Page images

Among the landed property appertaining the payment of several debts, and that, thereto the Cardinal Rohan was a small house fore, her heirs were not entitled to the privibuilt on the spot where Turenne fell, near lege of the bénéfice d'inventaire, but ought to Salzbach, and used as a dwelling-place by the be bound to pay two millions, forming the keeper who had to watch over the monument capital and interest of the original debt. erected to the memory of the great captain. But the tribunal decided against them, deIn 1796 the house and the monument were claring that the Princes de Rohan-Rochefort destroyed, but they have been rebuilt since have a right to repudiate the bond given by that time.

the cardinal, because he did not leave suffiLeaving these startling historical souvenirs cient money to redeem it. The judgment for the actual facts of the legal action, we adds, it is true, that the debt was legitimately may shortly record that the heirs and assign- due by Madame Lamotte's dupe ; but that ees of Secretary Deville contended that Prin- appears a poor compensation for two millions cess Charlotte had been very negligent in of francs. business matters, and had omitted to pursue


THE American Publishers' Circular and eral circulation. It is a handsome pamphlet of Literary Gazette (Philadelphia) thus speaks of two hundred pages, and the American papers the swarms of publications in America called speak of it as important. forth by the war : “ It will be interesting to the future bibliographer to note how much of the campaigning of our civil war has been conducted

A NEW and revised edition of Dr. Daniel Wilby books and pamphlets. The number of pub- son’s “ Prehistoric Annals of Scotland,” a standlications of the latter class is beginning to be, as ard work, which won the regard of Hallam, is, Dominie Sampson was wont to say, 'prodigious.' we understand, in course of preparation. The There are pamphlets upon the whole subject, and author, who is now over from Canada on a visit pamphlets upon special topics ; pamphlets upon to this country, is probably using his opportunithe politics, pamphlets upon the law, and pam- ties for collecting fresh matter for the work. phlets upon the gospel, of the controversy ; pamphlets little and big themselves, and by authors big and little, of no name and of famous An American author, Mr. Lossing, living at

The collecting and vending of these Poughkeepsie, N. Y., is to write a large history pamphlets, like the dealing in Congressional doc- of the present American war, as soon as it is uments here, or in blue-books in England, have over, and is making vast and miscellaneous become a new branch of business.” A register collections for the work. of the war-publications hitherto issued has appeared under the title of “ Bibliography of the

Nine parts of this register have been A NEW edition of Mrs. Cowden Clarke's revi. published ; and the items in the ninth part alone, sion of Shakspeare's text is announced for published July 1, are 191. The American Pub-| publication in a single octavo volume. At the lishers' Circular, in view of the fact that such same time a revised reprint will appear of the pamphlets become valuable historically after a American edition, with introduction, notes, and time, recommends that the collection and pres- glossary, in four volumes octavo, upon which ervation of them should not be left to the chance both Mr. and Mrs. Clarke have for some time taste of individuals, but should be undertaken been engaged. by some one in the trade.

Sir LASCELLES WRAXALL is about to publish The third edition of “ An Historical Research a“ Life of Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark," respecting the Opinions of the Founders of the from family papers in his possession, probably American Republic on Negroes as Slaves, as

collected by his grandfather, Nathaniel Wraxall. Citizens, and as Soldiers, read before the Massachusetts Historical Society, Aug. 14, 1862, by George Livermore," has just been published in Mr. Adam BLACK is devoting his lesiure to the Boston. The first edition was for private distri- study of the law of copyright as regards both bution only ; the second was in the form of a literature and art, previously to bringing forpaper among the proceedings of the Massachu- ward a bill on the subject after the meeting of setts Historical Society ; the present is for gen- | Parliament.


do so.

From The Saturday Review. and a very strong one; yet it is not so strong ANNEXATIONS.

but that, under some circumstances, other In looking over the map of Europe, and in ties may prove stronger. So it is with comlooking more especially at those parts of it munity of blood on a great scale. Here, too, whence we hear the cry of “ oppressed nation- community of blood gives a start. The prealities,” we soon meet with facts which speed- sumption is in its favor. The tie of blood ily upset almost any theory that can be put forms a nation more readily than any other forward. In one place, we see artificial tie. Still it is not so strong but that other states formed by the union of several races or ties may sometimes prove stronger. Religportions of several races; in another, we see ious, political, or geographical circumstances countries where union seems required, and not may outweigh the community of blood ; they forbidden by geography, still divided between may turn strangers into countrymen, and several independent powers. There is not one countrymen into strangers. If, then, people among the greater powers which exactly co- of the same blood and tongue are divided, or incides with any strict ethnological division, people different in blood and tongue are nor are there many among the smaller ones brought together, it does not at all follow whic

These are palpable facts, in that the existing arrangement is one to be asserting which we are asserting nothing new. condemned off-hand. But before we can say Nor is there more of novelty when we add whether it is good or bad, we must look much that it does not do to lay down any sweeping more narrowly both into the present circumgeneral rule affirming that all political ar- stances and the past history of each partieurangements which contradict the great theory lar case. of race are in themselves unjust and ought at And here, again, we must give the univeronce to be altered. We have often tried to sal caution against rashly judging either the show that race, though an important element, past by the present, or the present by the past. is only one element among several in the for- An arrangement, whether of union or division, mation of that corporate being-much more .which was thoroughly unjust and inexpedient easy to know when we see it than to define when it took place, may have so turned out which we call a nation. The truth is, that as now to be the best arrangement possible. community of blood on a large scale works It constantly happens that, though it may very much like community of blood on a small not be the best arrangement possible, yet it scale. A man's kinsfolk by blood are not turns out so well that to meddle with it now necessarily the persons in whose company he would do more harm than to leave it alone. takes most pleasure, or with whom he has the So, again, an arrangement which every one greatest number of interests in common. A wants to get rid of now may have had thorman may greatly prefer a friend who has no oughly good reasons for it at the time when known common ancestor to his first cousin, it was made. We must avoid both the dead or even to his brother. But, nevertheless, conservatism which would defend everything kindred counts for a great deal in common now because it may have served a useful purlife. It does not ensure either affection or pose some ages back, and the shallow pseudocommunity of taste ; but it goes a good way liberalism which at once despises the past towards producing the one, and towards some because some of its institutions and arrangetimes producing, sometimes supplying the ments are now a good deal the worse for want of, the other. Community of blood, wear. and still more community of early associa Thus, among the successive annexations tions, gives a man a start. It makes it more made by France, a large portion, in all ages, easy to form a real friendship, if there are have been made in defiance of all existing any materials for real friendship, and it makes rights either of princes or people. They have it more easy to get on with him on kindly often been made distinctly against the will of and familiar terms though there be no real the inhabitants of the annexed provinces, to friendship in the case. A man has, after all, the great injury of other powers, and to the a feeling for one of his own blood which he general danger and disturbance of Europe. has not for a stranger of whom he thinks far Among the countless acquisitions of territory more highly, and in whose company he takes by France, there have not been above two or much more pleasure. The tie is a real tie, three, from the seizure of Lyons to the seiz

ure of Savoy, which we should hesitate to set | thus to identify the conquered with its own down as distinctly unjust. And even the in- people. corporation of fiess within the kingdom, as It is plain, at the first glance, that no inNormandy, Languedoc, and the Duchy of corporation of this kind has taken place with Burgundy, has constantly been the result of the conquests of the Ottomans, or with the practices hardly easier to defend than the ex- various countries which Austria has annexed, ternal aggressions of the Parisian kings upon more commonly by marriage or treaty than the princes and cities of the empire. And by actual conquest. It is equally plain that French annexations have at all times been among the conquests of Russia examples may made more odious by the systematic hypoc- be found of both classes. The Ottomans still risy by which they have been accompanied— remain an army of occupation among conthe boasts, the fallacies, the sophisms, the quered nations. They have failed to amalgarubbish about “ ideas " and such like, which mate any one of the European nations whom make the brute force of Russia, Austria, or they have subdued. Even the Albanians, even Turkey, seem comparatively respectable. who have so largely embraced the religion of Yet the annexations of France are just the the conquerors, have still preserved their own last which any prudent politician would pro- nationality. And this is the more to be nopose to meddle with. The seizure of Savoy ticed because, though the Ottomans have not and Nice is so recent that that wrong might amalgamated a single nation as a nation, they possibly, under some strangely favorable cir- have amalgamated countless individuals of all cumstance, be undone; but the state of the the conquered nations. During the great world must alter wonderfully indeed before days of the Ottoman Empire, the choicest there is any chance of the recovery of Mar- troops of the Sultan were the tribute children, seilles, Besançon, Nancy, or Valenciennes. and renegade Christians enjoyed a decided Mankind may rather think themselves lucky preference for all the highest posts of the if they can still save Genoa and Bern and State. This or that Turk is as likely as not Aachem and Mechlin, alike from the occupa- to be by descent a Greek, a Slave, or even a tion of Parisian garrisons and from the per- Western European. But this sort of incorversions of Parisian tongues. To undo some poration, though it has taken place on an of the wrongs done by Russia or Austria does enormous scale, has still been only an incornot seem wholly hopeless; but to undo any poration of individuals. Not one province of the evil deeds of France, from Philip the has been really incorporated in the way that Fair to Louis Napoleon Buona parte, seems the conquests of France have been incorpobeyond all human power. Nor is this merely rated. So with Austria, where there has because France is a great power with which been no such difference of religion and manit might be dangerous to meddle. France ners as has separated the Ottomans from their would be able to bring forward.a sort of right Christian subjects. Hungary is not a conon her side if any one were to propose the quered country, unless we date its conquest separation of French Flanders or of Franche from 1849 ; and we may say the same of Comté. She would have something to say Venetia. But Venetia will have nothing which Russia and Austria have not to say on willingly to say to an Austrian sovereign in behalf of their possession of Poland or of any shape. Hungary may perhaps receive Venetia. Unjust and violent as was the Francis Joseph as King of Hungary, but it original acquisition, France has never kept will have nothing to say to an“ Austrian Emher conquests in the position of dependent or pire” and its “ Reichsrath.” As for the consubject provinces. They have been fairly in- quests of Russia, the condition of Poland corporated with the kingdom, and have fared speaks for itself, but we hear of no disaffecwell or ill as the rest of France have fared tion in the German provinces on the Balwell or ill. The conquests of France have tic. It is said that an anti-Russian feeling not, like the conquests of some other powers, has lately shown itself in Finland ; if this be proved sources of weakness, but sources of the case, it would be worth finding out how strength. So much the worse for the rest of far the native Fins and the Swedish populathe world when the strength of the aggressortion think alike. Here, then, are some rather is thus increased; but still some praise is puzzling questions. Why can France really due to a conquering power which contrives incorporate her acquisitions, while Austria

can only hold hers as subject dependencies? | to do so, he found that it did not answer. Why does Russia sometimes succeed and France has indeed swallowed up nearly all sometimes fail in incorporating hers? We the people of the old Provençal speech, but may perhaps, by going through all the par- happily she has not swallowed up quite all ticular cases, find something like a general of them, and the people of the Provençal principle; but it must be laid down with great speech never formed a distinct nation as the caution, and we must be prepared to meet Hungarians did. They were cut up into with many paradoxes and exceptions. countless small states—some of them fiefs

In attempting to lay down any rule of the of France, some of the empire. These kind we must, in each case, examine and France has swallowed up one by one, except make allowance for the peculiar circumstances those which still retain their freedom as of each annexation, and the religious, geo- members of the Swiss Confederation. But graphical, and political position of the differ- it is one by one that they have been swalent powers concerned. The Turks incorpo- lowed up-now a county, now a city, but rate individuals, but do not incorporate whole never anything to be called nation. So provinces, for the simple reason of the utter with her acquisitions from Germany and the difference of their religious, moral, and polit- Netherlands; they have been conquests of ical system. Whoever

among the conquered provinces, not conquests of nations. A provwill embrace Islam becomes the equal of the ince like Languedoc or Elsass, a city like conquerors ; whoever refuses to embrace Islam Lyons or Strasburg, may be seized against remains their subject. Now, though count- its own will, but it is not likely to retain its less individuals of all nations have been guilty unwillingness so long as a really independent of apostasy, no one nation, as a nation, has nation. The Duchies, Bishoprics, and Free apostatized. Therefore the nations remain cities were, in one sense, sovereign states ; distinct and subject, while particular men but they were not nations. They were, among them enter the ranks of the ruling even formally, parts of a greater whole, vaspeople. We need not look any further for sals either of the Empire or of the Crown of the inability of the Ottomans to incorporate. France itself. But the Kingdom of HunBut the different fate of French, Russian, and gary recognized no earthly superior ; it was Austrian annexations calls for a little more in every way as distinct a nation as France thought. The idea which they suggest is was. Thus the conquests of France, placed this, that it is easy to annex a province, but from the first on an equality with the elder very difficult to annex a nation. When a provinces, and having perhaps, in some cases, people has acquired the full position of a practically little to lose hy their conquest, nation, with a distinct language, an inde- gradually acquiesced in their position, and pendent government, a place of its own in the are now probably as truly French as Paris or history and politics of Europe, it would seem Orleans. that nothing but brute force can hold it down When the annexation is made hy a State in subjection to another nation. Hungary, of the same race and speech, as when a small for instance, is a distinct nation-an ancient German principality is added to Prussia or kingdom, once free and powerful, with its Bavaria, the power of amalgamation is, of own language, its own history, its own sub- course, easier still. By comparing these two ject dependencies.

classes, we may perhaps find the key to the Such a nation will neyer, of its own free disaffection of Poland, and to what, in the will, sink into the condition of a province of absence of evidence to the contrary, we may an alien power.

Its people will continue to assume to be the loyalty of Livonia. Livonia despise every offer of new and improved lost nothing by being conquered by Russia. Austrian constitutions; what they want is It was no nation, but a province, and a very the observance of their own ancient Hunga- unlucky province. A Finnish people, with rian constitution. Francis Joseph may be a German ruling class, had been tossed backKing of Hungary if he pleases, but the wards and forwards between the knights Hungarians will have nothing to say to him swordbearers, the local bishops, and the as “ Emperor

9 of Austria. Now France kings of Denmark, Sweden, and Poland. has never annexed a nation in this way at For such a province it was really a gain to sit one gulp. When the first Buonaparte tried | down quietly under the dominion of Russia,

with the vast Russian Empire open to them, not the same manifest absurdity as the naand, as its most civilized portion, with great tional independence of Wales. · Its size, its practical advantages over its other inhabi-insular position, the local independence which tants. But Poland suffered all the wrongs of it still partially possesses, the real wrongs of Hungary, and many more wrongs. Hungary the past and the imaginary wrongs of the was not conquered as Poland was ; it has present, all combine to make the incorporabeen rather cheated than beaten out of its tion of Ireland far less perfect than the incorindependence. . And, at any rate, it was not poration of Wales. Scotland, which really cut up alive—not partitioned, but annexed had beeome an independent nation, still rewhole. It would be open to Francis Joseph, mains such. The Union is practically not an if he pleased, to reign as King of Hungary, incorporation, but a very close alliance, from over what is really the greatest portion of his which the smaller party reaps quite as much dominions, and to make Austria the depen- advantage as the larger. The connection of dency instead of Hungary. Alexander could Sweden and Norway, which has turned out not thus make himself King of Poland. The so eminently prosperous, is not a case of anreally Russian part of his dominions could nexation, but rather of Federal union. not be made subordinate to the Polish, and We have said that we must not judge of there would sċill be the Prussian and Austrian what is right or expedient in one age by its stealings to get back again. So with Vene- , causes or its effects in another. The Union tia ; if there were no free Italy adjoining it, just spoken of was the result of a wicked good government might make it acquiesce as conspiracy against Norwegian independence ; readily as Wales acquiesces in incorporation but fortunate circumstances have made it turn with England, or Britanny in incorporation out well. We may doubt whether Vaud with France. The case is different even from gained much by being transferred from the the German acquisitions of France. Their dominion of the Dukes of Savoy. to that of the neighbors were not a single free kingdom, but Patricians of Bern. We


doubt whether other provinces like themselves. The most Chablais lost much when it was handed back liberal offers will be wasted on Venetia just again from Bern to Savoy. The rule of a as much as upon Hungary; it will not will- native despot was probably not more oppresingly send members to a “ Reichsrath” at sive than that of a foreign oligarchy, and it Vienna, when an Italian Parliament sits at was far less degrading to national feeling. Turin, or even at Naples.

But mark the final results. The conquests Even within our own country we may see which Bern retained now form one of the something like the operation of the same law. freest and happiest regions in the world; the The national independence of Wales, at any conquests which Bern lost have sunk into time for the last thousand years, has been a the common bondage of their neighbors. mere chiniera ; and for three hundred years Had the Bear kept as firm a grasp on the past Wales has enjoyed complete equality Southern as on the Northern side of the Lake, with the rest of the kingdom. The retention Europe would not have had to look on in vain of a distinct language has, therefore, not been indignation at the latest--in Europe at least enough to hinder a practical incorporation. of Parisian annexations, nor should we have But though, in the present state of Europe, to tremble lest Geneva should one day share Ireland could not exist as a separate power, the fate of Lyons and Arles and Besançon and yet the national independence of Ireland is Chambery.

« PreviousContinue »