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CAPSULES OF SCIENCE
Prepared by WILBUR L. SCOVILLE.
Esters of borneol are proposed as substitutes for valerian, such as bornyl valerate, known as Bornyval; bornyl bromovalerate, known as Valissane; and bornyi bromocinnamate, known as Adamom. These all have a tonic and sedative action similar to that of valerian.
The kelp beds of British Columbia are reported to be capable of furnishing each year 235,000 tons of potash and 900 tons of iodine.
Alcohol is formed in plants when the growth is retarded by either high or low temperatures, or by the presence of organic substances which hinder growth. Under extreme circumstances the formation of alcohol resembles the process of fermentation.
Pancreatic juice changes starch to dextrin and maltose, but when a trace of hydrochloric acid is present the change produces dextrose also. The acid is thought to increase the power of the enzyme in pancreatin.
Alkaloids are thought to be formed in plants by a union of protein decomposition products with formaldehyde, the latter being formed in the green parts of the plants. Certain alkaloid bases can be formed in
The Pathos of Pathogenic.
While acids generally inhibit the growth of pathogenic germs, yet when the germs and acids increase together the germs acquire a tolerance for the acid which may become quite strong. In milk the more slowly it sours, the greater is the danger of pathogenic contamination. Buttermilk prepared by souring the lactic bacteria is safer than buttermilk made by natural development of the same bacteria.
Niagara Falls now produces 50,000 horsepower of used energy, and it is thought that this can be doubled without detracting from the scenic value of the Falls.
Potash has now become sufficiently valuable to induce the U. S. Geological Survey to call attention to its presence in some of the gold ores. This is turning potash to gold.
The chemical rays of light are not the most active factors in growth of plants, but the light rays. Yellow light induces growth more than blue light.
Intestinal putrefaction products are found to have a pronounced destructive action upon the blood, if absorbed, probably resulting in anemia.
Large doses of strophanthin do not usually affect the heart for several hours, but the influence upon the heart may continue for a month.
From a study of mixtures of chloral and camphor, an Italian chemist concludes that a true chemical compound is formed when a mixture of these liquefies.
It has been calculated that the lactic acid bacteria reproduces a complete generation each 21.5 minutes at the most rapid rate of growth. This is an indication of the rate of growth of bacteria in general under favorable circumstances.
Borodisalicylic is a new antiseptic which is claimed to be non-poisonous, and hence suitable for internal use, and is more strongly bactericidal than mixtures of boric and salicylic acids or their salts. It is easily soluble in water.
Methyl alcohol has an antiseptic action similar to that of ethyl alcohol, and like the latter it is most effective at a strength of 70 per cent. When mixed with formaldehyde it first decreases the disinfecting power of the latter, then increases it. For the latter action large proportions of methyl alcohol are necessary.
Certain species of spiders weave a web which has the luster and chemical properties of silk, and which may be used as a substitute for silk. This is being investigated as a basis for a new industry.
By heating fish oils with an excess of potassium hydroxide the odorous bodies are changed and the fats can be used in the finer grades of toilet soaps, in which the odor of the natural oil is objectionable.
Aspirin is formed into esters which are being used as fixing agents for perfumes and flavoring materials. The “rarity” of aspirin at the present time probably adds to the value as a fixing agent in perfumes.
Calcium filings are recommended as a dehydrating agent in preparing absolute alcohol. The calcium contains some nitride, usually, which forms ammonia with water, and this needs to be removed from the alcohol.
The oil of Eucalyptus Globulus is said to be gradually disappearing from the market, being replaced by other species of eucalyptus which yield more oil and contain a larger proportion of cineol. California oils necd to be fractioned, with a loss of 15 to 30 per cent, in order to meet U. S. P. requirements.
About Mixing Milks.
Dr. W. M. Clark says that because of its greater concentration in proteids and salts, cow's milk has a greater capacity for neutralizing added acid or alkali than has human milk. When lime water is added to cow's milk the effect on enzyme action is slight, but he considers that the use of milk of magnesia for this purpose is dangerous because likely to interfere with the action of the digestive juices.
To Dye Not to Die.
The epithelizing action of scarlet red is found to be a property common to the dyes of the aminoazobenzene and aminoazotoluene series. The benzene derivatives are more active than the toluene, and the lower members of the series are more active than the higher. The most active compound is stated to be chrysoidine. and the next aniline yellow. For practical purposes aqueous solutions are preferred, since these dyes combine with fats in part, and become fixed.
Purity vs. Economy:
The war is leading the European countries to look with more tolerance upon the “adulteration” of soaps. The scarcity and high cost of fats has caused more rosin, sugars, naphtha, carbon tetrachloride, or other materials to be used, and some of these are found not to detract from the "service value of a soap. The lathering power and detergent action of a soap are considered to be of more value in judging a soap than a chemical analysis. The war is teaching the difference between practical utility and chemical “purity."
4 qts. Lemons
.10. Granulated sugar
412 Ibs. Grate half the lemons, squeeze and put 'rind of these lemons and the juice of all the lemons together with half the water and all the sugar into a pan. Set the pan on the fire and stir until the sugar is dissolved and the mixture becomes quite warm. Then remove and add the remaining two quarts of water. Strain and pack in freezer. If more tartness is desired, add a solution of citric acid, to suit the taste. Then freeze as usual with herbet.
..6. Sweeten the grape juice to taste; add the sugar to the orange juice; stir until sugar is dissolved: mix together and freeze slowly. Beat the white of an egg, adding a tablespoonful of powdered sugar and stir into the sherbet. Repack and set aside for two hours. Serve in sherbet cups.
A Greaseless Cream and a Massage Cream. R. D. writes: “Will you please print a formula for a greaseless vanishing cream and one for a massage cream or skin food?"
We have published on several occasions formulas for greaseless or vanishing creams. Here is a typical preparation, of which the author says:
“Physically it is a most beautiful preparation, having a satiny finish and luster that cannot be duplicated by any other method. It will stand up longer with less loss of water than any other cream on the market. To the consumer it has none of the disagreeable medicinal features so common among these creams, such as irritating or greasing the skin.
"In the beginning forgive me if I impress upon you the necessity of following the modus operandi to the letter. One of the first steps in this operation is the use of a granite-ware kettle of from 6 to 8 gallons in capacity for making the quantity contained in this formula. Weigh out accurately :
3 pounds of stearic acid.
Perfume to suit, q. s. Weigh the water, glycerin, borax, and soda into a suitable vessel and cause solution by heating on a water or steam bath. When heated to the boiling point cf the water-bath, gradually add the stearic acid, which has been previously granulated, stirring constantly all the time during the operation.
“Boiling distilled water should be added from time to time during the process to make up the loss by evaporation. The operator can gauge the hardness or softness of the cream according to the amount of water used in the process.
Less water will stiffen the cream; more water will soften it. Under no circumstances should cold water be added to the cream during the process, and under no conditions should either hot or cold water be used after the cream has set."
A massage cream that is said to be a popular seller may be made as follows: White was
.3 avoirdupois ounces. Paraffin
avoirdupois ounce. Anhydrous wool-fat..... 14 avoirdupois ounce. Cocoa butter
.hu avoirdupois ounce Liquid petrolatum colorless......8 fuidounces. Borax
's avoirdupois ounce. Distilled water
4 fluidounces, Oil of rose, synthetic.
.enough. Oil of bitter alinond.
...a trace. Color pink with Oil Red “S, hich should be dissolved in
.2. Spring water
.5 gals. Mix, stir, color red, and freeze. When serving, top each glass with a cherry. CHERRY ICE.
60 ozs. Lemon juice
.1 oz. Color, if desired. Mix and freeze.
Sherbets, when properly prepared, have the firm consistency of ice cream.
Pricing Four Dozen Powders.
I apothecaries' ounce
"When I bought it the potassium citrate cost 38 cents a pound. How much should, the prescription bring at the present price of the salt, and how much would I have been justified in charging, basing my cost on the before-the-war price? My charge was 50 cents, but a competitor wanted 75 cents."
According to an investigation conducted last fall in the city of Detroit it was found that the average price charged for a dozen powders, if not containing expensive ingredients, was about 40 cents. For capsules, 50 cents a dozen was the popular charge. Your price of 121/2 cents a dozen, therefore, seems to be rather low, particularly in view of the present price of potassium citrate (about $2.00 a pound).
However, in our opinion, arbitrary schedules for pricing prescriptions should not be followed. The sensible method is to base the price on the cost of the ingredients and the time consumed in compounding. The Evans method, which is the one advocated by the BULLETIN, is to double the cost of the ingredients and to charge a dollar an hour for the time spent in filling the prescription.
If you wish to obtain a fair recompense for your professional services, we advise you to adopt the Evans method and forget the antediluvian schedules which were in effect when drugs, chemicals, and clerk hire were less expensive than they are now. And, above all, base your calculations on the price it would cost you to replace the ingredients-not on what you may have paid for them.
larger wholesalers or from dealers in dyes. If the color fails to be readily soluble in the liquid petrolatum, first dissolve it in a small amount of some fixed oil.
Alkanet may also be used to impart a red color.
There are on the market several preparations of liquid petrolatum which are given imitation fruit flavors, such as raspberry, strawberry, pineapple, etc., by means of synthetic flavoring oils. Such preparations, however, are not to be recommended as the synthetics produce flavors that only distantly resemble the natural fruits.
It is better to use some natural oil, which will render the petrolatum more palatable.
Either oil of peppermint, redistilled, or oil of Ceylon cinnamon is good. Methyl salicylate is a synthetic flavor which is particularly suitable.
Los-priced Disinfectants. C. I. writes: "I desire a formula for a disinfectant that I can sell for about $2.00 a gallon and double my money by so doing. Can you supply the formula?”
Here is a formula for an economical disinfectant which has appeared in previous issues of the BULLETIN : Linseed oil
».1 part. This gives a product varying in content of cresylic acid from 15 to 20 per cent, depending on the strength of the carbolic acid. It mixes with water, yielding a milky solution.
A saponified coal-tar disinfectant of the resin soap type may be made as follows:
To carry out the manufacturing process 5% pounds of caustic soda are put in a kettle, about 19 gallons of common added, and these are from time to time stirred until solution results. The kettle containing the caustic soda solution is put on a small fire, heated, and 30 pounds of rosin added in small quantities; the heating and boiling is continued until all the resin is dissolved. It will take about two hours until a clear rosin soap, weighing about 45% pounds, is obtained. The rosin soap, while still hot, is at once strained through cheese-clothi into another container, and 60 pounds of creosote oil contain: ing 20 to 25 per cent of cresols is added and thoroughly mixed. One thus obtains saponified coal-tar creosote. After it has been strained again through cheese-cloth, if necessary, it is ready for
Quinine in Chocolate Syrup B. E. O, writes: “I would like a formula for a chocolate-flavored syrup containing two grains of quinine to the fluidrachm."
To insure the even suspension of the quinine throughout the mixture, the syrup used must be thicker than the ordinary soda-fountain product. Such a mixture may be made as follows: Quinine alkaloid
. 2.36 grains. Powdered acacia
120 grains. Powdered tragacanth
60 grains. Powdered cocoa
..4 drachms. Glycerin
4 fuidounces. Syrup
.8 fuidounces. Tincture of vanilla..
1 fluidrachm. Water, enough to make.
1 pint. Boil the cocoa with three Audounces of water until a uniform mixture results, and, after cooling, stir in the tincture of vanilla. Next rub up the acacia and tragacanth with the glycerin to form a smooth paste. To this mixture add the syrup, with which the quinine has previously been incorporated. Finally combine the two mixtures and add enoungh water to make the whole measure one pint.
If the finished preparation is to be kept for a considerable length of time, it may be advisable to add 16 grains of benzoic acid as a preservative. To incorporate the acid rub it up with glycerin, acacia, and tragacanth.
Where a simple deodorant and antiseptic for common domestic use is desired an inexpensive product may be made by using the formula for compound solution of zinc and iron which appears on page 101 of the third edition of the National Formulary.
E. R. writes: “There is on the market a mercury preparation--oxycyanate--for subcutaneous injection, to which is added 3 grains of Tetropol to overcome the pain. The addition of the latter is said to bring the oxycyanate under the provisions of the Harrison law. Please inform us as to the nature of Tetropol."
The common, every-day name of the product concerning which you ask, briefly stated, is this: benzoyltetramethyldiaminoethylisopropylalcohol. You say that this substance is added for the purpose of overcoming pain, and without question the government takes the position that Tetropol is a synthetic substitute for cocaine, which, according to departmental rulings, would bring it within the scope of the Harrison law. However, it should be stated that just now the entire "synthetic substitute" situation is somewhat involved. In a decision recently handed down, a United States court has held that novocaine is not a substitute for cocaine
Color and Flator for Liquid Petrolatum. J. L. B. writes: “I am desirous of preparing a laxative of liquid petrolatum and wish to give it some suitable color, preferably red. I also wish to impart an agreeable flavor. How shall I proceed?"
As we have stated several times before in these columns, dyes which are known in the trade as "oilsoluble" are the best ones to use. For a red color use Oil Red “S,” which may be obtained from any of the
or its derivatives. It has not yet been made clear whether this decision will affect all "synthetic substitutes” or be construed to apply specifically to novocaine. It may be possible that the government will require a suit to be brought by the manufacturer of each synthetic substitute in turn, in order that they may be released—but this does not seem probable.
septic and if you make no extravagant or unwarranted claims concerning their remedial value, we know of no law which would prevent you from advertising them or sending them through the mails.
Serial numbers are not required on medicinal preparations; in fact, the Federal authorities no longer issue them. The only way now you can issue a guaranty to a customer is to attach it to the bill for the goods.
Mosquito Repellent. R. D. asks: "Will you print a formula for an inexpensive mosquito repellent or tell me what is a cheap solvent for the oils of pennyroyal and citronella ?”
A mixture of one part of oil of eucalyptus, 2 parts of talc, and 14 parts of powdered starch, if applied freely to exposed parts with a powder puff, is claimed to be efficient for causing mosquitoes to keep their distance. Oils of citronella, sassafras, eucalyptus, and pennyroyal, when diluted with alcohol, are also said to be efficacious.
More lasting effects are obtained if the volatile oils are dissolved in a fixed oil, and for this purpose cottonseed oil is about the cheapest and best to use.
Coloring and Scenting Brilliantine. A. E. T. writes: “I wish to put up a brilliantine made with liquid paraffin under the name of ‘Bay Rum Brilliantine. What shall I use to color the paraffin a pale brown without imparting any color to the spirit? I would also like to know what to use for pale yellow and pale green colors, and, further, what substances to use in order that the preparation may be suitably perfumed,"
For coloring oily liquids use oil-soluble colors. By referring to the answer given “J. L. B.” elsewhere in this department you can find out more about them.
Oil of bergamot and oil of lavender with slight traces of oil of neroli are among the favorite perfuming agents for brilliantines.
Suppository Mold Soap Solution. H. L. H. writes: "In the books in my library I am not able to find a formula for a soap solution to be used in suppository molds in order to prevent sticking. Can you help me out?" Soap liniment, U. S. P, is the best soap preparation
It should never be employed, however, for suppositories containing metallic salts, lest a reaction occur between the soap and the salt. An alcoholic solution of castor oil is a good substitute in these cases.
For preventing sticking, the Pharmacopæia suggests the sprinkling of the molds with lycopodium. A little fixed oil or petrolatum is also used. Still another method is to line the molds with tin-foil or waxed paper.
Vitro-solvent Gun Oil. C. A. O. asks: "Will you please publish a formula for an efficient nitro-solvent gun oil?"
A lubricating oil which it is said will clean rust from rifle barrels, and also prevent corrosion by nitro powders, has the following formula :
Kerosene (free from acid). .2 fluidounces.
i fluidounce. Acetone
1 fluidounce. Mix in the order given.
Oil of citronella or oil of bergamot may be added to disguise the odor.
Concerning a Face Cream. B. K. writes: “I am looking for a good face-cream formula. The U. S. P. ointment of rose water is too greasy for my purposes, and a so-called peroxide cream which I have sold dries on the skin too quickly. What can you suggest ?"
Elsewhere in this department we are publishing two face-cream formulas under the title "A Greaseless Cream and a Massage Cream." One of the two will, perhaps, answer your requirements.
Sodiuin Phosphite. E. R. asks: “Where is sodium phosphite obtainable and what are its uses?"
Sodium phosphite (Na2HPO:+5H20) is a white crystalline powder, soluble in water. It is mentioned in "Merck's 1907 Index" and can probably be obtained from Merck & Co., New York City. Sodium phosphite has been accorded more or less publicity lately because of its recommended use in cases of mercuric chloride poisoning. In so far as we are aware it is used but little outside of experimental laboratories.
Marketing Suppositories. B. E. O. writes: "For some time I have been making antiseptic suppositories consisting of sodium bicarbonate, boric acid, and cocoa butter. What I want to know is this: am I allowed to send the suppositories through the mail and to advertise them (by mail) as antiseptic suppositories? I would also like to know if a serial number is required."
If the suppositories you are making are really anti
Thickening in Solution of Aluminum Acetate.
B. E. O. asks: "Can you tell me why solution of aluminum acetate gets thick and also how to prevent the reaction from taking place?" Precipitation of aluminum hydroxide is probably the
To overcome it try using slightly more acetic acid than is given in the formula (N. F. III.).
A LIVE MAGAZINE FOR DRUG_1**7. Saesq!1 jedənə9
THE MONTH'S HISTORY.
A Question Answered.
Two of a Kind. By J. D. Howard,
371 Mixing the Bottles. By W. K. Henderson....
trated). By R. R. Feagans... 375 Money-makers and Money-savers......... 376
THE SCDA FOUNTAIN. Trade Ticklers.....
386 Four Hundred Million Dollars a Year for