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then add 65 grammes of benzoinated lard and

mix thoroughly. BOARD QUESTIONS ANSWERED

31. How would you make citrine ointment?

By the following process:
AN IOWA EXAMINATION.

Heat 760 grammes of lard, free from (Continued from the July BULLETIN OF PHARMACY.)

water, in a capacious glass or porcelain vessel

to a temperature of 105° C., then withdraw the PHARMACY.

heat and gradually add 70 grammes of nitric 27. What drugs' enter into the composition acid. When the reaction moderates, reapply of (a) Dover powder, (b) composition pow- the heat until effervescence ceases, and allow der, (c) hiera picra, (d) Lassar's paste, (e) the mixture to cool to about 40° C. Having Haine's solution?

dissolved 70 grammes of mercury in 105 (a) Ipecac, opium, and sugar of milk. grammes of nitric acid, using sufficient heat to

(b) Bayberry bark, ginger, capsicum, and prevent the solution from crystallizing, add cloves.

this solution to the lard mixture. When the (c) Purified aloes and canella.

mass begins to congeal, stir it thoroughly with (d) The National Formulary contains for- a wooden spatula, until it is of a bright citrine mulas for three dermatologic pastes with color. Contact with metallic utensils should which the name of Lassar is associated. "Las- be avoided. sar's naphthol paste” is composed of betanaph- 32. How many fluidounces in a pound of thol, precipitated sulphur, petrolatum, and soft chloroform? soap; “Lassar's mild resorcin paste” is com- The specific gravity of chloroform is not posed of resorcin, zinc oxide, starch, and below 1.476. As one fluidounce of water liquid petrolatum; and Lassar's zinc-salicyl weighs 454.6 grains, one fluidounce of chloropaste is composed of salicylic acid, zinc oxide, form would weigh 454.6X1.476 or 671 grains. starch, and white petrolatum.

And as there are 7000 grains in an avoirdu(e) Copper sulphate, water, glycerin, and pois pound, one pound of chloroform would potassium hydroxide.

measure 7000/671 or 10 Auidounces, 3 flui28. What is the best method for preparing drachms, and 27 minims. suppositories containing ichthyol and oil of 33. How many fuidounces in a pound of theobroma ?

peroxide of hydrogen? First mix the ichthyol with an equal amount The specific gravity of hydrogen peroxide is of hydrous wool-fat and then incorporate practically identical with that of water. One thoroughly with the cocoa butter which has pound of it, therefore, would previously been melted to a semi-Auid state. 7000/454.6 or 15 fluidounces, 3 fluidrachms, Allow the mixture to cool, stirring occasion- and 11 minims. ally, and when cold form into suppositories by 34. How many fluidounces in a pound of means of a pressure mold. If the mass upon ether? cooling is too soft for use, it should be hard- The specific gravity of ether is not less than ened by the addition of from 5 to 10 per cent 0.716. One fluidounce, therefore, would of paraffin.

weigh 454.6X0.716 or 325.5 grains. One 29. How much cocoa butter would you use pound would measure 7000/325.5 or 21 fluidto prepare one dozen rectal suppositories? ounces, 1 fluidrachm, and 34 minims..

The U. S. P. requires that rectal supposi- 35. How many fluidounces in one pound of tories made from cocoa butter should weigh glycerin? about two grammes. Therefore to prepare one The specific gravity of glycerin is not less dozen such about 24 grammes should be used. than 1.246. One fluidounce, therefore, would

30. How would you prepare belladonna weigh 454.6X1.246 or 566 minims. One ointment?

pound would measure 7000/566 or 12 fluidBy the following process:

ounces, 2 fluidrachms, and 56 minims. Triturate 10 grammes of extract of bella- 36. How many fluidounces in a pound of donna leaves with 5 Cc. of diluted alcohol castor oil? until a smooth mixture is obtained; with this The specific gravity of castor oil is from incorporate 20 grammes of hydrous wool-fat; 0.945 to 0.965. Taking 0.955 as an average

measure a

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would give 0.955 X 454.6 or 423.14 grains as Syrup, syrup of citric acid, syrup of almond, the weight of one fluidounce. In one pound, syrup of orange flowers, and syrup of ipecac. therefore, there would be 7000/423.14 or 41. Briefly describe the methods used in 16.543 fluidounces, which is equivalent to 16 preparing two syrups. fluidounces, 4 fuidrachms, and 20 minims. Syrup of almond is prepared by mixing

37. Name the ingredients used in the man- together 10 Cc. of spirit of bitter almond and ufacture of flexible collodion.

100 Cc. of orange-flower water with sufficient Collodion, Canada turpentine, and castor oil. syrup to make a volume of 1000 Cc. 38. How is commercial sulphur obtained ? Syrup of orange-flower water may be pre

Commercially, sulphur occurs in four varie- pared as follows: dissolve 850 grammes of ties, namely, that known as stick or roll sul- sugar in 450 Cc. of orange-flower water by phur; and sublimed, washed and precipitated agitation, without heat, add enough orangesulphur.

flower water to make the product measure Roll sulphur is prepared by heating crude 1000 Cc., and mix thoroughly. sulphur obtained from various sources, allow

CHEMISTRY. ing impurities to settle and pouring the fused sulphur into cylindrical molds, in which it is

1. Give the chemical formula of each of the allowed to congeal.

following: (a) calomel, (b) glycerin, (c) corSublimed sulphur is obtained by vaporizing

rosive sublimate, (d) potassium cyanide, (e)

sulphurous acid. crude sulphur and passing the vapor into large

) stone or brick chambers, the temperature of

(a) HgCl, (b) C.Hg(OH), (c) HgCl2, which is not allowed to rise above 100° or 110°

(d) KCn, (e) H2SO4. C. The sulphur is deposited in partly crystal

2. Give the chemical formulas of (a) two

ferric salts, (b) two ferrous salts. line and partly amorphous particles known

(a) Ferric chloride, FeCl3 +6H,O; ferric as flowers of sulphur. The two varieties

sulphate, Fe2(SO.) 3. can be separated from each other by treat

(b) Ferrous bromide, FeBr +6H,O; ferment with carbon disulphide, which dissolves

rous sulphate, FeSO4+7H,O. the crystalline but not the amorphous variety

3. Give identification tests for acetates. of sulphur.

Solution of ferric chloride forms, with soluWashed sulphur is prepared by digesting

tions of acetátes, a red solution containing sublimed sulphur with diluted ammonia water.

ferric acetate, which on boiling precipitates This treatment removes any sulphuric acid and

brownish-red, basic ferric acetate. The red arsenic sulphide present as ammonium sul

solution is not decolored by solution of merphate, arsenite, and sulpharsenite. The mix

curic chloride (distinction from thiocyanate), ture is subsequently strained, and the resulting

but is decolored by strong acidulation with purified sulphur is washed with cold water to

sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid (distinction remove excess of ammonia; it is finally dried

from thiocyanate and from meconate). The thoroughly with the aid of moderate heat, so

ferric acetate is precipitated by alkali hyas to prevent oxidation.

droxides. Precipitated sulphur is made from sublimed

If acetic acid or an acetate be warmed with sulphur by first uniting this to an alkali and

sulphuric acid and a little alcohol, the characthen decomposing the resulting compound with

teristic and pungent and fragrant odor of ethyl an acid.

acetate or acetic ether is obtained. 39. Convert 23° F. to its equivalent in Cen- 4. What is the molecular weight of sulphuric tigrade scale.

acid ? Show how the result is obtained. To convert Fahrenheit into Centigrade the The molecular weight of sulphuric acid following rule may be used: Subtract 32 and (H.SO) is the sum of the weights of the divide by 1.8.

atoms contained in it.

Thus, as the atomic Therefore, 23 — 32 divided by 1.85-9 weight of hydrogen is 1, of sulphur 31.83, and divided by 1.8 or -5. Answer -5° centi—5

of oxygen 15.88, the molecular weight of sulgrade.

phuric acid is 2X1 plus 31.83 plus 4X 15.88, 40. Name five official syrups.

or 97.35.

2

(To be continued.)

phate slowly splits up the aspirin into acetic LETTERS

and salicylic acids, and these act upon the quinine to form quinotoxin. In liquid mix

tures, where the aspirin is hydrolyzed rapidly, ONCE AGAIN-QUININE AND ASPIRIN. the change into quinotoxin will proceed more

rapidly. To the Editors:

Ordinarily when combinations of quinine On page 249 of the June BULLETIN, J. F. Smith, of Bishopville, S. C., says that in prac

sulphate and aspirin are prescribed, the mix

ture is freshly prepared and is all taken by the tice, at least, he can't agree with the statement that a combination of quinine and aspirin is

patient before any material amount of quino

toxin is formed. In a normal stomach, also, incompatible. My experience with the mix

the normal secretion of hydrochloric acid will ture leads me to reach the same conclusion. I have two physicians who frequently pre

probably prevent its formation within the scribe capsules containing 3 grains of quinine is little or no trouble from the combination.

body. Hence under ordinary conditions there

. sulphate with 2 grains of aspirin, and also capsules containing 212 grains of each of the sub

But there is considerable evidence (as testistances.

fied to by reputable Detroit pharmacists) that I have filled at least one thousand such prescriptions.

rash and nausea may follow the administra

tion of this combination, which are frequently Some time ago I conferred with the local physicians in regard to the alleged incompati

regarded as peculiar symptoms of the disease, bility; each of them claimed that he had ob

because physicians do not understand the tained good results from the mixture and had

formation or action of quinotoxin. Combinanever seen any harm resulting from its admin

tions of quinine with organic acids other than istration.

those present in aspirin will also cause nausea, I believe that fully 90 per cent of the drug

skin rash, and general discomfort.

I have read of but one death which may gists throughout this part of the country have filled numbers of prescriptions calling for

have been due to quinotoxin—that of a woman

in Richmond, Va., about a year ago, whose quinine and aspirin in combination.

death from convulsions puzzled her physicians, Natalbany, La

B. F. HERMAN.

and who had been taking quinine and aspirin WHAT MR. SCOVILLE HAS TO SAY.

for a number of days. To the Editors :

Doubtless in the large majority of cases no The foregoing communication from Mr.

quinotoxin is formed before administration or

in the body, and hence no ill results follow. Herman has been referred to me, and I wish

But there is plenty of evidence that ill results to state the following facts:

do follow in some cases, and that quinotoxin When quinine is brought into contact with

may be formed within the body in such comorganic acids it is slowly (at ordinary tem

binations and cause minor symptoms which peratures) isomerized into quinotoxin (also known as quinicin), which is poisonous.

are likely to be attributed to "the progress of The the disease."

WILBUR L. SCOVILLE. presence of free mineral acids prevents this change. If the mixture is heated, the quinine

Detroit, Mich. isomerizes rapidly and is completely changed within 24 hours. At temperatures below 100°

MORE BLUE SKY. C. the change proceeds more slowly, and appears to be in ratio to the temperature,

To the Editors: Quinotoxin has none of the usual thera- I think I can tell a Blue Sky story equal to peutic effects of quinine, but acts something any of them, even if it is too late for a prize. like digitoxin, producing first nausea and skin For over 50 years I have been a successful rashes, and in toxic doses death by convul- druggist. Have been atop of the heap three sions.

times. Five vears before the California boom, When quinine sulphate and aspirin are my younger brother went out there and paid brought together in dry form (as in capsules, $100 an acre for an unimproved ten-acre powders or tablets) the change is very slow. ranch. My old father asked him what he exThe water of crystallization in the quinine sul- pected to raise on unimproved land at $100 an

that it was buried under six feet of sand. I let the contract go by default.

Meanwhile the boom had "busted" and the bottom had fallen out of Los Angeles lots; and when my $500 mortgage to my brother amounted to $1200 at 12 per cent (California interest rates were high at that time) I deeded the lots to him, and he held them until they sold for $800.

My whole investment of $2600 turned to blue sky, although it looked all right at the start. My brother lost $400 interest money.

Still later the California oil fields encroached on the city limits until whole blocks of fine residences were rendered valueless by oil vapors and soot. My lots were within a few hundred feet of a flowing well.

I have also duplicated your Ohio Druggist's experience. I hold some Telepost stock. I was offered $1.00 for my elegant "steal” engravings.

AxOTHER MICHIGAN DRUGGIST.

O. M. HICKS AGAIN.

acre, when he could buy the best improved farm in Sturgis township at $50. He replied that he expected to raise the price of his land.

One year later another brother went west and bought ten acres at $150 an acre and set it out to orange trees. Before five years were up both these brothers sold out, realizing $1000 for every $100 invested.

City lots in Los Angeles were sold at enormous profits—rebought and resold at a profit three times.

These facts made me ambitious, so I sold out a good drug business, sent $2000 to my brother for investment, and he bought me two lots in Los Angeles for $2500. When I got there a month later with $500 in my pocket it took it all to pay for the lots. Then they were assessed $100 for street grading.

I went to the bank and borrowed money and bought another lot, and sold it next day at $100 profit—and paid the assessment on my city lots!

Being desirous of improving a ranch as my brothers had done, I found a desirable five acres with a good water right at $150 an acre.

a I was shown my corner stakes and head ditch for irrigation, and all with a clear title, so I closed a bargain and borrowed $500 of my brother for a first payment, taking a contract for a deed, and giving my brother a mortgage on my Los Angeles lots. The man I bought of was an invalid.

Proceeding to lay off and stake my ground for trees, I turned on the water to stop the gopher holes in my head ditch. I hadn't worked an hour when along came a man who wanted to know by what right I had opened the main ditch to get my water. I showed him my water right, and was informed that it was all right, only it lay across the river in another company!

My land was worthless without the water.

I went to the man from whom I had made the purchase and demanded my money back. He was then on the verge of the grave, and it was like setting the day for his funeral to crowd things. His wife almost went into hysterics. I waited for him to get better, but he died the next day, and his estate went to probate.

Later I was called back to Michigan on urgent business, and left my contract with my brother. Still later he wrote me that they had had a flood in the canyon above my land and

To the Editors:

Now a word about the Harrison Law. Frankly, I don't like it—the law; and I'm not an addict, either.

Fine thing for the drug journals and the associations, though. It gives them an issue; something to work on.

I don't know all there is to be known about the Harrison law; nobody does. But I do know this: it wasn't put over on the square.

We have laws which make it a misdemeanor to obtain money under false pretenses. Moral law, which is (or ought to be) higher than statute law, is unalterably opposed to doubledealing and deceitful practices. What shall we say, then, about a law that pretends to be one thing and obtains another?

I don't often do such things, for it isn't good for my digestion, but I read in full the Supreme Court decision that caused so much uncertainty a month or two ago; the one that holds that possession of narcotics does not draw a term in the workhouse, or worse; and in that bunch of words I found this sentence: "Congress gave it (the Harrison law] the appearance of a taxing measure in order to give it a coating of constitutionality, but it really was a police measure that strained all the powers of the legislature," etc.

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