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as usual a number of mammoth squashes, from the following contributors : Jona. Buxton, Samuel Balch, Erastus Ware, Samuel C. Hodgdon, J. Emerson, and Samuel Jenkins.
There was a larger collection of Flowers, particularly the dahlia, than at any former exhibition. They were from Wm. Oakes, of Ipswich, George Spofford, of Georgetown, and Francis Putnam and Henry Wheatland, of Salem. The two last mentioned numbered seventy five varieties. Your committee were highly gratified in witnessing this rare display of beauty ; it is surprising to see the endless varieties which have taken place in this beautiful flower since its introduction from Mexico. We have now all the shades of red, yellow, purple, and from pure white to almost black, but as yet no blue, a color which will probably never be found, because blue and yellow being the primitive colors of flowers, and always exclusive of each other, no blue flowers can change to yellow, nor yellow to blue.
The following gratuities are recommended by your committee:-To Francis Putnam, two dollars; J. M. Ives, three dollars; Samuel Balch, Humphrey Nelson, Andrew Dodge, G. B. Perry, Ephraim Emmerton, A. L. Peirson, Ellen B. Dodge, Samuel Jenkins, Josiah Newhall, Erastus Ware, Jonathan Buxton, Samuel Putnam, and Edward Lander, one dollar each; Robert Manning, William Williams, and John Preston, one dollar and fifty cents each; Moses Pettingel, two dollars.
At no previous time were there such facilities for the disposal of good winter apples and pears. There is no danger of overstocking the market. Railroads and steamboats have opened the way for the disposal of large quantities in the cities of our own country, and also in Europe. Our apples bring good prices in England. The question is often asked, why do not our farmers attend more to orcharding? We apprehend one cause to be in the difficulty of raising
stocks from seed, as so many are often winter killed. Now, although Coxe, Forsyth, and others have deprecated the practice of raising stocks from suckers, we prefer them particularly for pears; their roots, running more horizontal, are not inclined, as are seedlings, to penetrate deeply into a bad subsoil; one of the most practical cultivators of pears in our country is of this opinion, as by far the greatest proportion of trees which have died with him have been worked upon seedlings. If this theory is true, as we presume it is, how readily could our farmers obtain stocks; fine, straight shoots are frequently seen growing from two to five feet from the body of their trees, which could be taken up early in the spring, and budded in August. They should, however, be planted not in a retired and shady nook of their fields, but in their best mellow and rich soil, placing the rows from four and a half to five feet apart, and keeping the ground free from weeds.
On a review of this abundant season which is now about to close, we should be filled with gratitude to Almighty God, who has crowned the year with his mercy and loving-kindness.
JOHN M. IVES. December, 1840,
ON MILCH COWS AND HEIFERS.
The Committee on Milch Cows and Heifers, REPORT:
That they recommend that the society's first premium of ten dollars for the best cow, be awarded to Charles F. Putnam, of Salem.
Second premium of six dollars, to Albert Johnson, of Lynn.
Third premium of four dollars, to Hobart Clark, of Andover.
That the first premium of six dollars, for two year old heifer in milk, be awarded to Daniel Putnam, of Danvers.
Second premium of four dollars, to Parker M. Dole, of Newburyport.
Also, the first premium of three dollars for the best yearling heifer, to Edward Crowninshield, of Danvers.
Second premium of two dollars, to William Thurlow, of West Newbury.
Twelve cows were entered for premium; three heifers in milk, and twenty one other heifers. The exhibition of cows was unusually large, and several of these animals possessed remarkable excellence.Your committee were embarrassed in relation to the best cows, by the fact that Mr. Putnam's calved in October, and Mr. Johnson's in March; thus bringing the best Milking time of Mr Putnam's cow in winter-a season less favorable for a large yield of milk than the summer. Mr. Johnson's cow gave more milk per day during some months of the year, than Mr. Putnam's; but in the seventh month of the milking of Mr. Putnam's cow, she gave 24 quarts more than Mr. Johnson's in the sixth month of her milking-rendering it probable that Mr. Putnam's. cow would yield the larger quantity in a year.Another fact was embarrassing. The statements of Messrs. Putnam and Johnson give us the yield in milk, while Mr. Clark gives his in butter ; consequently it was difficult, if not impossible, to make a satisfactory comparison. Two other cows, one owned by George Spofford, of Georgetown, the other by Josiah Crosby, of Andover, were very good.
CHAS. F. PUTNAM, September 30, 1840 SILAS MOODY.
MR. CLARK'S STATEMENT.
To the Committee on Milch Cows.
GENTLEMEN—The cow which I offer this day for exhibition is ten years old. I purchased her from a drove when a yearling. She calved the present season on the 28th day of May, and her calf was taken from her when three weeks old. The milk of this cow, the first week, produced fourteen pounds of butter; the second, twelve and three fourths. Her first week's produce is present for your inspection. She has had nothing during most of the season but common grass feed. The average weight of her milk now is twenty pounds. Her calf is present with her. Her age is four months and three days.
I am, with respect,
HOBART CLARK. Andover, September 30, 1840.
DANIEL PUTNAM'S STATEMENT.
To the Committee on Milch Cows.
GENTLEMEN— The heifer I offer you for exhibition this day was two years old in March. She has given milk since the 30th of June. She gave in nine weeks, (from the 27th of July to the 28th of September,) 570 quarts, averaging 9 qts. per day; the average quantity of butter is about 5 lbs. per week.She has been fed the same as the rest of my cows. Yours with respect,
DANIEL PUTNAM. Danvers, September 30, 1840.
To the Committee on Milch Cows.
GENTLEMEN—The heifers that I offer to your notice, are three years old. I purchased them from a drove, April 15th, 1839, for twenty-one dollars each; they were then low in flesh, and as they gave milk till April, and calved the present season in June, and have had no extra keeping, are not in so good case as they ought to be. Speck calved June 5th; we began to milk her the last of the month; the weight of her milk in the best of the season was seventeen to eighteen pounds a day; she gave a good mess through autumn and winter; we milked her till the 5th April; she calved the present season, June 28th; we began to milk her, 10th of July; she gave, in the best of the season, from twenty to twenty-one pounds; she now gives sixteen to seventeen pounds per day. Rolla calved June 24th, and gave eighteen to twenty pounds, the best of the
She did not do as well through autumn and the first part of winter; the latter part of the time she did well; we milked her till 20th April; she calved the present season 20th June; she gave in the best of the season twenty one to twenty two pounds per day; she now gives thirteen to fourteen pounds per day. We have set the milk, part of each, so we are satisfied that it is of good quality. They suffered in the dry part of the season, both for feed and water. They have had no new feed this autumn.
Yours in esteem,
RALPH H. CHANDLER. Andover, September 30, 1840.