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PRACTICAL PHARMACY

Beri-necessary.

Oryzanin is a principle found in the outer coatings of unpolished rice which is necessary to the nutritive value of the rice, and is an indispensable constituent of foods generally. It acts as a stimulant to nutrition, and has a much greater stimulating action than peptone, asparagin, and similar bodies. It is being used as a remedy in beriberi.

of the flame. Thoroughly melt the wax in the label. Remove from heat and allow to get quite cold. With a knife scrape all superfluous wax from the glass, almost but not quite up to the edges of the label.

Any irregularities in thickness of wax over the label may be carefully pared down. Then take a dry, clean cotton duster and polish the label.

You will now have a polished distinct label, which has cost the merest fraction of a penny, a few minutes' time only, and no patience. This label, which looks like opal glass, will be found to be quite unaffected by concentrated and dilute acids, alcohol, and most other liquids. Ether attacks it, and so, very gradually, do solutions of alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates. But at any rate, it is more durable than any other attached labels, excepting glass. It may be cleaned by rubbing with a clean duster and then polishing.

Instead of being only over the surface of the label, as are most other varnishes and finishes, the paraffin in this case becomes actually a part of the material of the label.

To Cut the Bottom from a Glass Bottle.

It sometimes happens that the druggist wishes to cut the bottom off of a glass bottle in order to make a percolator or to cut the top off in order to obtain a jar. There are a number of ways for doing this, but according to the Memphis Druggist one of the simplest is the well-known method of tying a string saturated with turpentine about the bottle. The string is then ignited while the bottle is held in a horizontal position and rotated slowly so that the bottle is encircled with a small flame. The bottle is then plunged in cold water, when it usually breaks in a fairly uniform line.

Another method which gives rather better results is to fill the bottle with cottonseed oil to the point at which it is desired to break it. An iron rod heated to a white heat is then carefully thrust into the oil and held there for some time. The bottle soon cracks about the surface of the oil in a perfect line. It is a good plan, if the bottle is thick, to stand it in cold water.

After cutting bottles it is best to grind off the sharp edges with a file or by rubbing it on glass covered with wet emery dust.

A Labeling Tip.

The following method of labeling, described by Robert W. Taylor in the Chemist and Druggist, is the outcome of experiments conducted with a view of producing labels satisfying the following conditions:

1. Ability to withstand as many solvents and corrosives as possible.

2. Legibility.
3. Neatness and finish.
4. Cheapness.
5. Ease and rapidity of labeling.

Lettering and Material Used for the Label.–Fairly stout opaque white glazed paper is the basis for the label. India or liquid Chinese ink is used for writing in bold, neat letters the wording required.

Paraffin wax completes the requisites.

Manner of Execution.-Neat, bold letters are required in as compact a space as possible. Having written your label, allow it to dry well. Then paste it on the empty bottle with starch or dextrin paste, which should not contain any acid preservatives. Again allow to dry.

Now hold the bottle in the left hand underneath a Bunsen flame inclined at 45 degrees. With the right hand hold a block of paraffin wax in the flame, and allow the melted wax to fall in drops over the label. Put the block of wax down, and, holding the bottle in both hands, slowly rotate it over, and close to, the tip

Making Standard-strength Fowler's Solution.

The Bulletin of the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station reports that analyses of a number of samples of Fowler's solution obtanied from drug stores throughout the State showed a variation in arsenic content of from 3 to 192 per cent. “In other words,” says the Bulletin, “one of them has scarcely any arsenite, while another is nearly twice the required strength.”

Carelessness in weighing the ingredients may perhaps account, in many instances, for such wide discrepancies. In those cases, however, where the solution is below strength the fault may lie in the method of manufacture, according to an explanation appearing recently in the National Drug Clerk and reprinte in the Druggists Circular. The writer of the article says: "While working at the Touro Infirmary (New Orleans, La.) in the pharmacy department as assistant pharmacist to Dr. Phillip Lobenhoffer, he (Dr. Lobenhoffer) discovered why the finished product of the solution of potassium arsenite, by using the utensils directed and following the directions of the U. S. P., did not, in most cases, come up to the official strength (potassium arsenite corresponding in amount to 1 per cent of arsenic trioxide). The Pharmacopæia directs that a weighed quantity of potassium bicarbonate and arsenic trioxide should be placed in a tared dish (which is usually an evaporating dish), and a weighed quantity of water added to it, and permitted to boil until solution is effected.

"While the substances are boiling and the chemical change is taking place, bubbles form and burst in the air and pass the edge of the dish. Every time a bubble bursts in the air and passes the edge of the dish, pure arsenic is being lost, and consequently, starting out with a weighed quantity, the finished product is not one per cent in strength.

"Substituting an Erlenmeyer flask for the evaporating dish would obviate the deficiency in strength, because every time a bubble burst it would strike the side of the flask and rotating the flask a little would bring the substance in solution and the finished product would be one per cent in arsenic strength by weight. Naturally it is understood that the rest of the directions of the U, S. P. would have to be followed.”

[blocks in formation]

(1) Exsiccated sulphate of iron... 5 pounds. Ginger

.3 pounds. Potassium nitrate

.5 pounds. Sulphur

10 pounds. Flaxseed

10 pounds. Gentian

.7 pounds. Cream of tartar.

.3 pounds. White rosin

.5 pounds. Aniseed

...5 pounds. Thoroughly powder, and mix. The dose is a tablespoonful once or twice a day, mixed in the feed. Another method is to mix the dose into a mass with molasses, honey, or glycerin.

Mercuric chloride

..5 grains. Hydrochloric acid

.100 minims. Bitter almonds

..5 drachms. Glycerin

.3 fluidrachms. Tincture of benzoin.

.1 fluidrachm. Orange-flower water, to make.....8 fluidounces. Blanch the almonds and, in the usual manner for making seed emulsion, prepare 642 fluidounces of emulsion, and to this add the tincture and glycerin. Also dissolve the mercuric chloride in one fluidounce of water, add the acid, and incorporate this solution with the emulsion. This liquid is to be applied once a day with a sponge or soft cloth.

2 ounces.
(2) Powdered gentian
Powdered saltpetre

2 ounce.
Powdered sulphur

2 ounces. Powdered resin

.1 ounce. Powdered fenugreek

.1 ounce. Powdered ginger

2 ounces. Powdered cayenne pepper

1 ounce. Powdered flaxseed

.5 ounces. Powdered elm bark.

5 ounces. Powdered bloodroot

1 ounce. Exsiccated sulphate of iron.

.5 ounces. Powdered sodium sulphate.. .472 ounces.

Dessert Triturate the ingredients to a fine powder and mix. spoonful two times a day in the feed. (3) Common salt

.1 part. Glauber salt

2 parts. Sodium bicarbonate

.2 parts. Juniper berries

.2 parts. Gentian

.2 parts. Ginger

,2 parts. Linseed

1.5 parts. Fenugreek

.10 parts. Asafetida

10 parts. Fennel seed, sufficient to make. ... ... .150 parts. Powder separately and mix thoroughly. The dose for a cow is a heaped-up teaspoonful administered with the animal's food.

Dr. Max Joseph, of Berlin, a well-known dermatologist, claims in his "Short Handbook of Cosmetics" that the sole radical cure for freckles is the use of carbolic acid. We may add, however, that this must be used with great caution.

He says: "The liquid carbolic acid is best applied with a pointed match. Each isolated brown spot should be touched. The corrosion causes first a whiteness; then the part becomes black, red, and lastly-after a few days—pale. The face is naturally disfigured for a day or two, so that it is advisable to operate on a small part only, at each sitting. One must merely burn superficially, and of course exercise great care.”

Here is a list that is sometimes used in determining what ingredients may enter into a condition powder :

Alteratives: sodium hyposulphite, sulphur. Diuretics and Diaphoretics: alum, buchu, cream of tartar (pure or crude), juniper berries, lobelia, potassium nitrate, resin. Expectorants: bloodroot, potassium chlorate, elecampane, licorice root, lobelia, resin. Tonics: iron carbonate, gentian, cinchona, poplar bark, iron sulphate. Aromatics and correctives: anise, sodium bicarbonate, camphor, cascarilla, capsicum, fenugreek, ginger, mustard, salt. Emollients and laxatives: aloes, magnesium sulphate, flaxseed meal, sodium sulphate, oilcake meal. Sedatives: asafetida, digitalis, skunk cabbage, valerian.

Oily Dressing for Linoleum. J. P. Co.'s Sons write: "We would like to have supplied a formula for an oily dressing that will preserve linoleum."

To give a clean, bright appearance to a linoleum floor, wash it well with warm soap-suds and rinse with clear, warm water until perfectly dry. As soon as the surface is dry apply a coating of equal parts of raw linseed oil and turpentine, using a wide paint brush for the application.

It will be found best to apply the mixture of oil and turpentine at night, so as to allow the oil to penetrate to some extent. In the morning any surplus oil may be wiped off with old rags. The linoleum should be treated this way about once a month. The floor should be swept with a soft floor brush in preference to a broom, which is likely to scratch the surface of the linoleum ảnd is, besides, less efficient for removing fine dust. The linoleum should be washed at least once a day with a large sponge clamped on a mop stick. Thus treated a linoleum floor surface will always look well and wears more durably.

The following has been recommended as a polish for linoleum:

Yellow wax.

.1 avoirdupois ounce. Carnauba wax.

.2 avoirdupois ounces. Oil of turpentine.

.....10 fluidounces. Benzine

..10 fluidounces. Melt the two waxes, carefully add the oil and benzine, and stir until cold. A varnish for linoleum may be prepared as follows: Yellow wax

.1 part. Amber varnish

.1 part. Oil of turpentine..

.% parts. Melt the wax, add the oil and then the varnish. This is to be applied by means of a woolen cloth.

celluloid, amyl acetate, acetone, and ether; or of alcohol, shellac, and camphor.

A film-cementing preparation, the reliability or efficiency of which we cannot vouch for, is made by dissolving 5 parts of celluloid in 16 parts of a mixture composed of amyl acetate, acetone, and ether. This preparation is quite inflammable. Film cement may also be made as follows: Dissolve one part of gum camphor in 4 parts of alcohol; dissolve an equal weight of shellac in the strong camphor solution. The cement is applied warm, and the parts united must not be disturbed until the cement is hard.

The manager of a local film agency states that his company, after experimenting with the manufacture of cements of various kinds, came to the conclusion that it could purchase, ready-made, a better cement at a less cost than it was possible to produce in the company's laboratory. The cement used by the firm is obtained from the Atlas Supply Company, Philadelphia, Pa.

Tooth Pastes. M. K. asks: "Can you supply me with several formulas for tooth pastes, white in color, suitable for marketing in collapsible tubes ?”

Here are three formulas:
(1) Precipitated chalk. .....16 avoirdupois ounces.

White Castile soap (powdered)....72 av, ounce.
Thymol

.3 grains.
Oil of cassia...

.5 minims. Oil of wintergreen.

.. 45 minims. Oil of sassafras.

.15 minims. Alcohol

.2 fluidrachms. Dissolve the thymol and the oils in the alcohol and mix thoroughly all the ingredients. Then add enough of the following mixture to produce a paste or cream of the desired consistency: Gelatin

.30 grains. Water

.2 fluidounces. Glycerin

4 fluidounces. Saccharin

......4 grains. Dissolve the gelatin and saccharin in the water by aid of gentle heat and add the glycerin. (2) Powdered Castile soap...

33 grammes. Precipitated chalk

.25 grammes. Alcohol

.25 Cc. Glycerin

...15 Cc. Benzoic acid

3 grammes. Oil of eucalyptus.

.2 Cc. Oil of peppermint.

....2 Cc. Saccharin

0.5 gramme. Thymol

.0.25 gramme. Mix the soap with the chalk and add the glycerin and alcohol, previously mixed together. Before mixing the two latter dissolve the_acid, the oils, the saccharin and the thymol in the alcohol. Put into collapsible tubes immediately. (3) Precipitated chalk

.....12 pounds.
Powdered chlorate of potash. ..29 pounds.
Powdered sugar.: 4 pounds 10 ounces.
White mineral oil.

.2 fluidounces.
Oil of peppermint.

..8 fluidounces. Glycerin

.472 pints. Water

.3 pints. Pour the water into a mixer, gradually add the chlorate of potash, and mix well. Then add the powdered sugar and white mineral oil, and after mixing thoroughly with the chlorate of potash, gradually add the oil of peppermint and glycerin. Finally add the precipitated chalk in very small proportions.

Formula No. 3 was supplied to the BULLETIN by Joseph Jacobs, of Atlanta, Ga., who says that it makes a very satisfactory product.

Egg Shampoo. J. L. W. asks: "Can you furnish me with several formulas for egg shampoos ?"

Here are three:
(1) Egg yolks
Spirit of soap, N. F

.3% fluidounces.
Ammonia water

.3 fluidrachms. Oil of lemon.

.. 45 minims. Oil of rose geranium.

.15 minims. Water

.27 fluidounces. Beat the egg yolks, mix thoroughly with the other ingredients by agitation, and strain. (2) Transparent soap

.2 ounces. Glycerin

1 fluidounce. White of egg.

.1 fluidounce. Tincture of soap-bark.

.1 fluidounce. Extract of white rose.

7 fluidounce. Water, to make.

..1 pint. Melt the soap with 8 fluidounces of water by the aid of heat, and when cool add the glycerin, tincture of soap-bark, and per: fume. Mix the white of egg with four Auidounces of water, and, when completely dissolved, strain into the soap mixture, adding water if necessary to make a pint. Mix thoroughly, allow to stand 24 hours, then filter. (3) Fresh eggs

3. Spirit of soap, N. F

.1% fluidrachms. Ammonia water

.3 fluidrachms. Potassium carbonate

.272 drachms. Oil of rose..

2 drops. Oil of bergamot..

..2 drops. Oil of rose geranium.

.1 drop. Oil of bitter almond.

.1 drop. Rose-water

27 fluidounces. Thoroughly beat the eggs, dilute with the rose-water, add the other ingredients, mix intimately by agitation, and stiain.

If a pronounced egg-yellow color is desired it may be obtained by adding a little aniline yellow to any of the foregoing

Cement for Cinematograph Films. J. M. H. writes: "Can you supply me with a formula for a one-solution preparation used for joining inflammable and non-inflammable cinematograph films?"

Reference of your inquiry to several Detroit movingpicture film agencies elicited the rather vague information that such compounds are mixtures of collodion,

"Compounding" and the Harrison Law. The L. Drug Co. writes: "Kindly inform me how much laudanum we can put in the following mixture and not conflict with the Harrison law:

Tincture opium
Turpentine

2 fluidounces.
Raw linseed oil q. s. ad.

.1 pint. The amount of laudanum which may be included in the above mixture may be very roughly stated to benone at all!

According to that Treasury Decision known as No. 2213 none of those narcotics which are covered by the Harrison law can be included in any mixture providing the physical act of compounding is involved. Harrison law narcotics can be contained in a pharmacopoeial preparation, in a National Formulary preparation, in a proprietary preparation, or in a private formula preparation, provided the amount per solid or fluidounce does not exceed two grains of opium, 14 grain of morphine, 48 grain heroin, or 1 grain of codeine. Cocaine is, of course, barred altogether, under circumstances similar to the one under discussion. This is always a safe rule: No prescription or receipt calling for a narcotic in any quantity can be put up if the physical act of compounding is involved. The only way the mixture can be compounded is in a prescription made out in regular Harrison law form and signed by a practitioner who has registered under the act.

An Antiseptic Powder Containing Formaldehyde.

D. M. J. asks: "Can you supply me with a formula for a powdered preparation, containing some form of formaldehyde, that will be suitable for use as a local antiseptic?"

The following modification of the “Soluble Antiseptic Powder" of the National Formulary will perhaps meet your requirements:

Salicylic acid

5 grammes. Phenol

..1 gramme. Eucalyptol

1 gramme. Menthol

.1 gramme. Thymol

.1 gramme. Paraformaldehyde

2 grammes. Zinc sulphate

..125 grammes. Boric acid (impalpable powder)..864 grammes. Triturate the salicylic acid and zinc sulphate to a very fine powder; add the carbolic acid, eucalyptol, menthol, thymol, and paraformaldehyde, and continue the trituration, adding the boric acid, in small portions at a time, until a uniform impalpable powder is obtained. Paraformaldehyde is used in place of formaldehyde, as the latter is not suited for incorporation with a powdered mixture.

We suggest that you write the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., to find out full particulars of the law concerning the labeling of insecticides.

Automobile Polishes.

R. E. B. writes: "Will you kindly furnish a formula for a good automobile polish?"

Here are three formulas-one each for cream, liquid, and paste:

Cream Polish,
Castile soap

2 ounces.
Yellow wax

......2 ounces. White wax

1 ounce. Spirit of turpentine.

.16 fluidounces. Boiling water

...6 fluidounces. Melt the waxes on a water-bath and add the turpentine, stirring until the mixture is quite liquid. Dissolve the soap in the boiling water, and pour the two mixtures simultaneously into a hot earthenware jar. Stir for five minutes and then pour into wide-mouth bottles.

Liquid Polish.
Linseed oil

..20 fluidounces.
Spirit of turpentine.

12 fluidounces. Solution of antimony chloride....1 fluidounce. Vinegar

.8 fluidounces. Methyl alcohol

3 fluidounces. Camphor

...2 drachms. Sal ammoniac

....3 drachms. Dissolve the camphor in the spirit and the sal ammoniac in the vinegar; mix the ingredients in the order of the recipe.

Paste Polish.
Ceresine

.3 pounds.
Spirit of turpentine.

... pints. Resin

.6 ounces. Melt the ceresine and resin together and then add the turpen. tine, stirring until of a creamy consistency.

Overcoming the Cigarette Habit. H. L. W. asks: "Will you publish the best formula you know of for overcoming the cigarette habit?”

We printed on page 125 of the BULLETIN for last month formulas for several “placebos” used in the treatment of the tobacco habit. You will find them under the title "Overcoming the Tobacco Habit.”

In addition, we may say that a writer in the Bulletin Médical states that if the mouth be rinsed with a solution of silver nitrate (one-fourth of one-per-cent strength) it will overcome the desire for tobacco, because after this is done the smoke causes a gustatory sensation which is most repugnant and which removes, for a time, all desire to smoke.

Before applying any of the foregoing, the surface to be polished should first be cleaned thoroughly with water in order to remove any dust or dirt present.

Tan Shoe Paste.

A Shaving Cream for Use Without a Brush. L. J. H. writes: “I would like a formula for a shaving cream that may be used without a brush or the necessity of making a lather on the face."

The following is said to make a satisfactory preparation : Stearic acid

280 grains.
Stronger ammonia water (28%) .15 minims.
Solution of potassium hydroxide (5%).360 minims.
Glycerin

1 fluidounce.
Water

.9 fluidounces. Perfume

.q. s. Melt the acid, and to it add the hot water, glycerin, solution of potassium hydroxide, and stronger ammonia previously mixed and brought to a temperature of 80° C., adding the ammonia at the last moment just before mixing with the stearic acid. Stir and heat a few moments until the mixture thickens, then cool and add the perfume.

M. O. B. writes: “Will you publish directions for making a paste polish for tan shoes? I would also like to know if it would be possible to incorporate a tan dye with the ingredients used in making polishes for black shoes, and if so would like to be supplied with a formula.”

The following may be used as a basis for either tan or black paste: Carnauba wax

10 ounces. Beeswax

3 ounces. Stearin

1 ounce. Oleic acid

.1 fluidounce. Oil of turpentine.

45 fluidounces. Melt the three solids by heat, dissolve the coloring required in the oleic acid, add to the "melt," then gradually add the turpentine, keeping the mixture at a temperature of 40° C.

Oil-soluble nigrosin or brown dye (dissolved in the oleic acid) may be used to give the desired color to the paste in the proportion of ten to thirty grains to each ten ounces of paste. One grain of Nankin brown to each ounce will produce a satisfactory color for a tan shoe paste.

Any desired perfume may be used, a mixture of lavender and bay oils being particularly suitable.

About Anti-puncture Mixtures. R. H. writes: "I would like a formula for an antipuncture mixture to be placed in automobile tires."

We are not familiar with the composition of any preparation for the automatic repairing of punctures that we care to recommend. Many of the compounds on the market contain glycerin, carbon disulphide, chloroform, or turpentine—all of which have a more or less

BOOKS

deteriorating effect on rubber. Indeed, very few tire manufacturers will allow mileage adjustments on tires which have been treated with such compounds.

If any of our readers are familiar with the composition of an anti-puncture preparation which is not injurious to the rubber we will be glad to publish it.

What Discount Should Be Given Veterinarians!

R. B. asks: "How much discount should I give our veterinarian? He does not send us any prescriptions, and we do not feel like giving him very much discount, although we do not want to lose his good-will; it is worth something and he sends us a little business.”

It would seem that this is a matter that must be determined by individual judgment; circumstances must be permitted to gauge the discount allowed. Perhaps the majority of druggists supply both physicians and veterinarians with what merchandise may be needed at about 10 per cent above cost. Others allow only a discount of 10 per cent from the retail price. And between these extremes are all kinds of variations. It cannot be said that there is a general rule; for that matter, it would be extremely unwise to advocate that there should be one.

"COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT.” Building up the small town is the subject considered in the newest book by Frank Farrington, well known through his contributions to various trade journals and several books on retail business methods.

The book is designed primarily for the use of the small town of ten thousand population or less, and considerable space is given over to providing, in understandable form, information that makes comparatively easy the organization and operation of a commercial club and allied organizations and their departments.

Mr. Farrington endeavors to show how a welldeveloped community interest will keep trade from going to near-by cities or to mail-order houses, aid ministers in keeping their flocks together, and prevent children from leaving home to seek opportunities in larger cities—in short, how it will make the small town, through coöperation, a businesslike and desirable place in which to live.

"Community Development" is published by the Ronald Press Company, 20 Vesey Street, New York City, and is offered at the price of $1.50, post-paid.

Dry Shampoo. J. M. H. 'asks: "Will you print a formula for a dry (spirit) shampoo ?”

A liquid shampoo, “dry" in the sense that it contains no water, may be made as follows:

Stronger solution of ammonia....4 fluidrachms.
Oil of bitter almonds..

.15 minims.
Tincture of quillaja.

.3 fluidounces. Lavender water

.5 fluidounces. Alcohol, to make.

...12 fluidounces. Dissolve the oil of bitter almonds in the alcohol, then add the tincture, the lavender water, and finally the solution of ammonia.

If desired, the lavender water may be replaced by any other suitable perfume.

A BOOK ON BUSINESS MANAGEMENT. “The Butler Way System Book" is the name of a new 220-page volume put out by Butler Brothers. It represents an effort to tell in a non-technical way the many technical matters relating to the business side of the retail store.

The book treats of profits and how to figure them, and outlines three complete systems of bookkeeping. It considers such subjects as taking inventory, credit, banking, fire insurance, collections, leases, freight and drayage, waste, and other subjects.

The book is supplied without charge to Butler Brothers' customers.

Mange Remedy. A. J. C. writes: "Will you please publish a formula for a mange remedy?”

Here is the formula of a preparation that is used to a considerable extent: Oil of tar.

.2 fluidounces. Precipitated sulphur

.2 drachms. Crude petroleum oil.

12 fluidounce. Kerosene, to make..

pint. Rub the sulphur with the oil of tar and then add the balance of the ingredients.

A “shake” label should be placed on each bottle.

Saw PALMETTO. “Saw Palmetto, a Phytochemical Study of the Fruit of Sabal Serrulata," is the title of Bulletin No. 767, University of Wisconsin. The treatise constitutes a thesis submitted by Charles August Mann, Instructor of Chemical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, and is very thorough and unusually instructive.

Persons who reside in Wisconsin may obtain copies free by applying to the secretary of the regents and paying the cost of transportation; to persons not residents of the State the price is 25 cents.

Analgesic Balm. W. J. H. asks: “Will you please print a formula for analgesic balm ?" The following appears in the literature: Wool-fat

.9 drachms. Yellow wax.

3 drachms. Menthol

3 drachms. Methyl salicylate

.2 fluidrachms. Water

...3 fluidrachms. Melt the wax and wool-fat on a water-bath, add the menthol and methyl salicylate, stir and cover, and when creamy, mix in the water.

This preparation should be dispensed in collapsible tubes.

A DRUG STORE BLOTTER AND DIARY. Smith Brothers & Company, Port of Spain, Trinidad, British West Indies, put out a very attractive "Blotter and Diary," as it is called. Allied flags make up much of the covers, and the contents of the book comprises diary sheets alternating with advertising pages. The company has a branch store at Arima and another at Sangre Grande. George C. Dieffenthaller, F.C.S., is manager.

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