. J. C. Miller, the Rev. W. R. derstand they will also publish a selection of Fremantle," tho Rev. T. R. Birks, the Rev. W. Poems by Mr. Monckton Milnes, who is now Cadman, the Rev. E. Garbett, the Rev. E. Bay- Lord Houghton. ley, and the Rev. J. Bardsley.

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