« PreviousContinue »
common name is it known?
Show by equa
tion. BOARD QUESTIONS ANSWERED
Calcium oxide, commonly known as lime, is
prepared by calcining, by a strong heat, some AN INDIANA EXAMINATION.
form of native calcium carbonate. The carbon (Continued from the March BULLETIN.)
dioxide is thus expelled and the lime remains.
The equation may be represented as follows: 11. Select (a) a neutral salt, (b) an acid salt, (c) a double salt, from the list in question
CaCO3(heated)=CaO+CO,. No. 8.
19. A solution of silver nitrate in ordinary (a) Copper sulphate, (b) potassium bitar- water is of a milky appearance. It should be trate, (c) potassium and sodium tartrate.
colorless. What impurity, in the water, does 12. Give a simple test for salicylic acid. a
that milkiness usually indicate? Show by On adding to a small portion of salicylic equation. acid, in a test tube, about 1 Cc. of concentrated Ordinary water quite often contains some sulphuric acid, then, cautiously, about 1 Cc, of soluble chloride, usually sodium chloride. Silmethyl alcohol in drops, and heating the mix- ver nitrate will produce a cloudiness or a preture to boiling, methyl salicylate will be pro- cipitate if any soluble chloride be present. duced, which may be recognized by the odor. The equation:
13. Give a simple test for chlorides.
AgNO:+NaCl=AgCl+NaNO.. tion of a chloride yields a white, curdy pre
20. (a) What is that which is commonly cipitate, insoluble in nitric acid, and readily
sold as “chloride of lime," and is used as a soluble in ammonia water.
disinfectant and bleaching agent?
(b) How 14. Give a simple test for sulphates.
does it differ from calcium chloride? An aqueous solution of a sulphate yields,
(a) Chlorinated lime. with barium chloride test solution, a white pre
(6) Calcium chloride, CaCl,, is a definite cipitate insoluble in hydrochloric acid.
chemical compound which may be obtained by 15. Liquor calcis is a saturated solution of dissolving pure calcium carbonate in pure calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH), in water, and is hydrochloric acid, or by dissolving ordinary made of calcium oxide, CaO, and water. Show chalk or marble in hydrochloric acid and freeby equation how this change has been brought ing the solution from iron and other impurities about.
by treatment with chlorine and subsequently Ca+H2O=Ca(HO)2.
milk of lime; this mixture is warmed and fil16. When exposed to air liquor calcis forms tered, the filtrate finally being neutralized exa white incrustation on the side of the bottle, actly with hydrochloric acid. and also deposits a white precipitate. What is Chlorinated lime is a compound containing the precipitate and incrusted substance and not less than 30 per cent of available chlorine, how can it be removed easily?
and is prepared by exposing slaked lime on The substance is calcium carbonate formed trays to the action of chlorine gas. The exact by the calcium hydroxide solution taking up nature of the compound has not been definitely carbon dioxide from the air. The calcium car
settled. Some chemists contend that calcium bonate incrustation may be removed from the hypochlorite, calcium chloride, and water bottle by adding a little dilute hydrochloric are produced, according to the equation acid, which readily decomposes the calcium 2Ca(OH),+C1,Ca(CIO), +CaCl,+ 2H,0.
+ . carbonate, forming soluble calcium chloride Other chemists regard the dry powder as havand carbon dioxide.
ing the composition CaOCl., or CaCl(OC), 17. When heated liquor calcis becomes which, upon the addition of water, breaks up milky. Why does heat cause the milkiness, into calcium hypochlorite and chloride. The and is it permanent ?
preponderance of opinion, at present, is in The heat causes the separation of some cal
favor of the latter view. The term "chloride cium hydroxide, as this substance is more solu- of lime,” usually applied to the substance in ble in cold than in hot water. Upon cooling commerce, is a misnomer. the liquid, the calcium hydroxide redissolves. 21. A solution of potassium bicarbonate is
19. How is calcium oxide made and by what faintly alkaline; after boiling it becomes
strongly so. Show by equation what change 28. What is a volumetric solution? has taken place.
A volumetric solution is a solution of exact 2KHCO.=K.CO; +H.O+CO:
strength of a reagent whereby the quantity of
a given constituent contained in another solu22. By what simple test can you distinguish calomel from corrosive sublimate?
tion can be accurately determined. If 1 gramme of finely powdered corrosive sublimate be dissolved in 10 Cc. of alcohol or 1. What is a medicine? 20 Cc. of water, it should leave no more than A substance possessing or reputed to possess 0.005 gramme of residue. Calomel will not curative or remedial properties. dissolve in either the alcohol or the water.
2. By what methods can medicines be ad23. How is a solution of ferrous chloride ministered? converted into a solution of ferric chloride? a
Medicines may be introduced into the system By first adding hydrochloric acid to the solu- through the mouth, they may be introduced tion of ferrous chloride and then adding this directly into the circulation or into the submixture, a little at a time, to nitric acid con- cutaneous tissue, they may be absorbed by the tained in a capacious dish, gently warmed, skin or mucous membrane, they may be inwaiting after each addition until the copious haled, or may be introduced by inoculation. evolution of red nitrous vapors subsides before 3. Explain the difference between volatile adding more.
and non-volatile substances. 24. The U. S. P. directs that after a solution A volatile substance is one that evaporates of ferrous chloride is converted into a solution quite rapidly at ordinary temperatures on exof ferric chloride, the solution be boiled. Why? posure to air, while a non-volatile substance is
In order to insure the expulsion of any ex- one that at ordinary temperatures evaporates cess of nitric acid that might be present, and to either not at all or very slowly. complete the reaction.
4. Give an example of (a) a volatile sub25. In making of massa ferri carbonatis stance, (b) a non-volatile one. there is used ferrous sulphate and mono- (a) Ether. hydrated sodium carbonate; in making pilulæ (b) Carbon. ferri carbonatis there is used ferrous sulphate 5. What is the source of thymol and into and potassium carbonate. In each case fer- what official preparations does it enter? rous carbonate is the salt desired. Why is
Thymol occurs as a phenol in the volatile oil sodium carbonate used in one case and potas- of Thymus vulgaris and in some other volatile sium carbonate in the other?
oils. It enters into the composition of cataSodium carbonate contains water of crystal- plasm of kaolin and antiseptic solution. lization which would be likely to cause an 6. What is carbon ? undesired reaction if left in mass of ferrous Carbon is a solid—inodorous, tasteless, incarbonate. For that reason the precipitate is soluble in all known solvents, infusible, nonwashed to remove any excess of salt that might volatile. It is combustible. be left in the mass. Potassium carbonate con- 7. In what free forms is carbon frequently tains no water of crystallization, hence it is found? used in making pills of ferrous carbonate Carbon exists in nature in the free state pure where washing is not practical.
and impure, as diamond, graphite, and amor26. What is a reagent?
phous carbon in the form of soft coal, hard A reagent is a term applied in analytical coal, brown coal, and peat. chemistry to a substance employed for the 10. Give a physical description of sodii identification or detection of individual ele- bicarbonas. . ments, radicals (ions), and compounds by Sodii bicarbonas is a white, opaque powder, means of the characteristic reactions which odorless, and having a cooling, mildly alkaline they produce with the reagent.
taste. It is permanent in dry, but slowly 27. What is a test solution?
(lecomposed in moist air. A test solution is a solution of a reagent 11. Name a therapeutic use of sodii bicarwhereby the identity of a compound or one of bonas. its constituents may be determined.
It is an antacid. (To be continued.)
to be specific gravity 1.2395, instead of 1.20, LETTERS
and will represent a 32.62-per-cent sulphuric acid.
A formula for the volume dilution of acids, A LETTER FROM PROFESSOR MOERK.
etc., which was worked out several years ago,
and which also may have been previously To the Editors:
worked out by others, is as follows: Pharmacy-board questions like No. 24 on
Sw X Pw X Vw page 72 of the February issue of the BULLETIN
=Vs OF PHARMACY cannot be accurately solved by
Ss X Ps alligation, or otherwise, because it is necessary to know, in addition to the specific gravities, Pw=Percentage by weight in weaker solution to be made.
Sw=Specific gravity of weaker solution to be made. the corresponding percentages by weight of
Vw=Volume of weaker solution to be made. sulphuric acid. Were it possible to solve ques- Ss=Specific gravity of stronger solution to be diluted. tions of this kind by alligation based upon spe
Ps=Percentage by weight in stronger solution to be di
luted. cific gravities, there would be no necessity in
Vs=Volume of stronger solution to be diluted. the U. S. P. or other books for the elaborate
Applied to the question under consideration: tables giving comparisons between specific gravity and percentage by weight.
1.2 X 27.76 X 128
= 25.717 fluidounces. The question reads: "How would you make
1.82 X 91.1 up a gallon of storage battery fluid (H2SO,, specific gravity 1.20) from official H,SO, The sulphuric acid having a specific gravity (specific gravity 1.82) ?”
of 1.82, must be diluted with sufficient water to In the first place, the specific gravity of 1.82 make 1 gallon (the quantity of water to be does not represent official sulphuric acid, but added will be more than 128 25.717 fluidan acid containing 91.1 per cent by weight of ounces because of the contraction which takes sulphuric acid.
place, and which contraction is the reason why The specific gravity of 1.20 represents an
the specific gravities and percentages by weight acid containing 27.76 per cent by weight of vary. sulphuric acid. In the absence of this addi- A formula which enables the calculation of tional information and the inability to consult .a diluted acid obtainable from a given volume tables, one would be justified to proceed as you of a stronger acid is as follows: have done in answering the question, but it
Ss x Ps X Vs should be remembered that the answer will be
=Vw considerably from the truth.
Sw X Pw Taking your answer that 31.22 fluidounces
To illustrate: How much sulphuric acid of sulphuric acid having a specific gravity of
(specific gravity, 1.20; percent by weight, 1.82 will give one gallon of sulphuric acid hav
27.76) can be made from 25.717 fluidounces of ing a specific gravity of 1.20, the following will
sulphuric acid (specific gravity, 1.82; percent prove my statement:
by weight, 91.1)? 31.22 X 454.6 x 1.82 X .911 23531.635 grains of absolute sulphuric acid in one gallon.
1.82 X 91.1 X 25.717
= 128 fluidounces. By the same kind of a calculation, one gallon
1.20 x 27.76 of 32-per-cent sulphuric acid (specific gravity 1.2344) will contain 128X454.6 X 1.2344X.32, By the same formula, 31.22 fluidounces of or 22985 grains of absolute sulphuric acid; one sulphuric acid having a specific gravity of 1.82 gallon of 33-per-cent sulphuric acid (specific will yield 155.4 fluidounces of sulphuric acid gravity 1.2427) will contain 128 X 454.6X having a specific gravity of 120. 1.2427X.33, or 23862.7 grains of absolute
FRANK X. MOERK, sulphuric acid.
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, It is evident, therefore, that the finished
Philadelphia, Pa. product made by your formula will contain be
(NotE BY THE EDITORS.—The receipt of just such tween 32 and 33 per cent, and will have a
letters as this assists us very materially in the difficult specific gravity between 1.2:344 and 1.2427; by task of answering board questions. It is our contention, interpolation, the exact figures will be found however, that in handling these matters we must confine
ourselves exactly to the question as it was phrased by wife. I began to take the benefit of these abthe board. Answers must be worked out in conformity
sences by placing substitutes in the store, while to the set phraseology. Moreover, we do not feel
I spent the time with a ball and bat in an adjustified in taking advantage of helps that would not be available for a candidate actually seated at the examin
jacent back lot. ing table answering the question. Our solution of These substitutes may have served just as problem 24 was worked out from the information fur- well as I, but the boss couldn't see it that way. nished by the question as it appeared in the examination
Accordingly, after he found out about three paper. We were aware that the specific gravity of
telephone calls that had been lost to him, I official sulphuric acid is not below 1.826, but as the examiner stated it to be 1.82 we felt that the amount
was called to task. Then I had to 'fess up. I specified must be used in our calculations.
made up my mind to mend my ways, but the We were also aware that a contraction takes place damage was done, and on the following Saturwhen sulphuric acid and water are put together--in the
day night the doctor asked me for the store answer as given in the BULLETIN the following statement was made: “When the mixture has cooled make
keys. up any loss in volume by adding water q. s. to make one
All this happened quite a few years ago, and gallon.” In taking a board examination, in most States, I have had several real jobs since. It was valthe applicant would not be furnished with additional uable experience, however, that taught me information, nor would he be allowed to consult tables.
what not to do when I went after the drug For those reasons he must proceed as we did; indeed,
business in earnest. EUGENE RIMMER. he would have to if he wished to arrive at even approximately correct solution.
Tarboro, N. C. Professor Moerk has given us a schoolroom answerand a correct one. We gave such an answer as we felt an applicant would be justified in giving under the
NATIONAL INSURANCE IN ENGLAND. circumstances. Professor Moerk's letter brings out, To the Editors: incidentally, another point: there is a certain percentage of board questions which should never be asked in the
Being a regular reader of your journal and first place.)
noticing an article on pharmacies and drug stores on this side of the big pond, I thought
perhaps a short account of our National InsurHIS FIRST JOB.
ance Bill and its effect on us chemists might To the Editors :
be of some small interest. I have just been rereading the five papers
Previous to the passage of the Bill nearly published last September in the BULLETIN on all the dispensing was done by the doctors the subject of “My First Job,” and I am going themselves. The few scripts (prescriptions) to set down the adventures that came to me that came our way were generally those of the when I started to learn the drug business. traveling theatrical troupes, or of those few
My first job was so easy that I lost it. patients who were under the care of some dis
I was fifteen and tired of school. On the tant specialist. street one day I met the doctor who kept the Under the N. I. B. all workers of either sex, local drug store, and asked him for a job. not employers, have to subscribe weekly the Right then and there he gave me the keys. sum of three pence or fourpence. The em
Bright and early Monday morning I opened ployer also pays a similar amount, and the the store. I hunted up a broom, swept out, State provides the rest. For this subscription, built a fire, pulled up a chair, and proceeded to doctor's attention and medical and surgical reenjoy life. I found a Remington's “Practice quirements in general are supplied. of Pharmacy,” and before night saw myself a Free choice of doctors is allowed, but the full-fledged pharmacist. During the first month arrangement between the doctor and the subor so I learned that "opium is a concrete, milky scriber is for one year's duration only. Payexudation," and the many other more or less ment to the doctor is on a "per capita" basis, vital facts that all juniors pick up. I was on but the chemist, who now is the dispenser, is the highway to success.
paid on the basis of the work actually done, But springtime came, and with it an end to and of the drugs and appliances actually supmy good intentions. I began to neglect the few plied. Any dispenser on the Government duties I had formerly performed.
Panel takes the scripts brought to him, irreOftentimes the doctor would stay away from spective of patient or doctor. Each city or the store all day, leaving me in charge with in- rural area is managed locally, and is expected structions to telephone all calls for him to his to be self-supporting Accounts are sent in monthly, and in this town we have received 90 A PRICE GIVEN AND A PRICE WANTED. per cent of the amount due, toward the end of To the Editors: the month following; i.e., by the end of Feb- In the February BULLETIN, Frank Dieden, ruary we got our check for 90 per cent of Jan- of Chicago, asks for a price expression on the uary's amount.
following prescription: In some parts of the country the amount of
.21/2 drachms. the chemists' accounts has exceeded the funds
..4 drachms. available, consequently the dispensers have had Orthoform
..272 drachms. a long wait for their money, and even had to
Ointment of zinc oxide, q. s. ad 6 ounces. submit to a heavy discounting before a settle- Mix and make an ointment. ment could be effected.
My price for compounding the foregoing Considering that the chemist has no option
would be not less than $2.00—and more if I but to supply what the doctor orders, if such
thought there was a good chance of getting it. article is on the Government's list, this sort of
1, also, have a prescription concerning which thing seems somewhat unjust.
I would like your readers to tell what they J. H. WROTHWELL.
regard as the right price. Here is the preMiddlesborough, England.
Tincture of nux vomica.....4 fluidrachms.
Fluid extract of condu-
.1/2 fluidounces. To the Editors :
Scale pepsin, soluble.
.2 drachms. Pancreatin
.2 drachms. How would you like all the big red straw
Caripeptic elixir, enough to berries you can eat, every morning for five
4 fluidounces. weeks, fresh from
Directions: One teaspoonful, three times a day, after plants, about 12 feet one way by 20 feet the
meals. other, and not only once, but every season for the last six years. My original planting com
And now for some deserved roses—I think prised about 200 strawberry vines, and the
the BULLETIN the best journal of its kind that initial cost was a five-dollar note.
comes off any press, especially for that "poor Strawberries are profitable, and are easy to
creature," the much-abused clerk. cultivate and to care for. The runners make Bishopville, S. C.
J. F. Smith new plants, renewing themselves every year, thus extending the size of the bed. Although
ALL MIXED UP. some new life in the way of other varieties can
To the Editors: be planted in with the old, I do not find this
I enclose a letter received the other day necessary, at least for a period of five years, if some care is taken to keep all weeds away, and
which may be of interest and possibly amusethe ground is enriched from time to time with fertilizer.
Mr. Miller Besides the berries eaten during the season,
How is that oatheter a plot of this size will also yield enough to preserve for winter use.
When I started my strawberry bed I was told by neighbors that the robins would eat all
tr goufe. When and I could raise. These birds do give some trouble, being very partial to the season's first
suppose to use it. Does
4 Io offerings, but there is always enough to spare them what they want. My annual crop has averaged between 40 and 50 quarts.
I usually do what work is necessary on my “farm” before business hours; that is to
ment to readers of the BULLETIN. It is selfsay, before I go to the store in the morning.
E. E. MILLER & Son. L. H. BALDWIN. New York City.
Traverse City, Mich.
supporse to work, what
makes it bendall upendo
it effect right an