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ted water, before it would be in part lost by evaporation. Liebig states that cold water dissolves only one ten thousandth part of its own weight of vegetable mould. Dr. Dana remarks, “ Liebig takes it for granted that it is rain only that is to dissolve geine and geates. He says, it is not enough. We offer him an abundant source in the fountain of water from geine. He says, it is not enough. We add, if indeed we should not begin there, the action of growing plants upon silicates, evolving bases whose action upon geine renders it easily soluble. I think these causes of the solubility of geine enough, and no small argument to prove that geine exercises other functions in soil besides evolving carbonic acid. Geine ceasing, barrenness follows. When Raspail and Liebig prove the contrary, I'll believe ourselves wrong in our views.

Amid these conflicting theories of the mode of its operation, one thing is certain, the presence of a large percentage of geine in soils, provided it be by culture duly exposed to the influence of air, alkalies, salts, &c., insures the greatest fertility. And farmers will do well not to let the theory that vegetables feed on air prevent them from supplying them with more substantial food, compost manures, in which, at least for light gravelly soils, peat, muck, or other substances rich in geine, forms a large proportion. It seems to me that Liebig's theories, when divested of contradictory appearances, shew conclusively that geine or its elements are the primary food of plants,-that the absorption of these by the rootlets developes those organs, the leaves, &c., which become in turn capable of absorbing from the atmosphere the same elements in even a larger quantity than is received by the roots, and appropriating them to the growth of the plant, thereby, in the end, by one of those beautiful laws of compensation everywhere met with in natural science, it becomes enabled to repay to the soil, with interest, the geine it takes from it. Deprive the plant of a soil containing geine, or carbon otherwise combined, and no organs can be developed to imbibe the same elements from the atmosphere.

Dr. Samuel L. Dana has now in press a work on these subjects, designed expressly for farmers. He has hitherto most generously given to the public his valuable discoveries without fee or reward, and it is to be hoped that every farmer will show himself both grateful and wise, by purchasing and studying this work,

which, from the well known ability of the author, cannot fail to be worth its weight in gold to all who will avail themselves of its instructions. It is to be, I am informed, a volume of about 175 pages, small octavo, divided into eight or nine chapters, and these chapters into numbered paragraphs.

CHAP. 1. On the Geology of Soil-showing that the farmer need be neither a geologist nor mineralogist, as agriculturally considered there is one rock and one soil.

CHAP. 2. On the Chemistry of SoilIn which just *enough is taught to show the farmer the nature and constitution of rocks.

CHAP. 3. Properties and manner of action of the Elements of SoilsVery full on the action of salts.

CHAP. 4. Organic Elements of Soil-Containing a detailed account of their origin and properties.

CHAP. 5. Geine-A full account of its properties.
CHAP. 6. Manures—The whole subject discussed.

GHAP. 7, 8, 9. On the Artificial Preparation of Manuresthe Principles of Irrigationand the Physicol Properties of Soil-showing that these depend chiefly on geine, &c.

ANDREW NICHOLS.

Dr.

Essex Agricultural Society in account with Andrew Nichols, Treasurer.

Cr.

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Then examined the above account, and found the same correct.

R. S. DANIELS,
DANIEL ADAMS, 3D.

The above funds then transferred to William Sutton.

R. S. DANIELS,
DANIEL ADAMS, 30.

Chosen Sept. 29th, 1841.

LEVERETT SALTONSTALL, of Salem, PRESIDENT.
DANIEL ADAMS, 3D, of Newbury,
NATHAN HAZEN, of Andover,

VICE PRESIDENTS.
SOLOMON LOW, of Boxford,
ASA T. NEWHALL, of Lynnfield.
WILLIAM SUTTON, of Salem, TREASURER.
DANIEL P. KING, of Danvers, SECRETARY.

TRUSTEES.

Andover.
Lynn.
Haverhill.
Newburyport.
Ipswich.
Wenham.
Haverhill.
Danvers.
Middleton.
Salisbury.
Methuen.
Salem.

JEDEDIAH H. BARKER,
ANDREWS BREED,
WILLIAM D. S. CHASE,
JEREMIAH COLMAN,
SAMUEL DAY,
ANDREW DODGE,
JAMES H. DUNCAN,
NATHANIEL FELTON,
DANIEL FULLER,
MOSES FRENCH,
JOSEPH HOW,
FREDERICK HOWES,
ASAHEL HUNTINGTON,
JOSIAH KIMBALL,
JOSEPH KITTREDGE,
WILLIAM S. MARLAND,
ROYAL A. MERRIAM,
MOSES NEWELL,
DANIEL PUTNAM,
DEAN ROBINSON,
JAMES B. SAVARY,
JESSE SHELDON,
JEREMIAH SPOFFORD,
ERASTUS WARE,

66

Boxford.
Andover.

Topsfield.
West Newbury.
Danvers.
West Newbury.
Georgetown.
Beverly.
Bradford.
Salem.

MEMBERS ADMITTED IN 1841.

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CALEB FOOTE,

Salem.
FRANCIS DODGE,

Danvers.
WILLIAM A. LANDON,
JONATHAN KING,

EBEN KING, Any citizen of the County may become a member by paying to the Treasurer three dollars. Members are not liable to any assessments.

.

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Mr. Gray's Address,
Report on Ploughing, Double Teams,

Single Teams,

Horse Teams,
on Animals, of the State Committee,
on Bulls,
on Fat Cattle,
on Working Oxen,
on Milch Cows,
Statement of Joshua Hale,

George Spofford,
Report on Experiments on Manures,

Statement of Allen Putnam,
Report on the Dairy,
Statement of Joshua Lovett,

Daniel Putnam,
William R. Putnam,
Nathaniel Felton,
Isaac Carruth,

Mary T. Thurlow,
Report on Swine,

on Mulberry Trees,
Statement of George Hood,

Temple Cutler,
Report on Silk Manufactured,

Statement of M. P. S. Parker,
Report on Bees and Honey,

on Fattening Cattle and Swine,
Sheep,

Statement of John Hale,
Report on Grain Crops,
Statement of Francis Dodge,

Enoch Dole,
John Noyes,

William Williams,
Report on Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables,

Statement of Luke Morgan,
Report on Domestic Manufactures,
Premiums awarded in 1841,
Premiums offered in 1842,
Communication of Dr. Nichols on Manures,
Treasurer's Annual Statement,
Officers of the Society,
Members Admitted in 1841,

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