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standards. There is no way of calculating the Stocks of this should be adjusted by the advalue of Calisaya preparations to the new dition of glucose or milk sugar, according as standard, because the basis is different.

a pilular or a powdered extract is treated. To There is also a small change in the method each 5 parts of the extract, add one part of of assay, the total alkaloids being dried at diluent. 100° C. instead of 110° C. as at present, and Ipecac. The fluidextract is now made in a a larger proportion of chloroform being em- different manner, and with a less strongly ployed as a solvent. Thus preparations stand- alcoholic menstruum, so that it is miscible with ardized for total cinchona alkaloids in the

syrup. It has also been markedly increased in present assay will show a little higher results alkaloidal strength—from 1.5 per cent to 2.0 by the new method. However, the difference

The present stock of Fluidextract will probably come within the limits of vari- of Ipecac will therefore be out of date after ation set, and it will doubtless be safe to September 1. If used at all it must be used in adjust stock at hand on the basis of total proportion, for making Syrup of Ipecac, using alkaloids stated.

93.5 mils per 1000 of finished syrups instead Colchicum preparations are not changed in of the 70 mils directed. strength. The method of assay is changed, Nux V omica preparations have been very which will probably make a small difference in materially changed. The Brussels Conference results, but this difference is likely to come of 1906 recommended international standards within the limits set, so U. S. P. colchicum for this drug and its preparations, based upon preparations can continue to be used without total alkaloids rather than upon strychnine. change.

The U. S. P. IX. has adopted these standards Digitalis has had a biological standard at- and so made obsolete all the old preparations tached, and the menstruum for Tincture of of nux vomica. Digitalis has been changed with a view to The extract now is standardized at 16 per greater permanency in the medicinal value. cent of total alkaloids instead of 5 per cent of Safety requires that all digitalis preparations strychnine. Since the alkaloids of nux vomica shall be replaced with those adjusted to the are approximately equal in amount, 16 per new requirements.

cent of total alkaloids will correspond to about Guarana. The fluidextract has been in- 8 per cent of strychnine. The extract is therecreased in strength from 3.5 grammes of caf- ore more than half again as strong as the feine per 100 mils to 4.0 grammes per 100.

U. S. P. VIII. standard. Fluidextract of Nux The readiest way to adjust this preparation

Vomica must contain 2.5 grammes of total will be to add caffeine in proper proportions

alkaloids per 100 mils instead of 1 gramme of 0.5 gramme to each 100 mils (or 2 1/3 grains strychnine, and the tincture (now made by to each fluidounce).

percolation of the drug) 0.25 gramme of total Hydrastis. The extract has been made alkaloids. All of these indicate an increase in official and the standard set at 10 per cent of strength, but since there is a new basis they ether-soluble alkaloids (hydrastine).

cannot be safely readjusted except by assay. The glycerite is now standardized to con- The old nux vomica preparations should be tain 1.25 grammes of ether-soluble alkaloid in discarded when the U. S. P. IX. becomes each 100 mils. This has not been standard- official. ized heretofore.

Opium. Contrariwise the opium preparaThe standards on the fluidextract and tions are reduced in strength-except the extincture are not changed.

tract-and can be diluted. The international Hyoscyamus. The standards on all the standard for powdered opium is 10 per cent of preparations of this drug have been lowered anhydrous morphine, and of the preparations slightly. The fluidextract is to be 0.065 1 per cent of anhydrous morphine. instead of 0.075, and the tincture 0.0065 Hitherto opium and its preparations have instead of 0.007. The differences are so slight been standardized on crystallized morphine, as to be within the allowable errors of assay,

which contains one molecule of water of crysand stocks of these may continue to be used tallization, or 94.058 per cent of anhydrous without change.

morphine. Therefore the difference is not The extract shows a greater change, being merely reducing a powdered opium of 12.5 per reduced from 0.3 per cent to 0.25 per cent. cent to 10 per cent, but of calculating the difference between the hydrous and anhydrous Syrup of Hydriodic Acid is now made by morphine also.

volume instead of by weight, and is required Thus a powdered opium containing 12 per to yield not less than 1.3 grammes nor more cent of crystallized morphine will contain than 1.45 grammes of hydriodic acid per 100 11.29 per cent of anhydrous morphine, and mils. This is an increase of about 15 per cent can be diluted on that basis, i.e., to every 10 over the present strength, calculated on the parts add 1.29 parts of diluent. Likewise the mean of the two, or 1.375 per cent weight liquid preparations, tincture, deodorized tinc- volume. Hence all stock of hydriodic acid on ture, etc., can be diluted in like fashion-to hand September 1 must be strengthened. every 10 mils add 1.29 mils of menstruum- If the 10-per-cent acid is used, add 35 mils or to every fluidounce add one fluidrachm of of this to 965 mils of the present-strength menstruum. The fluid preparations of opium syrup (or 1 fluidounce to 27.5 fluidounces of will thus be easily adjusted.

the syrup). If the more concentrated (16 per The extract is an exception, since this is cent) acid is used, add 22 mils to 978 of the now required to contain 20 per cent of an- syrup (or 1/2 ounce to 22 ounces of the syrup). hydrous morphine, instead of 20 per cent of

(To be continued.) crystallized. The extract will therefore be about 6.4 per cent stronger than the present, THE STANDARDIZED ARTICLES OF THE and will require strengthening.

NEW NATIONAL FORMULARY. If it is desired to do this by adding mor

The National Formulary IV. will have a phine sulphate (this containing 75 per cent of

number of standardized preparations which anhydrous morphine) it can be adjusted by

pharmacists must be prepared on. This is the adding 2.4 grains of morphine sulphate to

first issue of the National Formulary to state every 100 grains of opium extract (U. S. P.

exact standards or to require assays, and some VIII.).

pharmacists may be slow to realize that new Since the U. S. P. IX. has placed maximum

legal standards are established by it. limits of strength, it will be just as important

It has been the purpose of the N. F. Comto dilute the Tincture of Opium on hand Sep- mittee to follow established standards in all tember 1 as to strengthen the extract of opium.

articles as far as consistency allowed and to Physostigma tincture has been strength

avoid abrupt changes. Consequently most of ened, very slightly—to contain 0.015 gramme

the new standards will be found to accord of alkaloid per 100 mils instead of 0.014

with preparations now in the market, but they gramme. This difference is so very slight that

will have the added weight of authority. no change will be necessary in the present Two of the preparations were standardized stock. The extract strength has not been in the U.S. P. VIII. Fluidextract of Conium changed, but contains 2 per cent as at present. was required to contain 0.45 gramme of Pilocarpus. The fluidextract, which is the

coniine per 100 mils, and the N. F. standard only official preparation, has been increased in

is 0.40 gramme per 100. The method of strength 50 per centi.e., it must contain 0.6

assay is different, and the new method will gramme of alkaloids per 100 mils instead of

probably give a little lower results than the 0.4 gramme per 100. This increase is not former one. Stocks of this preparation which easily made on the preparation, and it will be were standardized by the U. S. P. VIII. will preferable to discard the old stock or else add come within the N. F. limits, and it will be pilocarpine hydrochloride in proportion of 1.1 safer not to dilute the preparation. The grains per fluidounce.

U. S. P. VIII. Fluidextract of Conium can Squill and its fluidextract are to be stand- be used as N. F. IV. without change. ardized biologically, and old stocks of either Fluidextract of Stramonium was dropped will be obsolete unless they correspond to the by the U. S. P. and taken up by the N. F., standard set. Not much of the Fluidextract but the assay method and strength remain unof Squill in the market has been standardized, changed. hence most of the stock in hand will be obso- The other preparations have been standardlete when the new standards become effective. ized by manufacturers, but they have hitherto

Stramonium and its preparations are un- been free to select their own standards, and changed in strength, hence can be continued as now pharmacists should make sure that the at present.

legal standard is supplied.

Extract of Conium, 2 per cent of coniine. Hence 1 gramme of the new standard means

Extract of Ignatia, 6 per cent of total alka- more than 1 gramme of the old, the difference loids.

amounting to 1.063 grammes, which is greater Aqueous Fluidextract of Cinchona is to than the limits of error in the assay. contain 5 grammes of alkaloids in 100 mils— It will be wise for pharmacists who make which is the same strength as the new U. S. P. their own opium preparations to re-mark their fluidextract, but contains only 12 per cent of granulated or powdered opium, calculating it alcohol and some free hydrochloric acid. as 94 per cent of the strength stated, or as

Fluidextract of Colchicum Corm is to con- 11.29 per cent of morphine if strength is not tain 0.35 gramme of colchicum per 100 mils, stated, then use it on the basis of a 10-per-cent and the assay process is that of the U. S. P. opium. IX. for colchicum preparations.

Several of the Solutions now have a stated W’ine of Colchicum Corm (0.14 gramme standard and a method of assay. Solutions of per 100 mils), and Wine of Colchicum Seed Ferric Acetate, Ferric Citrate and Ferric (0.10 gramme per 100 mils), are both stand- Nitrate are among these, and the standards in ardized by the N. F.

each case correspond to the former PharmaBoth of these will be made by diluting the copæial standards. fluidextracts, and the strengths are in direct It is important to note that the Liquor proportion to the latter, so if the fluidextracts Alumini Acetatis of N. F. IV. is a new prepare right there is no reason for discrepancies aration, the article formerly official under this in the wines.

title now being entitled Liquor Alumini W'ine of Ipecac, formerly official in the Subacetatis. U. S. P. VIII., is now an N. F. product and Both of these preparations are now standis standardized at 0.2 per cent of alkaloids. It ardized, and the distinctions should be kept is to be made in the same way as the U. S. P. in mind, for the standards as well as compoproduct, but since the strength of the Fluid- sition are different. extract of Ipecac has been increased the wine Glycerite of Bismuth is now adjusted by is correspondingly stronger.

assay, which in turn affects the Solution of The U. S. P. VIII. did not give an assay Bismuth and the elixirs containing bismuth. method for this article, and consequently it has Two drugs are standardized whose preparanot usually carried a standard on the label. tions are not-Coffee, which is required to But the N. F. IV. has not only set a standard contain 1 per cent of caffeine, and Kola, which but has also given a process of assay, hence it must contain 1.5 per cent of caffeine. But will be necessary for pharmacists to look care- while Auidextracts of these are recognized, fully at their stock, and strengthen it in order they are not standardized. to avoid the chance of trouble. Wine of The official coffee is roasted coffee, and the Ipecac U. S. P. VIII. is not the same as Wine question may come up whether a pharmacist of Ipecac N. F. IV., and the latter will be can now sell coffee which does not correspond official on September 1.

to the standard. The latter is intended only Tincture of Ignatia, hitherto standardized for coffee sold and used for medicinal purfor extractive, must now contain 0.2 gramme poses, and not to that sold for use as a beverof alkaloids per 100 mils.

age. The preliminary notices in the N. F. IV. Crocated Tincture of Opium will be re- state that the standards are to apply to mediquired to contain 1 gramme of anhydrous cines only, hence there is not likely to be any morphine per 100 mils. This puts it in accord- trouble over selling coffee as a food product. ance with international standards and with the There are a number of articles in Part II new standards of the Pharmacopeia for the for which purity standards are set and methopium preparations.

ods of testing are given, but these will interest As pointed out in the Pharmacopæial notes manufacturers more than retail pharmacists. it is essential to remember that the old stand- There is not likely to be any trouble over the ards are based upon crystallised morphine, purity of chemicals and salts now in stock, but while the new are based upon anhydrous mor- pharmacists will have to be careful about their phine, and the former contains 94.058 per cent preparations which will have new standards of the latter.

after September 1.

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In planning the newest “ Biggest Little Store" Mr. Miller has made an unusual departure from the conventional store front.

ORIGINAL ADVERTISING METHODS OF A CLEVER RETAILER—"Square Deal Miller."

By WALTER M. CHASE. When he strikes this paper, the average room measuring eight by twelve feet. His reader will ask: "Why write up the methods capital consisted of “a two-dollar bill and a of a jeweler in a drug journal?Perhaps is is diamond shirt stud.” The stud was sold to a rather a far cryperhaps there is little sugges- man who is still a satisfied customer and Miltion here for the druggist. And yet this man ler started to advertise. Miller is so strikingly original, and has been so Owing to lack of capital, advertising at first remarkably successful, that the story is full of was necessarily limited. The initial ads took human interest if nothing else. Incidentally it the form of “liners” in the “help-wanted” colis more than possible that there may be some

umns of the local newspapers. thing in this outline of his methods that can be When remonstrated with by a bankerapplied to the drug business.—THE EDITORS. friend, who argued that as jewelry was a lux

ury men who were in search of jobs were poor Ultra-original advertising of many kinds

prospects to whom to appeal, Miller came and in many different mediums, backed by a back, Yankee-fashion, with: strict adherence to the "square-deal” policy, “How do you know that I am using the has built up for Gilbert E. Miller, of Detroit, classified columns ?” Michigan, a business that has made his three

“Why, I saw your ads there," said the stores notable among the jewelry establish- banker. ments of the country.

"And so does every one else,” replied Miller. Seven years ago Miller, as he likes to be “Everybody at some time or other reads the called, started his “Biggest Little Store” in a want columns. People in search of jobs, those

a

looking for better positions, and even men who the store's advertising is based on the moneyhave no idea of changing jobs, all read them. saving feature of the merchandise. Package The habit is formed at the time in a man's inserts are used wherever possible, and in concareer when he is looking for a chance to bet- venient places around the stores are placed ter himself, and he can't break away from it.” little cards bearing characteristic ads.

From the start the square-deal policy was Each year during the holiday season an featured in the advertising and in the conduct eight-page, newspaper-size, illustrated circular of the store. To quote Mr. Miller: “There is distributed throughout the city. is one big idea back of every sale in the Biggest Every one of the nearly half a hundred peoLittle Storesthe customer must be satisfied. ple connected with the business, from Mr. I may think there are two sides to a customer's Miller down to the store porters, are constant complaint, but I see that there is only one end advertisers for the three establishments. They

talk Miller values in their homes, on the street, Gradually, as the business grew, various and, according to Mr. Miller, "even in their other mediums were added, until to-day Mil- sleep.” It is a Miller requirement that every ler's advertisements are likely to be found one in the employ must “live the business." wherever there are Detroit people to be ap- The newspaper advertising takes a multitude pealed to. Newspapers, street-cars, billboards, of forms, running from the little "liners" to and moving picture theaters are depended upon full-page spreads. Sometimes the ads are for bringing the greatest share of publicity. simply bits of homely philosophy laying em

In addition, the stores themselves furnish a phasis on the square-deal policy and the small fertile field for advertising. Show-cards are prices made possible by low rents. more than liberally used. They are posted in of ad is really nothing more than what is every

available space. Price cards always have known in newspaper circles as “paragraphing." the retail figures in plain type, for much of The writer takes a subject of common appeal

a square deal.”

This type

A COLLECTION OF MILLERISMS.

me

The installment way-a dollar down and the devil to pay.

Buying Miller diamonds is wiser than putting money in the bank. Diamonds are not a luxury. They're an investment and a good investment too. Diamonds have gone up 15 per cent in the last year--while a dollar in the bank works its "head off" all year to earn three cents.

Every cloud has a silver linin', but it ain't so of every purse. That's why I cut my price tags to fit the working folks' pocketbooks. My customers

call

Miller, Square Dealer-my competitors call me everything Uncle Sam keeps out of the mai's.

There are only half a dozen good watches madeMiller sells six different kinds.

I don't pretend to belong to your church-square dealing gets me my business.

Square dealing pays in dollars and satisfaction-I know. “High rent jewelers" say I have a unique way of doing business-that's right-square dealing is unique--with some people.

If I can't make this the best place to buy jewelry, I am going to make some other jeweler break a world's record.

I believe in square-deal prices for working people. I don't believe in "working people" for more.

When competitors "knock" you are at least being given consideration, and that's something. They say "I can't sell at my prices and live"-I'll let you know when to send flowers.

For “light summer reading" you can't beat my price tags. Lydia Pinkham says she never got a letter from a woman who wore a "Miller” wedding ring. It's a Square Deal ring—that's why—that's all any woman wants.

Lots of people used to think my Square Deal was 50 per cent advertising chatter, and a few thought I sold "tin jewelry"_They know better now-7

of

Don't wait until the last minute to do your Christmas shopping-I'd like to have time to say more than just “Thank You-Here's Your Change.” The crowd is getting bigger every year—but it's "your store" just the same as it was when I had to lock up when I went down to Al Smith's Beanery.

My clerks may not be very "gifted" and maybe their ties don't match their shirtsbut when a Miller clerk tells you that a piece of jewelry will wear 10 years—believe him, bocause he knows his salary is ready Saturday nightand there is no incentive to hoodwink a customer.

Big stock of Christmas baby spoons—Had to buy plenty this year—that's what I get for selling 17,000 “lucky wed. ding rings" since I've been in business.

"Honesty is the best policy"-some jewelers put it in a gilt frame-I use it in my business.

I want you to understand I came to this town to earn an honest living-Up to date I haven't had much competition.

Everything marked in plain figures-One price to every. body-Lady said last Christmas: "Miller is just like a good pair of garters—He minds his own business and never comes down"-And I don't "rubber" either.

Buying Christmas gifts from Miller is just like making love to a widow-you can't overdo it-and she's usually had enough business experience to appreciate a Square Deal.

Big trade in sight-most of my customers wait on them. selves-Anyway, the clerks only know enough to show goods-No $40.00-a-week "persuaders" in the Biggest Little Stores.

That "lucky wedding ring" stuff is like being vaccinated it doesn't always "take." Sold a ring two years ago and the lady made me engrave “In Fidelity” on the inside. I knew it was a bad hunch. She came in Friday and told me that was just the grounds on which she got her divorce. But she liked the ring so much she is using the same one again-says lightning never strikes the same place twice.

years

square dealing-giving honest jewelry value for their money has convinced everbody-even the "doubting Thomas.'

If you don't think there are sermons in stones--compare a $100 installment diamond with a $100 Miller diamondabout $40 worth of "sermon."

Love may be blind, but where the engagement ring is concerned-it is never-"stone blind."

A Miller wedding ring is hand wrought from a solid bar of gold-seamless and not a divorce in a thousandthe kind she ought to have.

If you ever buy anything from any of my clerks that isn't just what it should be you'll do me a favor if you'll holler. Telephone Main 1234-and never mind the Mr.just holler Miller. You can bet I'll make it right. That's the way I built my business.

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