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Virginia is "active," the fee is $5, and it is land, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Misnot necessary to appear in person. Fourteen souri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, exchange certificates were issued last year. New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Ore

Washington is not a member of the Associa- gon, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, tion, and has no reciprocity arrangement what- Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wis

consin. West Virginia is “active," the fee is $10, and It is possible for a druggist registered by it is not necessary to appear in person. Three examination in one of these States to become reciprocal registrations were granted last year. registered in the others.

Wisconsin is "active," the fee is $15, and the The "associate" States are Colorado, New State Board is not governed rigidly by the York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and rules of the N. A. B. P.; the Board reserves Mississippi. These States do not issue recipthe right to modify or waive such regulations. rocal registrations. Every applicant for reciprocal registration New Jersey and Rhode Island do not issue must appear before the Board in person, or reciprocal registrations. before some member of the Board.

Ten cer

California does not issue a reciprocal certificates of this character were issued last year. tificate, but does grant what may be termed

Wyoming is not a member, and registers its "credentials" certificate. only on examination. No exchange relation- Ohio, Nevada, and Minnesota issue recipship of any kind has been provided for.

rocal certificates based on rules of their own. By way of recapitulation, the "active" In Michigan, in case the candidate is refused States are Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, Con- registration, the $15 fee is returned, as is also necticut Delaware, District of Columbia, the $5 paid to the Secretary of the National Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Association. It is presumed that all States Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mary operate on the same plan.

REFITTING TO
MEET THE TIMES

By LOUIS H. HAMM

Just thirty years ago this month I applied had observed was the custom in all the stores for a position as an apprentice in a drug store.

where I had traded before entering upon my a I offered my services gratis provided I could career. We must have no loafers, no smokhave a chance to learn the business without ing, and all must be as placid as a trout lake in being compelled to wash bottles and pack goods May. Such were my instructions at that time in the wholesale department. I had completed in the general conduct of the store. The wintwo years' work in a classical college and was dows must be dressed with colored bottles, fairly well versed in languages and the crude drugs, or the best of toilet articles, not sciences. I was fortunate enough to serve with patent medicines, syringes, supporters, or under a prescription clerk who was a Ph.G. other articles of a like nature. The cigar from one of the oldest colleges of pharmacy in counter must be in the rear of the store and in our country.

as little prominence as possible. My training was very severe. The first

A READJUSTMENT INDICATED. thing impressed on my mind was how to approach a customer so as to be both dignified This training was the correct thing at that and genial and at the same time to appear time, and after entering in business for myself interested in his wants. Especially was I I followed it for fifteen years; so well, in fact, instructed in the proper way to wait upon a that my nearest neighbor remarked one day woman customer. I was also told never to that I had a large women's trade. "Yes," I hold the end of the twine in my mouth, as I said, "but I am not making any money.

I am

going to refit, for I think refitting once in a while is as necessary as restocking."

The conditions of my location had gradually changed, and I had to change or quit. I was in the center of the business district where the steam and the electric cars delivered their passengers from the suburban districts. Family drug stores had opened up in the resident districts, and the women did not have to come down-town for ice cream or prescriptions. My store was small, and if people saw two or three customers in it at once they would not come in, for fear of delay.

I was in a quandary and knew not what to do.

I took a week's trip away to another State where there were larger cities and more of them. I visited a number of stores without making myself known and asking few questions. I thought I could imitate if I could not originate.

pleasure trips. I at once took him in and began to train him my own way.

The result far exceeded my expectations.

I soon found that he was a natural wag, very pleasant and agreeable to both women and men. He would sell a postage-stamp as cheerfully as he would a five-dollar pipe. And above all, he allowed his customers to know more than he did. He furnished amusement for the most learned scholar and interest for the humblest citizen.

REFITTING TO SUIT LOCATION.

I came back and refitted my store and stocked it as my location seemed to demand. I made cigars, pipes, and smokers' supplies one feature of my store, and all kinds of sundries another feature. The shelf bottles were put in the back room where we could reach them handily, and, as a result, names that customers could not understand ceased to furnish food for questions. My store looked very little like the old-style drug store, but was a success from the start.

The next important move, and the hardest of all, was to select a clerk who would carry out my instructions according to my borrowed ideas. Again my travels and study of human nature did not fail me. I had visited the coast of my State many times, duck shooting and deep-sea fishing, and had observed how quickly and correctly a man would obey an order. I thought if I could only get a clerk to do the same thing it would be a blessing.

A druggist in town had a young man whom he had employed for four years and wished me to hire him. This young man was from the coast section where I had been on my

ONE PRICE TO ALL. I told him that I had only one price to customers, friends, or relatives, and asked that he maintain it. One day, after he had been with

, me for about six months, he banged his fist down on the counter and exclaimed, “You have the queerest lot of customers I ever saw." I asked him why he thought so, and he replied, "I have been here six months, and no matter what price I ask I have not had a kick. Where I worked before I never knew what price I would get, as most all the customers would say, Mr. (my boss) lets me have those pills for forty-five cents. You shouldn't ask me fifty!"

Of course after I put in my side-lines and relegated the shelf bottles and drugs to the back room the other druggists, at our regular meeting and banquet, jollied me about my store, as they had done often before about my many fads. “What,” they asked, “are you running, a pipe store or a general store?” "No," I replied, “I am still running a drug store, but with crude drugs as a side-line." A good many of them are now doing as I am.

While, with my present method of doing business, I make a special effort to get the men's trade, the business is not confined to them by any means. The women come just the same.

At first some of them would say: “I would like to trade with you better if you did not make such a display of smokers' goods.” But they are used to it now, as most stores have their cigar counters in front and make many window displays of pipes and tobaccos.. The kickers still trade with me.

We have some very attractive home-made show-cards on hand, and these will be reproduced in

the Bulletin during the next two or three months.

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liquid by agitation, without heat, strain, and BOARD QUESTIONS ANSWERED

add enough water through the strainer to
make the product measure 1000 Cc. Mix

thoroughly.
AN IOWA EXAMINATION.

9. Briefly give the manner of preparation

and state the ingredients in chloroform liniPHARMACY.

ment. 1. What are volatile oils?

Mix, by agitation, 300 Cc. of chloroform Volatile oils are odoriferous bodies of oily with 700 Cc. of soap liniment. . character that are volatile without decomposi- 10. Briefly give the manner of preparation tion at ordinary temperature. They may be and state the ingredients of Seidlitz powders. conveniently divided into four classes: ter- To make 12 sets of two powders each: Mix penes, oxygenated oils, sulphureted oils, and 31 grammes of sodium bicarbonate, dried and nitrogenated oils.

in fine powder, with 93 grammes of sodium 2. Name five volatile oils.

and potassium tartrate, dried and in fine powOils of anise, bitter almond, cinnamon, der; divide this mixture into 12 equal parts, lemon, and rose.

and wrap each part in a separate blue paper. 3. What are fixed oils?

Then divide 27 grammes of tartaric acid, dried Fixed oils are bodies which are greasy to the and in fine powder, into twelve equal parts, touch and which leave a permanent oily stain and wrap each part in a separate white paper. on paper. Chemically they are compound bod- 11. Briefly give the manner of preparation ies containing the radical glyceryl in combina- and state the ingredients of solution of magtion with anhydrides of the various fatty acids. nesium citrate. 4. Name five fixed oils.

Dissolve 33 grammes of citric acid in 125 Cottonseed, linseed, olive, castor, and croton Cc. of water, and, having added 15 grammes oils.

of magnesium carbonate, stir until it is dis5. What would you consider the best solvent solved. Filter the solution into a strong bottle for (a) quinine, (b) salol, (c) boric acid, (d) of the capacity of about 360 Cc., containing scale pepsin, (e) resublimed iodine?

60 Cc. of syrup of citric acid. Then add (a) Alcohol, (b) alcohol, (c) glycerin, (d) enough water to nearly fill the bottle, drop in water, (e) alcohol.

2.5 grammes of potassium bicarbonate, and 6. Name five tinctures with a drug percent immediately stopper the bottle securely. age of more than ten.

Lastly, shake the mixture occasionally, until Tinctures of asafetida, bitter orange peel, the potassium bicarbonate is dissolved. benzoin, serpentaria, and ginger.

12. What are the common names of the fol7. Name five tinctures with a drug percent- lowing: (a) Solution of antimony bichloride, age of less than ten.

(b) phenyl salicylate, (c) mercurous chloride, Tinctures of musk, kino, iodine, nux vom- (d) acetphenetidin, (c) sulphonethylmethane? ica, and lavender compound.

(a) Butter of antimony, (b) salol, (c) calo8. Briefly give the manner of preparation mel, (d) phenacetine, (c) trional. and state the ingredients of hive syrup.

13. What are the official Latin names of the Hive syrup (compound syrup of squill, following: (a) Salol, (b) aspirin, (c) U. S. P.) may be prepared as follows: Mix Brown's mixture, (d) antiseptic solution, (e) 80 Cc. of fluidextract of squill with 80 Cc. of Hoffman's anodyne. fluidextract of senega. Evaporate the mix- (a) Phenylis salicylas. ture, in a tared dish, on a water-bath, to 100 (b) Aspirin is not official in the U. S. P. grammes, and mix the residue with 350 Cc. of

Moreover, the name “aspirin” is a coined one water. When the mixture is cold, incorporate and cannot logically be given a Latin form. It with it, intimately, 20 grammes of purified might be written "aspirinum," but to do so is talc, filter, pass enough water through the filter poor prescribing and worse Latin. to obtain 400 Cc. of clear filtrate, and add to (c) Mistura glycyrrhiza composita. this 2 grammes of antimony and potassium (d) Liquor antisepticus. tartrate previously dissolved in 25 Cc. of hot (e) Spiritus ætheris compositus. water. Dissolve 750 grammes of sugar in this 14. State briefly how you prepare emulsions.

18. State briefly how you would prepare A typical emulsion, as of cod-liver oil, for

elixirs. instance, may be prepared as follows:

Many elixirs can be prepared extemporaPlace in a mortar one-fourth as much finely powdered acacia as the oil to be used, then add

neously by simple solution of the medicinal the oil and triturate well together into a

ingredients in the desired vehicle. Additional smooth mixture. Next add all at once, not

operations, such as the use of heat, maceration, gradually, twice as much water as the acacia

filtration, etc., are sometimes required. which has been used, and stir rapidly until a

19. How many grains in 8 grammes? perfect emulsion has been formed, which is

In one gramme there are 15.4234 grains. known by the appearance of a white pasty

Therefore in 8 grammes there would be mass, free from oil particles, and a peculiar

8X 15.4234 grains or 123.3872 grains. crackling noise as the pestle is drawn through

20. What part of an avoirdupois ounce is 8 the adhesive mixture. This primary emulsion

grammes? should be well scraped with a spatula from the An avoirdupois ounce contains 437.5 grains. pestle and sides of the mortar, again stirred, Therefore, 8 grammes is equivalent to and then the remainder of the water, or other

123.3872/437.5 or 282/1000 of an avoirdupois diluent, slowly added with constant stirring. ounce.

15. State briefly how you prepare supposi- 21. How many fluidrachms in 15 Cc.? tories.

1 Cc. is equivalent to 16.23 minims. ThereHand-made suppositories may be made as fore, in 15 Cc. there would be 15 X 16.23 or follows:

243.45 minims, which is equivalent to 4 7/120 Effect an intimate mixture of the active in- fluidrachms. gredients and vehicle in a mortar, by forming 22. What part of a pint is 15 Cc. ?

a them into a uniform mass, and transfer the One pint contains 7680 minims. Therefore, mass to a graduated tile to be divided into the

15 Cc. is 243.45/7680 or 317/10000 of a pint required number of equal parts, which are then

-practically 1/32 of a pint. properly shaped with the fingers.

23. What care should be taken in a drug 16. State briefly how you prepare decoc

store in keeping in stock spirit of nitroglytions.

cerin? Whenever a special strength is not directed

Great care should be exercised in dispensing, the following general directions are carried

handling and storing the spirit, since a dangerout:

ous explosion may result if any considerable Put 50 grammes of the substance, coarsely quantity of it be spilled, and the alcohol be comminuted, into a suitable vessel provided

partly or wholly lost by evaporation. If, with a cover; pour upon it 1000 Cc. of cold water, cover well, and boil for 15 minutes;

through accident, it be spilled, a solution of then let it cool to about 40° C., strain the

potassium hydroxide should be at once poured liquid, and pass through the strainer enough

over it, to effect decomposition.

24. What care should be taken in storing cold water to make the product measure 1000 Cc.

spirit of nitrous ether? 17. State briefly how you prepare infusions.

It should be placed in small, well-stoppered, Whenever a special strength is not directed

dark amber-colored vials, and kept in a cool the following general directions are carried

place, remote from lights or fire. out:

25. What care should be taken in storing Take of the substance, coarsely comminuted, phosphorus? 50 grammes; boiling water, 1000 Cc.; water a It should be carefully kept under water, in sufficient quantity to make 1000 Cc. Put the

strong, well-closed vessels, in a secure and substance into a suitable vessel provided with moderately cool place, protected from light. a cover, pour upon it the boiling water, cover 26. What care should be taken in storing the vessel tightly, and let it stand for one-half syrup of ferrous iodide? hour in a warm place. Then strain and pass It should be kept in well-filled bottles of sufficient water through the strainer to make flint glass and not away from the action of the infusion measure 1000 Cc.

light. (To be continued.)

LETTERS

WHAT AN AUSTRALIAN THINKS OF US.

The ideas for the new place were collected gradually; the interior, as above stated, was taken from many of your photos. The outside was also suggested by one of your photos.

The dispensing arrangements were practically my own. I am not blowing my own trumpet, but I can say that my store is universally accepted as the most up-to-date one in Western Australia. The local people are pleased with it and are getting quite used to the new idea of no counter. This is replaced by separate cases, glass sides, front and top, just high enough to serve over comfortably.

Some think I am rushing things a little, as many of these ideas are new and have never been tried here before; but I am glad to say that I have no cause for complaint, so far. The innovations are "making good."

The "old stock” sale, also the "jitney” sale, were winners. I got good money for dead stock. I sacrificed, of course, but I got rid of it, and have the money working.

Keep your journal as it is! I am enjoying it; it makes money for me; puts new ideas into my head, and keeps me from getting stale.

R. L. BURLINSON.
North Perth, West Australia.

1

SPIRITED COMMENT.

To the Editors:

I want to tell you, as an Australian reader, what does and what does not appeal to me in the BULLETIN OF PHARMACY.

As you will admit, of course, there are some departments that do not interest us—say the “Month's History,” for instance.

Apart from the interest that centers around things in the U. S. A., this has nothing to do with us, not being acquainted to any extent with American views. Yet the department has this much to its credit: an outsider can get a glimpse of what is doing on that side of the world.

So keep it in, for we want to know how to act, if the same laws, etc., are ever applied here.

What has just been said also applies in a similar manner to the Editorial department. It is, in a way, purely local, but interesting.

The department of “Profits and Earnings” is a splendid section, for as a rule the average druggist is a fat-head at his books. This department seems to bring that fact home to him. It is a good thing. Keep it going. I have used it successfully, for it hit me up a bit.

The department of “About People” would be excellent indeed if you knew any of the exalted brethren. But we don't.

The pictures are splendid. Interiors of shops are good, and it is a study of these photos that gave me the idea of fitting out my new shop, which is the only one so fitted in Western Australia. Everybody has liked the arrangement, it being quite novel and attractive. Keep your pictures: interiors, exteriors, and all the rest.

The department of "Questions and Answers" is good, and it has in many cases proved extremely useful to me.

The rest is all good, too, and very interesting; but I miss the Observer. Did he hurt somebody?

He was good and often must have touched sore spots. Find him again.

. Your journal is all right!

I started four years ago in a suburb not thickly populated, in a shanty. Eighteen months later I enlarged, and last November I went into new premises, built to suit my order.

To the Editors:

My hat is off to Old Man Hicks! However any one with half an eye can see he is not a druggist. No real druggist ever sold four ounces of sulphur for a nickel, though I once read of one who sold a cent's worth, and the grateful customer spent nearly seventeen dollars for fishing tackle, safety-razors, and other drugs.

What a vain old man! Just had to quote Freud and show us a thing or two. Still, I guess some druggists may have read Freud and have waded through the obscurities of his disciple Jung, too.

I think the old man is right about the drug business paying, although not always in money. Some time ago the BULLETIN had two articles along this line, one writer seeing the beautiful and romantic in our old gums, resins, and balsams, the other only the drudgery of the drug shop.

There is a happy medium, I believe, between the Lotus-eater and the Brother to the Ox; anyhow, I know of a druggist who lets profit

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