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15. Name two diaphoretics, giving approxiBOARD QUESTIONS ANSWERED
mate maximum dose of each.
Camphor; approximate maximum dose, 5
grains. AN INDIANA EXAMINATION.
Potassium acetate; approximate maximum (Continued from the April BULLETIN.)
dose, 60 grains. 10. Explain the difference between liniment 16. What forms of sulphur are official? and lotion.
Sublimed sulphur, washed sulphur, and preLiniments are very thin ointments for ex- cipitated sulphur. . ternal application intended to be applied with 17. What is an alterative? friction to the skin. They are solutions of An alterative is a remedy which changes various substances in oily liquids or in alcoholic (alters) the course of morbid conditions in liquids containing fatty oils.
some way not yet understood, perhaps by proLotions are solutions or mixtures of medi- moting metabolism. cinal agents intended for external application, 18. Name five alteratives. usually consisting of some soluble, astringent Arsenic, sulphur, mercury, iodine, and phossalt dissolved in water, with perhaps some phorus. glycerin or alcohol added.
19. How is creosote obtained ? 11. Explain the difference between the phy- Creosote (a mixture of phenols and phenol siologic and therapeutic action of medicine. derivatives, chiefly guaiacol and creosol) is ob
The physiologic action of medicine is the tained during the distillation of wood-tar, preeffect produced by the administration of medi- ferably of that derived from the beech. cine to a healthy person, while the therapeutic
20. What is the chief therapeutic use of action is the effect produced by the administra- creosote? tion of the same medicine to a sick person. A
Creosote is used extensively in the treatment knowledge of the physiologic action of a drug of pulmonary tuberculosis. is the basic reason for its administration when · 21. Give official names of croton oil, castor it is desired to produce a therapeutic action oil, cod-liver oil, oil of birch, and oil of winterthat will alleviate or cure a pathological condi- green. tion. To produce the physiological action in a The official Latin names are: oleum tiglii, healthy person the dose of the drug required is oleum ricini, oleum morrhuæ, oleum betulæ, usually much larger than is the one needed to and oleum gaultheriæ. produce the therapeutic action in a person who 22. (a) What is the source of nux vomica ? is ill.
(6) What is its most potent alkaloid? 12. What is the source of aloes?
(a) Nux vomica is the dried, ripe seed of Aloes is the inspissated juice of the leaves of Strychnos Nux-vomica Linné (Fam. LoganiAloe vera (Linne) Webb, Aloe Chinensis acea). Baker, Aloe Perryi Baker, or other species of (b) Strychnine is its most potent alkaloid. Aloe (Fam. Liliacea).
23. Name two non-metallic inorganic anti13. How is the active principle of aloes pre- septics. pared?
Chlorine and hydrogen peroxide. Aloin may be prepared as follows: One 24. Name four acids of vegetable origin part of aloes is dissolved in 10 parts of boiling recognized by the Pharmacopæia or National water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and Formulary. allowed to cool. The liquid is then decanted Acetic, camphoric, citric, and tartaric acids. from resinous matter, evaporated to about 2 25. Name four medicinal substances which parts, and set aside two weeks for crystals to have very low melting points. form; the liquid portion is poured off, the Cocoanut oil, salol, camphor, and phenol. crystals pressed and the adherent resinous mat- 26. What is the source of adeps lanæ hyter separated by shaking with acetic ether, drosus? which dissolves the resin.
The purified fat of the wool of sheep (Ovis 14. What is a diaphoretic?
arics Linné). A diaphoretic is a remedy which increases 27. Under what conditions is the use of the action of the skin and promotes the secre- hydrous wool-fat indicated ? tion of perspiration.
When it is desired to use as an ointment base
a substance that does not easily become rancid, from troy weight, which latter was introduced that resists saponification, that will take up a into Great Britain by merchants from Lomconsiderable amount of water or water-soluble bardy, toward the close of the thirteenth censubstance, that will pass through the integu- tury. As far back as 1266 a statute was ment readily and carry with it any medica- enacted in England which provided that an ment with which it is charged. It is a perfectly English silver penny, called a sterling, round neutral base, and therefore not liable to decom- and without clipping, should equal in weight pose any ordinary substance. It is particularly 32 wheat grains, well dried and taken from useful in chronic skin diseases where there is the center of the ear, and that of such pence infiltration, and where a penetrative action is 20 should make one ounce, and 12 ounces one desired for medicaments locally applied. pound. About 1497 the weight of the silver
28. Define the following terms and give an penny, however, was changed to the equivalent example of each: hemostatic, narcotic, vermi- of 24 wheat grains. These statutes clearly infuge, diuretic, and hypnotic.
dicate the origin of the pennyweight and the A hemostatic is an agent which arrests troy system, from which the apothecaries' bleeding when administered internally. Adren- weight was subsequently derived. alin is a hemostatic.
2. (a) What doses should be remembered of A narcotic is an agent which lessens the re- a poisonous drug? (b) What dose of a drug lationship of the individual to the external does the Pharmacopæia give? Why? world. Opium is a narcotic.
(a) The minimum, approximate average, A vermifuge is an agent which expels worms and maximum doses. inhabiting the intestinal canal. Oil of cheno
(b) The approximate average dose because podium is a vermifuge. a
owing to the age, sex, temperament, drug habA diuretic is an agent which promotes the its and idiosyncrasies of individuals, rendering secretion of urine. Potassium acetate is a them more than usually susceptible or indiuretic.
susceptible to the action of certain remedies, A hypnotic is an agent which produces sleep. it is not feasible to state authoritative minimum Potassium bromide is a hypnotic.
or maximum doses.
3. Name five alkaloids, giving source and METROLOGY, POSOLOGY, AND TOXICOLOGY.
average dose of each, that you consider 12 1. Give a brief history of the origin of the grain an overdose. metric, avoirdupois and apothecaries' systems Aconitine is obtained from Aconitum Naof weights.
pellus. The metric system is supposed to have orig- Atropine is obtained from Atropa Bellainated in the fertile mind of the French states- donna and some allied plants. man, Prince de Talleyrand, toward the close of Strychnine is the principal alkaloid of nux the eighteenth century. It was enforced in vomica. It is also obtainable from other France by law in December, 1799. As a basis, plants of the Loganiaceæ. the authors of the metric system adopted a Colchicine is obtained from colchicum. quadrant (one-fourth) of the earth's circum- Veratrine is a mixture of alkaloids obtained ference, and dividing this into ten million from the seed of Asagroea officinalis. parts they obtained a certain measure of length, 4. Name and give the average dose of five which they named meter, and adopted as a U. S. P. tinctures of which you consider two standard for all units of measurement.
teaspoonfuls an overdose. Avoirdupois weight, as its name would seem Tincture of aconite, 10 minims; tincture of to indicate, is probably of French origin belladonna leaves, 8 minims; tincture of can(avoir du poids, to have weight), and was no tharides, 5 minims; tincture of digitalis, 15 doubt introduced into Great Britain during the minims; tincture of iodine, 112 minims. reign of the Norman dynasty; it first appeared 5. Name and give the average dose of five in the English statute-books in 1335. In 1824 mineral acids. the value of the avoirdupois pound was defined Diluted hydriodic acid, 8 minims; diluted by law in England to be 7000/5760 of the old hydrochloric acid, 15 minims; diluted nitric standard troy pound.
acid, 30 minims; nitrohydrochloric acid, 3 minApothecaries' weight was probably derived ims; diluted sulphuric acid, 30 minims.
(To be continued.)
A STOCK-REDUCING SCHEME. To the Editors :
On February 15 I sent out to every name on my mailing-list a card bearing the following phraseology:
This is the Coupon that is good for
One Dollar and Fifty Cents
PEOPLE'S DRUG STORE,
us explained in the
Enclosed Circular Anton J. Sievers, Proprietor
wait until the last of the article is sold before entering the item on the order sheet, but jot it down early.
I recommend going over the stock carefully about once a week and making a memo of the articles that are getting low, using careful judgment as to which are best sellers and which are slow to move. The possibility of overbuying may hinge here, so care must be taken not to anticipate, too far in advance, the need for certain articles. It is much better to order every week or two, and not in such large quantities, than to order once a month, for there will always occur several "shorts" in the course of a month that it would not be advisable to hold off on thirty days before reordering.
In fact, there are many instances when it will prove profitable to make a special order and pay express charges rather than be out of articles, especially staple sellers. This, of course, emphasizes the importance of closely watching the stock and the want-book. Unnecessary express charges eat heavily into the profits, but, at the same time, it is risky business to send a customer to a competitor for even a small purchase. He might be induced to keep up his patronage there. Audubon, Iowa.
DAISY A. FRICK.
In explanation I might say that our town is small and that I carry a number of lines quite outside and apart from those generally carried in a drug store.
The discount offered was heavy, the statement on the circular which accompanied the coupon being to the effect that when a customer bought nine dollars' worth, he might then claim his free goods. The nine dollars' worth had to be bought within thirty days, though. The back of the coupon was ruled for a record of purchases. The scheme worked well.
It reduced my stock and it secured for me a number of new customers.
ANTON J. SIEVERS.
THE LONG HOURS MADE SHORTER.
THE IMPORTANCE OF MAKING WANT
BOOK ENTRIES. To the Editors :
We are located on a branch of the Rock Island and Northwestern Railroad, fifty miles from a wholesale house, and it takes from three to six days to get in our freight shipments. This often makes it possible for us to be out of some article for several days at a time.
The importance of the want-book has made an indelible impression upon my mind, so much so that I have made it a rule to enter an item, when a sale takes the last article, just as regularly as I would enter a charge sale on the daybook.
If the stock of a rapid seller is low, I do not
To the Editors:
On the morning the BULLETIN arrives at the store my clerk has it looked through by the time I get down, and always tells me about something good that he has found in it. Later, we both read it from cover to cover, obtaining from it a great many usable ideas and serviceable helps.
It strikes me that an original “small-boy” experience which happened in our store the other day might prove of interest to BULLETIN readers. Here it is:
Two lads, regular boys, each of them about 12 years old, came in to purchase some stamps. Their hands were in the usual condition of those of small boys in marble time. They compared grimy fists for a minute or two, and then one little fellow said to the other, “Aw, let the drug-store guy lick 'em!"
And so the long hours are made shorter.
Mgr. Red Cross Drug Store.
Your magazine is my choice of all pharmaceutical publications.
WILLIAM SCHAFFARZICK. White Sulphur Springs, Mont.
It is one of the snappiest drug journals I receive, and I appreciate its arrival each month. Schenectady, N. Y.
H. S. Van Patten. We might add in conclusion that the BULLEtin is read and enjoyed by every man in the store—a source of profit and entertainment to all.
WEST DRUG COMPANY. Tarpon Springs, Florida.
EVEN THE MINISTERS LIKE US!
To the Editors:
While I am not now directly connected with the drug trade, yet I am greatly interested in the BULLETIN. While making my quarterly rounds among the churches in my district I never fail to slip into my suit-case a copy of the BULLETIN and the Literary Digest, to which I have been a subscriber from the very first number, while a student in the Gammon Theological Seminary in Atlanta, Ga., in 1891.
I cannot see how any individual connected with the drug trade, directly or indirectly, can be abreast with the times who does not read a good magazine such as the BULLETIN OF PHARMACY. REV. VALCOUR CHAPMAN.
New Orleans, La.
The Bulletin is one publication that we cannot do without. The practical suggestions that we get from it are worth many times the subscription price. John A. Shaw.
For several years I have considered the BULLETIN the most useful to the retail druggist of any of the drug journals. That covers the entire ground as I see it. Watsonville, Cal.
E. W. HANSON. I have read the BULLETIN ever since I graduated from college, and I must say it is the journal I have been looking for. It is modern, and it contains everything a druggist wants to know and ought to know.
JOHN A. DORJAHN, Ph.G. Blue Island, III.
I am so appreciative of the value of your drug journal that I have every copy I have ever received bound together by the year, and often delve into back numbers for suggestions and formulas of value. C. FRED CORPRON.
THE SODA FOUNTAIN.
After the cream is frozen, remove the dasher, and place a cork or stopper in the lid. The ice and salt should now be stamped down tight around the can, and more ice and salt added, until the top of can is covered. Cover the tub with a bag, rug. piece of carpet, or similar covering.
Ice cream is said to taste better when allowed to stand a while hefore using, say an hour or two.
The tub should be repacked a couple of times during the day, or while cream remains in the can
Quickness in freezing, aided by good internal mechanism in the can, gives a smooth, even surface to the cream, without lumps.
RIGHT WAY TO FREEZE ICE CREAM.
Even though hundreds are using brine freezers of modern type, yet there are occasions when ice-cream demand may slacken so that it does not pay to operate the ten-gallon or larger-capacity machine. Then, as well as on other occasions, the so-called hand or power freezers come quite handy and can be more economically operated, says the Soda Fountain. Most dealers work up the home as well as the outside towns for orders, and the growing tendency is for the use of the brine freezers, but always at the same time retaining or buying along with the larger system the hand or power machine for emergencies where extra orders come in after the day's requisites have been filled, and where it would be impossible to produce a less quantity with the machine than ten gallons. As these hand machines will always have their place in a store or a factory, it follows that a better knowledge should prevail to get the most out of such a machine in the handling of the machine and material. For much better operation the following should serve as a guide.
Some freezers, of course, are handled a little differently than others, depending upon make, capacity, and special construction. Before starting in to make a batch of ice cream, the freezer can, lid, and dasher should be scalded. These should always be sweet and clean.
There are a great many ways of making ice cream and frozen delicacies. In fact, few ice-cream makers use exactly the same formula. However, there is nothing complicated or difficult about handling the cream or ingredients, and whatever recipe is used should be followed closely.
When ready to do the freezing, put the mixture into the can, adjust the mechanism, dasher, lid, etc., so everything will work perfectly. Even a novice will have no trouble in doing the freezing. Full operating directions usually accompany each freezer, or by following the operation a number of times with the icecream can empty, any confectioner will readily understand how to handle the freezer.
Usually, three parts of ice are used to one part of salt as packing around the freezer can in the tuba layer of ice being put in, then a layer of salt, until the tub is full. Rock salt or coarse barrel salt is used.
Now turn the crank slowly until the cream or mixture becomes chilled, then increase the speed of turning, and finally turn the crank as rapidly as possible until the mixture is well frozen, or of desired consistency. Rapid turning at the end increases the yield, hence a power freezer will usually yield a little better than a crank or hand freezer.
Some makers of ice cream thoroughly mix the crushed ice with salt in a box before packing around the freezer can, the ice being crushed very fine, or as it would be by an ice-breaker or crusher. By mixing in this way, the salt begins to act immediately on the ice, and the temperature of the salted ice is much colder by the time the crank-turning begins than when the ice and salt are packed around the can in layers.
With the can revolving in one direction in the tub, while the beaters, dashers, etc., move in another direction in the can, good freezing is easy of accomplishment, for, after all, it is the freezer that does the work, with a few moments' turning of the crank.
SELECTED FORMULAS FOR SUMMER
PINEAPPLE SNOW. Dissolve one-half ounce of French granulated gelatin in a quart of water. Do this in a double boiler to prevent its scorching on the bottom, and set aside to cool. Squeeze the juice of ten lemons into a gallon of cold water. Add one-half pound of granulated sugar.
Add the gelatin solution and mix well. Then strain off the whites of three eggs and beat to a froth. Stir the eggs thoroughly into the rest of the prep aration and freeze in a five-gallon ice-cream freezer until almost hard. Then open freezer and add one quart of good crushed pineapple and freeze solid. It should be whipped up and frozen fast at first so as to make it light and frothy. It is delicious and very cooling.
APPLE CRANBERRY FRAPPE. To each quart of cranberries allow one quart of unsweetened apple sauce, three pounds of sugar, one and one-half quarts of water, the juice of two lemons and one orange, the grated rind of one lemon and one orange, and two tablespoonfuls of powdered gelatin, and one cup of boiling water. Cook the cranberries in the water until soft. Add the apple sauce. Run through a sieve. Add the fruit juice, grated rind, and the sugar. Soak the gelatin in' a little cold water, then dissolve in the boiling water. Add to the fruit mixture. Pack in ice and salt and let stand four hours.
HER MAJESTY'S SURPRISE. Add to i pint of marshmallow cream, 8 ounces each of vanilla syrup and chocolate syrup. Take 14 pound of hazel nuts, blanch them in hot water, chop fine and add to the mixture. Then add 1 quart of fresh strawberries, previously prepared with sugar as is done in serving strawberry sundaes. Serve sufficient of the mixture over vanilla cream
and top with whipped cream and a cherry.
WHITE MOUNTAIN. Orange syrup, 2 ounces; cream, 3 ounces; white of one egg; shaved ice, 12 glassful. Shake well, strain into a 12ounce glass and fill with carbonated water, fine stream.
CHOCOLATE NUT FREEZE. Into a sundae glass place 12 ounce of chocolate syrup, ounce of sweet creain, one teaspoonful of vanilla ice cream, and two teaspoonfuls of nut meats mixed well. Add one 20. to-the-quart scoopful of vanilla ice cream, cover with whipped cream, and place a whole maraschino cherry on top.
BANANA BEST. At one end of a split banana put a No. 20 mound of vanilla ice cream, and at the other a No. 20 mound of straw. berry ice cream. Over each mound of ice cream pour some cherry syrup and top with a cherry. Sprinkle with chopped walnut meats and put a small ladle of whipped cream between the mounds of ice cream, and top with a green and a red cherry.
BANANA NEAPOLITAN. Place on
a split banana four No. 20 cones of ice cream, using strawberry, chocolate, vanilla and orange or other water ice, so placing the cones of ice cream as to make the colors contrast agreeably. The cream may then, if desired, be spread into one mass; but if you do this, you must be very careful to have it look neat. Decorate with a cherry.
SWEET CLOVER SYRUP. To 24 ounces of simple syrup add 8 ounces of tea syrup, 4 ounces of maple syrup, one-half ounce of solution of acid phosphate, and color a delicate green, using pure food coloring. Serve in an 8-ounce glass in the same manner as any phosphate.