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butter as had the proper previous management. For if the butter comes soft, it may be worked ever so long, and not become hard and good ; although it may be improved by working. Butter that comes well will be fit for immediate use with very little working. But if it is to be kept, care should be taken that the buttermilk is thoroughly removed.

It was my intention to have said something on the feed of cows. But my remarks: have already extended so far, I will simply say, that there is no feed on which cows can be kept, that will make better butter, than a first rate pasture; such as abounds with English grasses. When this supply fails, let the deficiency by made up by green corn-stalks. Farmers will do well to plant some corn extra, for this

purpose. The present winter, I have boiled roots for my cows, such as "turnips and sugar beets, to which I add a little indian meal. This food when properly prepared and seasoned with salt, is well received by the cows, and improves the flavour, and increases the quantity of their milk.

J. H.

DANIEL

PUTNA M's

STATEMENTS.

To the Committee on the Dairy. GENTLEMEN-I offer a firkin of June butter, containing forty five pounds. Process of making. The milk is strained into tin pans; it stands from thirty six to forty eight hours, according to the weather, when the cream is taken off, put into tin pails and occasionally stirred. We churn twice each week; when the butter is gathered, the buttermilk is drawn off; the butter is rinsed in two waters; then is taken out, worked over in part, salted, (1 ounce of salt to a pound of butter) and set

aside for twenty four hours, when the working over is completed. Put directly into the firkin, and a little salt sprinkled over what was put down each week. The firkin stood through the summer in the cellar.

DANIEL PUTNAM. North Danvers, September 29, 1840.

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GENTLEMEN—I have brought for your examination two boxes of September butter, containing twenty six pounds. I know not that there is any thing peculiar in the process of making this butter. The milk is strained into tin pans; it stands from thirty six to forty eight hours, according to the weather; when the cream is taken off, put into tin pails and occasionally stirred. We churn usually twice each week; when the butter) is gathered, the buttermilk is drawn off, the butter is rinsed in two waters; then is taken out, worked over in part, salted, (one ounce of salt to a pound of butter, and set aside for twenty four hours, when the working over is completed.

From May 20 to June 10th, I milked six cows; from the last date to August 1, the number was seven; through the month of August eight; and in September nine — averaging perhaps seven. Three of these were two year old heifers, and one three. From these cows I have made, since the 20th of May, six hundred and eight pounds of butter; have sold seven hundred and sixty eight quarts of milk; have used in the family probably eight quarts per day, or nine hundred sixty quarts. The pasture in which my cows feed is poor, but they have been fed at the barn every day upon hay, green oats, or green corn stalks, besides about two quarts of cob meal per day to each cow.

DANIEL PUTNAM. North Danvers, September 29, 1840.

A MOS SHELDEN'S STATEMENT.

To the Committee on the Dairy.

GENTLEMEN-The three boxes marked A. S. contain forty two pounds of butter, it being the produce of eight cows and four heifers for ten days, ending the 27th of the present month. The cows have been kept upon common pasture only; all of them had calves in the spring; there was nothing peculiar in the management of the milk and cream, or in making the butter, the milk being kept in tin and earthen pans, and skimmed after standing forty eight hours, and the cream kept in earthen pots until churned, after which it is immediately washed twice in pure water, and then salted; after remaining twelve hours is worked over until all the buttermilk is extracted. Yours respectfully,

AMOS SHELDEN. Beverly, September 30, 1840.

JOHN PRESTON'S STATEMENT.

To the Committee on the Dairy.

GENTLEMEN—The butter which I offer for the society's premium is in two stone pots, one parcel of which was made in June, the other in September. The quantity contained in each exceeding twenty five pounds. The milk was kept in tin pans on the bottom of a deep cellar, paved with smooth stone, and permitted to stand as long before skimming as possible, without becoming sour. The cream was then taken off, put into stone jars, and placed in a brick vault, two feet below the cellar bottom. This

was the daily process, and at the end of a week, the butter was churned, worked, and salted with one and a quarter ounces of salt to the pound. It was worked once on each of the two succeeding days, when it was put into the pots. In addition to the salt in the September butter, was put one quarter of an ounce of loaf sugar to the pound. Respectfully yours,

JOHN PRESTON. North Danvers, Sept. 30, 1840.

WILLIAM R. PUTNAM'S STATEMENT.

To the Committee on the Dairy.

GENTLEMEN—I present for your inspection a firkin of butter containing sixty three pounds, made in the month of June. It was made from the milk of eight cows, which had no other feed than a common pasture; the milk was strained into tin pans, and kept in the cellar about sixty hours before the cream was taken off, which was put into tin pails and a little salt put in. It was churned once a week. When the buttermilk was drawn from the butter, it was thoroughly rinsed in cold water; then taken from the churn, and the buttermilk extracted from it; and one ounce of salt to one pound of butter put in; then in twenty four hours it was worked over again; then it was put in the firkin and kept in the cellar until to-day. From R. C. Winthrop's farm, by

WILLIAM R. PUTNAM.
Wenham, September 29, 1840.

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MRS. R. BUTTRICK'S STATEMENT.

To the Committee on the Dairy

GENTLEMEN--In behalf of Mrs. R. Buttrick, I present, for your inspection, two firkins of butter, made by her on my farm in Haverhill.

The dairy consisted of five cows, one two year old, and two three year old heifers, one of which came in the last of July; making eight in all; and from the milk is to be deducted what was used in a family of six persons. The cows had common pasture feed only, excepting that they were fed with stalks in September. The smaller firkin contains forty three pounds of June butter, and is a part of two hundred and fifty three pounds, made from the 20th May to the first of July, when she commenced making cheese. The larger firkin contains sixty five pounds of butter made in September; being a part of one hundred and seventeen pounds, made from September 8th, to September 28th. Mrs. Buttrick's process is to let the milk stand until the froth settles, then carry

it to the cellar; and after it has stood a proper time to skim it, then to suspend the cream in the well to render it cool, before churning; which is done three times per week.

week. When churned, she washes the butter in cold water, salts it, sets it in the cellar till the next day; then works it until the buttermilk is out, on three different days; then lays it down in the firkin, sprinkling a layer of salt between each layer of butter.

Mrs. Buttrick, also, sends for your inspection three cheeses, weighing eighty five pounds; being a sample of thirty one cheeses, weighing seven hundred and eighteen pounds, made from the above cows in July and August. The process of making is the same

as that fully detailed in the Society's Transactions for 1839; and is, therefore, not repeat

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