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From The Saturday Review. it is upon the English coast. But, at the BATHING ABROAD AND AT HOME. same time, it loses its characteristic freedom. It is by trifles that national character is Like every other action in the life of a French most distinctly shown. All the more ela b- citizen, it is tremendously. regulated by the orate and important institutions of nations Government, and it is as much made the have a tendency to assimilate to each other. opportunity for the display of a Frenchman's The results of reasoning and reflection will be gregarious tastes as any other part of the . the same in all countries ; and the arrange- day's employment. There is no period of the ments which are the result of them cannot, twenty-four hours at which the beach looks in the end, differ very much. But in the so gay, so full, so picturesque, as during the smaller matters of life, the subjects of merc; bathing time, and at the place which a patercaprice and taste, a nation's spontaneous ten- nal administration has selected as the most dencies make themselves very plainly seen. suitable. Perhaps what makes it the liveliest Bathing—a subject with which, as actors or is the curious costums in which many of the spectators, a considerable number of our read- figures upon it
appear. ers will be familiar just now-curiously il The government has taken the observance lustrates the difference of the two nations of decency under its own protection, and prewhich, in more important matters, are grad- scribes with accuracy the apparel to be worn. ually drawing more close together. The two It looks a comical kind of decency to English systems are much valued by the two nations; eyes. The men are dressed in a sort of trouand the plan of one is wholly intolerable to sers and jersey all in one, which differs from the other. The Englishman cannot endure ordinary garments of that description chiefly the restraints of the French system, and the in being much too short in the legs and arms. Frenchman boldly sets down all our talk about This arrangement seems to be a compromise morality as humbug when our laws and cus- between the government's appreciation of toms tolerate such outrages upon decency as decency and the natural human desire to be are witnessed at an English watering-place. as naked as possible in the water. But to a To an Englishman the charm of his system is stranger, it looks as if all the male populaits independence. His bathing-machine is tion of the place had been seized with a sudhis castle. The little bit of sea it encloses is den fancy for dressing in the clothes of their his peculiar property. No one can encroach little boys. But they are not the oddest figupon the few cubic feet of water he has ap- ures of the scene. The government, having propriated for the time. If he likes to sally ascertained the minimum of clothing that is forth for a swim, he comes and goes regard- respectable for men, appears to have come, by less of the existence of any one else. It is a kind of mechanical logic, to the conclusion not necessary for bim to take any notice of that a similar quantity is abundant for his most intimate acquaintance who may be women. The result is, that the beach is peobathing in the next machine. He adopts pled with a number of nondescript-looking precisely that amount of clothing or nudity figures, bearing very much the appearance of which comports best with his own idea of short, ill-made men, scantily dressed in chocwhat is comfortable or decent. He need olate-colored serge—a sort of a forked radish take heed of no regulations, and recognize no turned brown from keeping—which it republic opinion in his proceedings. The sea quires some effort of reasoning, on the part and he have it entirely to themselves. That of people who are not habituated to this Parmixture of freedom and seclusion which con- adisaical innocence of costume, to believe stitutes an Englishman's chief happiness finds may possibly be ladies. All these figures its bighest ideal in an English bathing-ma- wander about in the aimless dilatory way chine. To carve out for the time being a which appears to be an integral portion of private property even in the sea, and to have amusement. Some are approaching the water contrived a movable house for the enjoyment with lazy steps, wondering whether it is not of a luxury in which seclusion seemed impos- rather cold, and, in the agonies of deliberasible, is quite a triumph of the national tion, displaying the beauties of their costume peculiarities. In France, the whole spirit of to considerable advantage. Others, who have the scene is changed. The pastime ceases to had their dip, are picking their steps wearily be the isolated, surly, exclusive affair which over the shingle, looking in vain for the
cabane where they may relieve themselves of; “ headers,” sometimes they take “ footers ;'' the dripping garments which cling to their but the fairer portion of creation, unaccusfigures with a tenacity which gives rather a tomed to these athletic feats, is very apt to staturesque effect. All this time, by way of take that compromise between the two to contrast, the beach is full of non-bathers, which Etonians were in the habit of assignwomen dressed as only French women can ing uneuphonious name. It is fair to say that dress-who are come to enjoy the spectacle. all these pastimes are not invariably conducted The contrast between the well-distended cones under the rough manipulation of the muscuof gorgeous drapery which sweep along to lar French baigneurs. Ladies who are fastidand fro across the beach, and the poor brown, ious prefer that the male hand in whose guardripping, bifurcated spectres who are crecping dianship they struggle with the waves shall over the pebbles up to their cabanes, may give be one with which they are not wholly unfaa philosopher food for reflection upon the dis- miliar. Such an arrangement may be cortinction between accidents and substance. If rect, but it is not nearly so comfortable. any anxious parents wish to provide a cure Uninitiated males are much more apt to be upfor some love-stricken youth, let them take set by the waves themselves than to be able him to see the mistress of his affections bath-to give much assistance in the critical moing at a French sea-place. Romance itself ment to their tottering charges. Husband could not survive the sight of the fair one, and wife may often be seen entering the water associated in his mind with graceful move- affectionately hand-in-hand, and returning ments and flowing lines and harmoniou8 col- more speedily than they had intended, clutchoring, emerging from the water in the simili- ing each other in an involuntary embrace as tude of a magnified brown rat on its hind they are tumbled over by some unusually legs, which has narrowly escaped from drown- large wave. Brothers, or even casual friends, ing. Few who have not witnessed it can imag- are put to the same use by ladies who shrink ine how much of feminine beauty can be left from the baigneaur's sinewy arm ; and it is behind by its owner in a cabane.
quite the proper thing for a lady to make an But the scene in the water is stranger still appointment with her male friends for a to English eyes. It looks like some mytho- swimming party, always assuming that her logical picture representing the Tritons car- accomplishments enable her to bear her part rying off the Nereids, or the Satyrs pursuing in it. But experienced bathers do not trust the Nymphs. The first thing that meets the to such a frail support. It is no consolation spectator's eye is several couples in the water, to the fair one who is let go at the critical holding each others' wrists, and to all ap- moment, and washed up by the surf in adpearance struggling violently. One of each mired disorder, that the arm which played of these couples is one of the brown rats we her false was a conjugal or fraternal limb. have described, and whom, by this time, the And after all, it is a pity, when you have spectator has learned to speak of in the femi- gone so far, to distress yourself with any nine gender. The other is a very muscular remnants of English decorum. When you broad-shouldered Frenchman in a sailor's have once persuaded yourself to run the ordress, who appears to look upon the brown deal of walking in the comical tights, into rat as bis own peculiar property. Generally, which your dress is converted by the water he seems to be shaking her violently by the across a large open place, in presence of wrists, and taking the opportunity of each crowds of well-dressed gentlemen and ladies, successive wave that passes to duck her under any further display of fastidiousness is an units crest. Sometimes he is grasping her round necessary injury to your
comfort. the waist ; sometimes he is tugging at one Englishmen, at least, will never be very arm ; sometimes she seems to have been just partial to this system of bathing. They gain cast ashore by a very violent wave close by nothing by it except the very questionable him, and to be lying in a suppliant attitude privilege of being allowed to swim about at his feet. At one end of the cabane, for the among their female friends, both parties disbetter display of manly and feminine forms, guised, par ordre superieur, in a dress of exis erected a spring board, from which these quisite absurdity. Though all opportunities strangely clothed beings, of either sex, are in which the sexes are allowed to mingle freeprojected into the sea. Sometimes they take ly are of course valued by young men on their
promotion, still it can hardly be said that the either sex possess, to face an admiring assemFrench plan of bathing adds anything to their blage of well-dressed and scrutinizing speeopportunities in that respect. It would tators in such a costume. But the fact that hardly be possible to commence an eligible the system exists in France, and has been acquaintance in the sea, or to pursue a prom- carefully arranged by the authorities as a modising flirtation at the moment that both par- el of decency and decorum according to their ties were wading out dripping wet upon the ideas, may teach us a lesson as to the convenshingle. A neighboring cabane might give tional character of those terms, and the danan opportunity for a Pyramus and Thisbe ad- ger of censuring an apparent breach of them venture, if unfortunately the cabanes of the in the customs of other nations. It is diffitwo sexes were not generally kept apart. On cult for an Englishwan to conceive a method the other hand, it is an utter destruction of of proceeding less consistent with his ideas of the comfort of bathing. It is not bathing- strict decorum ; and yet it is adopted by a it is only getting wet through in a rather elab- people who unanimously agree to censure orate manner. Moreover, it requires more him for his outrageous disregard of decency courage than a good many English people of in respect to the same subject matter.
LIFE IN THE ATMOSPHERE.-At a recent meet- weather than after much rain. 4. The tenacity ing of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, Mr. of life of these germs is greater than is supposed James Samuelson, the founder of the Popular by the partisans of the doctrine of spontaneous Science Review, read an account of his experi-generation. This tenacity is especially remarkaments, made for several years on the germs of ble in monads, vibriones, and bacteria, which animals and plants suspended in the atmosphere. sustain life under the most unfavorable circumIn September, 1862, he obtained a great number stances. It is nearly impossible, Mr. Samuelson of rags from all parts of the world, and thereby says, to assign the time after which revivification became possessed of the atmospheric dust of ceases, but when these animalcules are revived Alexandria, Japan, Melbourne, Tunis, Trieste, they are very sensitive of surrounding influences. Peru, etc. On June 26, 1863, he sprinkled some Cold kills them, and the chemical rays of light of this dust on fine muslin in vases of distilled are more favorable to their development than the water exposed to the air. At the same time he calorific rays. The chemical rays do not produce exposed some pure distilled water under glasses, infusoria by spontaneous generation ; but by colored blue, red, and yellow. All the dust pro- promoting the decomposition of the substances duced crowds of infusoria ; and on the dust of submitted to their action, they furnish to the Alexandria a new species was remarked. In already living germs the elements necessary for each vase, for three or four days, a great increase their existence and development. in the amount of life took place, which afterwards gradually diminished. As long as the distilled water under the colored glasses remained A SCHEME on foot in America, the plans for covered, nothing lived in it; but the day after which are being much discussed, is one for the the glasses were removed and dust deposited in preparation, by combined labor, of an absolutely the vases a light sediment was perceived, formed complete catalogue of all the books that have of mineral and vegetable molecules, combined by been published in America to the present time. a transparent pellicule, which gradually enlarged A collateral scheme is for a complete catalogue of and became a multitude of monads. These ani- all the books that have been published anywhere malcules soon became animated and peopled the relating to America ; and the laborer in this field water. From his various experiments Mr. Sam- furnishes what he believes were the first and the uelson draws the following conclusions : 1. The last items in such a catalogue at the date of his atmosphere in all the great divisions of the world writing to wit : “ COLUMBUS : Epistola Cristoferi is more or less charged with representatives of Colom., etc., Mccccxculi.,
,” and “ UTLEY, H. S. : the three kingdoms of nature, mineral, animal, History of Slavery and Emancipation : Philadeland vegetable, with spores and germs of animal- phia (June 18), 1863.” cules, and sometimes, but rarely, with germs of nematoid worms. 2. The infusoria comprise, in a great part, not only the obscure types, known A new edition of “The Friend,” by Samuel as monads, vibriones, and bacteria, but also Taylor Coleridge, in two volumes, will be pubglaucoma, cyclydes, vorticella, etc. 3. The gerins lished in September by Messrs. Moxon and Comare found in the air in greater quantities in dry pany.
From The Spectator. cent of that one, which, nevertheless, weighed MARIE ANTOINETTE'S NECKLACE. heavily against her in the scale of popular CAMILLE DESMOULINS, being in the year prepossession. The story has been widely 1792 reminded of an event which took place spread ; Goethe has made it the subject of a before the States-General were convoked in drama (Der Gross-Cophta), and Alexandre 1789, pointedly remarked, Oh, that was Dumas has told it in his own anti-historical before the deluge !” And truly enough, the fashion. According to the French lawyers French people invariably date their new state who were engaged in the case, and among of existence from the great revolution which whom we have to mention Cremieux, Emile swept a whole world away, as it were, and Leroux, and Dufaure, the affair happened in gave birth to a renovated society. In spite the following manner :of Thierry's researches and Tocqueville's ar Cardinal de Rohan, who seems to have been guments, to that powerful political convul- deeply in love with his queen, had fallen into sion they attribute whatever is grand in their disgrace and was banished from the court. country, whatever is weak in their organiza- This happened in the year 1784, and he was tion. It may be well to read in school-books then fifty-two years old. It was notorious and novels of ancient kings and time-hon- that he could not bear quietly to submit to ored feuds ; but, as far as the France of the his fate, and a bold, intriguing woman, the nineteenth century is concerned, all these Countess de Valois-Lamotte, the last descendstories refer to the epoch“ before the deluge." ant of an old line of kings, as she pretended, It was, therefore, with some degree of curi- resolved to work on his weakness. Helped by osity, not unmixed with bewildering amaze- Cagliostro, she convinced the worldly son of ment, that the civil tribunal of Paris had, a the Church that she was highly favored by few days ago, to listen to the pleadings in a the queen, and undertook to bring about a lawsuit which turned entirely on one of these reconciliation. In the twilight a young Pariantediluvian events. It sounded like a voice sian prostitute, Mademoiselle d'Oliva, who from the nether world, like an echo from the had a slight resemblance to an Austrian archgrave and the scaffold, this case in which some duchess, played the part of the French sovof the most far-famed names in history, be it ereign in the groves of Trianon. The cardifor good or for evil, were handled by unfeel- nal received his pardon, was admitted to kiss ing barristers and shrewd attorneys. Queen the hand of her whom he took for his lovely Marie Antoinette, Cardinal de Rohan, the queen, and rose from his knees intoxicated Duke d’Engbien, even Louis XVI., and the with pride and happiness. Madame de LaCongress of Vienna, not to speak of minor motte understood to perfection how to take luminaries like Cagliostro, the Countess de advantage of the silly vanity of Cardinal de Lamotte, and Mademoiselle d'Oliva, were Rohan ; she asked him, in the name of Marie mentioned in quite an off-hand manner by the Antoinette, at first for a loan of 60,000 livres, glib tongues which are bent on inaking the and then for a second one of 100,000. But, law alternately clear or dim, according as it not satisfied with that telling success, she resuits their purpose. And all that on account solved on striking a great blow. The court of a claim of two millions of francs set up by jewellers, Böhmer and Bassange, were in posthe heirs of Nicolas Gabriel Deville, Secretary session of a unique necklace, set in pearls and of Louis XVI., against the heirs of Louis diamonds, and valued at 1,200,000 livres. René Edouard de Rohan, Cardinal, Grand That splendid ornament had been originally Almoner of France, Prince-Bishop of Stras- destined by the lavish Louis XV. for Madame bourg, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of the Dubarry. But the crowned profligate died in German Empire, Abbot of St. Vaast, and, the interval, and the jewellers finished the set above all, the possessor of a princely fortune. in the hope that the young queen who now
The whole trial revolved on the famous ruled at Versailles might be induced to buy it. necklace affair, for which scandal did by no Marie Antoinette was willing enough to adorn means spare poor Marie Antoinette, then the her pretty person with the glittering collar, flighty and flirting queen of France. Among but still she shrank before the enormous exmany other sins laid to her charge, and of pense, and said to Böhmer, “ We want a ship which she may have been more or less guilty, more than a jewel.” The goldsmiths began she appears at all events to have been inno- to despair of a bargain, when lo ! the 24th
of January, 1785, four months after the Tri-, followed. The cardinal, when he was aranon comedy, Cardinal de Rokan came in rested in the king's Cabinet, sorrowfully experson to inspect the priceless trinket. The claimed, “ I have been deceived, sire; I ask foolish swain had been persuaded by Madame pardon of your majesties, and am willing to de Lamotte that the queen requested him to pay for the necklace.” And, indeed, he conbuy the necklace for her, and he took for sented to give the jewellers an assignment of genuine a badly forged signature, by which 1,919,892 livres on the revenue of his Abbey he was authorized to complete the purchase. of Saint-Vaast, which produced 225,000 livres In fine, he obtained the costly jewel for a year. The jewellers, who were indebted for 1,600,000 livres, agreed on terms of payment, more than a million to M. Deville, the king's and delivered it to the elever trickster, who, Secretary, transferred the assignment to him. of course, promised him to hand it to the But, before the first instalment fell due, the enraptured spouse of Louis XVI.
deluge came over the world, Cardinal Rohan It is matter of history that the necklace lost his ecclesiastical dignities and revenues, was broken into pieces, which were sold in the court goldsmiths became bankrupts, and Paris, in England, and in Holland. When M. Deville never received a farthing. To-day, the jewellers addressed a memorial to the his heirs maintain that they have a claim on king, the fraud which had been practised on the heirs of Louis Rése Fdouard de Rohan. them was immediately discovered, and poor The poor prince of thu Church, “ cardinal by Cardinal de Rohan was conveyed to the Bas- the grace of God and the authority of the tille, together with the two plotting women, Apostolic Holy See,” as he styled himself, Lamotte and d'Oliva, and with Cagliostro and had fled before the flood as far as Ettenheim, some other accomplices. The Grand Cham- a small town in Baden which belonged to bre took up the affair, and put all the parties him. He acknowledged, in an authenticated on their trial on the 31st of May, 1786. document, that the trial before the Grande The cardinal, Cagliostro, and Mademoiselle Chambre, and “ the general confusion and d'Oliva were acquitted. Count de Lamotte, spoliation of all property, sad effects of the the husband, was sentenced to be whipped, French Revolution, which deprived him of branded, and sent to the galleys for the re- all his revenues derived from the bishopric mainder of his life, whilst his wife, the of Strasbourg, his abbeys and all his church daughter of the Valois, received for punish- lands in France, have taken from him the ment, “ to be beaten and scourged with rods, means of paying.” He died in 1803, instihaving a rope around her neck, and whilst tuting by a formal will as universal legatee naked, then marked on the two shoulders the daughter of his cousin, the fair Princess with a hot iron in the form of the letter V., Charlotte Louise Dorothée de Rohan-Rocheand finally to be conducted to the House of fort, known for the deep love with which she inCorrection attached to the Hospital de la Sal- spired the unfortunate Duke d'Enghien, who pêtriere, and detained there forever.” dwelt with her at Ettenheim, where he was
The sentence was rigorously executed, and illegally kidnapped in 1804 by Bonaparte's Madame de Lamotte terrified the public, and gendarmes. even the executioners, by her wild and almost Before the unhappy prince was shot on the unearthly shrieks. Among the curious doc- glacis of Vincennes he begged of one of his uments which were read at the late civil law- executioners to give the princess a ring, some suit of which we are speaking, is the memoir of his hair, and a letter written in his last referring to Cagliostro's share in the affair, moments. On her side, she proved faithful and evidently written by himself. He not to his memory, and remained unmarried to only exculpates himself with remarkable abil- the day of her death, which took place in ity, but dwells also on the romantic incidents 1841. On account of her relation's insolvent in his life, which he relates in the tone of a state she had only accepted the cardinal's inman who affects to believe in himself, and heritance sous bénéfice d'inventaire, that is, on with an extraordinary knowledge of the art condition to pay no more debts than the estate of “getting up
an intricate melodrama. would yield profits, and she bequeathed her So far, almost every one may be assumed to fortune to Prince Armand Meridec Montbazon be more or less acquainted with this strange de Rohan-Rochefort, the father of the princes affair ; the late trial reyealed likewise what, who were defendants in the case.