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To the Committee on Milch Cows
GENTLEMEN—This is to certify that I have kept a daily account of milk taken from my cow, from third May, 1840, to twenty eighth September, instant, (inclusive;) that the quantity is ten hundred ninety nine quarts, or two hundred seventy four and three fourth gallons. That she calved on the first day of May. Said calf was taken from her and killed at three weeks old, and weighed nineteen pounds per quarter. Said cow was two years old last April.
PARKER M. DOLE. Newburyport, September 29, 1840.
The subscribers residing in the neighborhood of Mr. P. M. Dole, certify that the above statement signed by him, is in our opinion correct.
W. B. BANISTER.
ON THE DAIRY:
The Committee on the Dairy, are happy to REPORT:
That the dairy women of the county have done more to enrich our show the present season than on former years.
There were ten regular entries for premiums on butter, and several parcels were found not entered. The quality of the butter generally,
was quite good; much of it was superior. The committee have had not an unpleasant, but a difficult labor to decide who are best entitled to premiums. Between the June butter offered by Dean Robinson, of Newbury, and that by Daniel Putnam, of Danvers, there was little if any difference; but the committee decided, after awarding the September premiums, to recommend that your first premium, of eight dollars be awarded to Dean Robinson, of West Newbury; the second, of six dollars, to Daniel Putnam, of Danvers; the third, of four dollars, to Jesse Putnam, of Danvers. A firkin of June butter offered by William R. Putnam, of Wenham, was very good, and inferior by very little to that which is recommended for the third premium. There were also, specimens of very fair butter, by John Preston, of Danvers, Mrs. M. Wardwell, of Andover, and others.
For September butter, your committee recommend that the first premium of ten dollars be awarded to Daniel Putnam, of Danvers. They would, if guided solely by the quality of the butter, recommend the second premium to Peabody Ilsley, of West Newbury; but as no statement of cows and process of making accompanied this butter, the committee recommend that the second premium of eight dollars be given to Mrs. R. Buttrick, of Haverhill. Specimens of good September butter were offered also by Mrs. M. Wardwell, of Andover; Mr. John Preston, of Danvers; and very fair butter was offered by
On cheese, your committee were not so heavily tasked. There were four entries. We recommend the first premium of ten dollars, to Isaac Carruth, of Andover. The second would be properly bestowed upon James Peabody, of Georgetown, had he given us the statements which the rules of the society require. This omission of Mr. Peabody causes us to recommend the second premium, of eight dollars, to Mrs. William Thurlow, of West Newbury. A sam
ple of good cheese was exhibited also by Mrs. R.
T. J. W. Proctor, Esq.
SiR_Having been unable to attend the meeting of the board of trustees in December, I submit the following considerations relating to the management of dairies.
The first and most essential point to be gained is to procure good cows. It costs no more to feed a good cow, than a poor one. And the comparative result of their produce at the close of the year, makes a most essential difference in the profits of the farmer. Suppose one cow to give one quart at a milking, or two quarts per day, more than another, the milk being of equal quality; and this milk to be estimated worth two and a half cents per quart, and this to continue 200 days—here would be a difference of
a ten dollars in the produce of the two cows. This rule applied to a dairy of fifteen cows, would equal the sum of $150—half as much as the net annual income of a majority of the farmers in the county.
The quality of the milk is a consideration not less important than the quantity. Those, who never have tried the experiment of setting different cows' milk separate, have very imperfect ideas of their comparative value. I have known some cows that five or six quarts of their milk would raise cream sufficient to make a pound of butter. I believe this was stated to be true of the Oakes cow, from the milk of which was made twenty pounds of butter a week for several successive weeks; and I have heard
the same of others. But ordinarily, it takes ten quarts of milk to yield a pound of butter. It therefore becomes a point of great importance, in selecting cows for the making of butter, to obtain those whose milk is adapted to this purpose.
The manner of feeding cows is a point not to be neglected, in the management of a dairy. Good feed not only increases the quantity of the milk, but it improves the quality; and of consequence the butter and cheese produced therefrom are better also. The kind of food used is also to be regarded. Every dairy-woman knows that the milk will indicate the kind of food used; therefore those kinds of food which leave the best flavour in the milk should be selected. When cows have been fed on cabbages or on turnips, who has not tasted the peculiarities of these vegetables? When they are fed on indian meal, on carrots, or on beets, -it is fair to presume that these articles become incorporated with the milk also. I do not presume to say which of these articles is the most valuable to be cultivated for the feeding of cows; though I hope in this age of experiments, with so many inducements as are now held out for the trial, it will not be long before some of our farmers will give us satisfactory information on this subject.
The manner of milking also demands attention. Cows should be milked about the same time each day; and they should be milked quick and clean. If a portion of their milk is suffered to remain, this will soon diminish the quantity, and the cows will dry up. It is bad polịcy to trust milking to children, for they usually do it moderately and imperfectly, and more is lost thereby than would pay the best of laborers.
The place for the setting of the milk, is also worthy of attention. This should be cool, well ventilated, and exclusively appropriated to this purpose. For if it is permitted to be occupied in part for other purposes, some things will find their way there which will be injurious to the milk. It should also be
properly lighted. Cream will rise more favorably in a light than in a dark room, and the quality of it will be better. Therefore a dairy room above ground is preferable to a cellar. The room should be carefully guarded, by the use of wire gauze, or some other substance at the windows, against the approach of insects or intruders of every kind. The milk should be set in pans uncovered; as the cream will not rise so freely when there is a cover over the pans.
Care should be taken not to fill the pans full, especially in warm weather, as the cream will rise quicker and better when the milk is spread over a larger surface. The sooner it rises and is removed from the milk the better; and this should always be done before the milk begins to turn sour.
When the cream is taken off, it should be kept in tight covered vessels, in cool places, until the churning process; and this should always be before any sourness or mould is discoverable.
Much care should be taken to separate the buttermilk thoroughly from the butter. More depends on this than any other part of the process in making good butter. Unless this is done, it will be impossible to preserve it sweet and good. If our dairy-women would apply double the labor to half the quantity of their butter, and thereby thoroughly remove all particles of butter-milk, this one half would be worth more than the whole in the condition it is usually sent to the market. As this is a matter that interests every farmer, and every lover of good butter, (and who does not love it when it is fair and nice?) I have presumed to forward these remarks.
You will use them as you think proper. Respectfully Yours,
JOSEPH HOW. Methuen, Jan. 6, 1841.
NOTE.—What I have said in relation to the working of butter, is to be understood, in relation to such