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your boss were a crank and an ingrate, I would he has to crack, lies in the difficulty of getting still urge you to do your level best just the suitable understudies for every important posisame. Why? Because after all you are doing tion in the house. it more for your own sake than for his, and These things are true, and I know they are because you are the chief beneficiary. Do you true. I know that employers in every line are doubt this? Listen: a man's chief duty is to constantly on the hunt for crack men. Don't develop himself and his powers, and to make listen to the croakers. Don't take the advice himself as fit an instrument as possible for the of the failures in life. There never was a time race of life. There is only one method by in the history of this country when opportuniwhich this can be accomplished, and that is by ties for the young man were so good. We hear exercise. You can't make yourself an athlete much about the “good old days,” but they are without training—you know that. Neither can good in retrospect only. This is the best year you make yourself a crack professional or busi- in the world's history, and this is the best minness man without an equal degree of constant ute in the year. If money is your ambition, self-improvement.
you can make more now than your father was THE SECRET OF GROWTH.
able to make 50 years ago. If business success The more you use your strength, the more it
is your ideal, you can build up a bigger store, develops. The more you employ your brain,
and a larger group of stores, than was ever the better it serves your purpose. The faster
possible before. If professional pharmacy is you put your ideas into practice, the more rap
your goal, the present size of our cities makes idly other ideas throng in and take their places.
it possible, as it never was before, to establish Capacity grows by what it feeds upon. If a
a few strictly professional shops in each large man wants to develop, if he wants to stretch
town. If you become a salaried man, it is the and measure up to bigger things, there is posi
simple truth that never was there a time when tively only one way he can do it, and that is by
keen men were in such demand, and when, if performing every duty the very best he knows
they were able to deliver the goods, they could how, keeping his eyes peeled for opportunities,
obtain so large an income. A salaried man toseizing upon them with hungry eagerness, using
day, in almost any line of business, can earn his brains constantly, conceiving and executing
far more money than the proprietor of the busnew plans, endeavoring always to effect im
iness himself was able to make in the good old provements, thinking, working, striving all the
days which some people love to talk about. time.. Men grow by using their strength. Noth
THE FUTURE. ing develops power but the constant exercise
But I fear I have talked too long. I have of it.
talked much longer than I intended to. Out If you develop your capacities, if you make
of all I have said, however, I would like if yourself bigger than the place you occupy, if
possible to force home these truths: the next you more than fill your job, another place will
five, or ten, or fifteen years, gentlemen, are be opened unto you—somewhere, somehow.
going to be your critical years: they will deDo not doubt this for an instant. If your pres
termine absolutely what you are to be throughent employer doesn't know a good thing when
out the remainder of your lives. It is during he sees it, there are plenty of other people who
these years that you will be maturing your will. THE MARKET FOR MEN.
powers, developing your character, and mak· I know something about the market for good ing yourself an instrument fit for the successmen. I know several ambitious proprietors of ful struggle of life. How shall you use these drug stores who would open one or two or years in a business way to the best advantage? three more establishments if they could find By more than filling your job—by giving your clerks capable enough to act as managers. I best always and everywhere—by seizing upon know several proprietors of "chain" stores every opportunity and making the most of itthroughout the country who are constantly on by proving yourself bigger than your position. the lookout for managers, department heads, If you do these things there will be no doubt and other men out of the ordinary. I might whatever about your future and about your tell you about the man who fills the biggest standing among the ranks of men. My one position in American pharmacy. Let me say wish to-night is that you will all deserve sucto you that his chief problem, the hardest nut cess, for if you deserve it you will get it.
Miscellaneous Changes in the U. S. P.
By WILBUR L. SCOVILLE. This is the third and final article of a series in which Mr. Scoville has discussed the changes in the new Pharmacopoeia of particular interest to pharmacists. The two previous articles have been concerned with general and classified changes, this one takes up some miscellaneous items which are worth noting.
Acid Hydrocyanic, Diluted. This now con- Aqua Ammonia, Stronger. Perhaps it is tains a little hydrochloric acid—not more than fortunate that the pharmacist seldom or never 0.1 per cent—which tends to make the acid has a call for this article on prescriptions or more stable. Since the limit of hydrocyanic for medicinal use, because it is almost imposacid now is not less than 1.9 per cent nor more sible to preserve it at 27 to 29 per cent under than 2.1 per cent there is need for a stabilizing ordinary circumstances. Agitation as well as agent, and the small quantity of hydrochloric a very moderate degree of heat soon reduces it acid allowed will help but will not make it to 25 per cent or less. In manufacturing it indefinitely "safe."
can be used in proportion. Lactic Acid. At last the Pharmacopæia has Aqua. The aromatic waters are now all recognized the lactide in this preparation and directed to be made from “recently boiled dishas made the standard 85 to 90 per cent of tilled water," to insure sterility. Aqua Destotal acidity instead of 75 per cent of free acid. tillata Sterilisata or Sterile Distilled Water is By the assay method now official the lactide is now official, and is directed to be made by boilchanged into lactic acid and is estimated as ing freshly distilled water in a clean flask such, so that acids formerly standardized at 75 plugged with cotton. It is intended for use in per cent will usually come up to the 85 to 90 preparing hypodermic solutions, and even the per cent standard by the new assay. The lat- dead bacteria which would be found in an old ter standard more truly represents the acidity sample of distilled water after sterilization are of lactic acid as sold.
objectionable. Liquor Sodii Chloridi PhysioAcid Sulphuric has been raised a little in logicus or Physiological Salt Solution is anstrength—not less than 93 per cent nor more other new sterile solution which must not be than 95 per cent. The formulas in which this kept in stock for dispensing more than 48 acid is used show the change.
hours after it is made. Aether. Ether for anesthesia is now spe- Asafætida is required to contain not less cially recognized, and is directed to be used than 60 per cent of alcohol-soluble material from freshly-opened, full containers. The unless powdered, when 50 per cent will suffice. tendency of ether to oxidize in partially. Since there is but one title, it appears that ppened containers is thus noted, and original there are two standards recognized for one packages are required for anesthetic purposes. article.
Aloes. The Latin title Aloe (nom. sing.) Benzoin. Both Sumatra and Siam Benzoin is still translated plural English, “Aloes.” We are separately described, but neither is speciare still wondering why it should be wrong to fied in the preparations. Either can be used say “Syrup of Squills” but right to say “Tinc- as Benzoin. ture of Aloes.” This and Cantharides are the Camphor. The natural camphor only is only plural drugs left—if our scrutiny is com- recognized, and several of the camphor prepplete. Even the familiar "cloves” is now arations have assay methods included. Since “clove," and in keeping with most of the the camphor is estimated by its rotation, and nomenclature. Three varieties of "aloes” are artificial camphor has no rotatory power, this separately described, Socotrine, Curacao and alone will rule out the latter. Whether artifiCape, but no variety is specified for the prep cial camphor has the same value as a medicine arations.
as natural is not yet thoroughly established, Alum. Ammonium Alum is again recog- though most of the evidence points that way. nized after a long absence from the Pharma- Cannabis. As before stated either Americopæia. Potassium alum is still official, but can or Indian Cannabis can be used, but its economy permits the use of the other—while value must be proved by a biological assay. the war lasts—we hope.
Another "purity rubric,” also adopted for most of the vegetable drugs in the Pharma- pared by special machinery and skill, but the copæia, is a statement which limits the amount strength is specified. of stems “or other foreign matter” which can The old title Charta Sinapis has also sucbe allowed, and also places a limit on the yield cumbed to public custom and been rechristened of ash. This is designed to secure cleaner as Emplastrum Sinapis. So that “Mustard Plaswell as purer drugs.
ter” now comes under the official description Cantharides are standardized to contain not and standards. less than 0.6 per cent of cantharidin, but none Ginger. The Pharmacopæia separately deof the preparations are standardized. This is scribes six varieties of Ginger, viz., Jamaica, mainly because the extraction of cantharides African, Calcutta, Calient, Cochin and Japanhas been shown to be extremely difficult, and ese, but requires that all preparations, except standards cannot be maintained on imperfect the oleoresin, shall be made from Jamaica Ginmethods.
ger. This means that Oleoresin of Ginger Capsicum. African chillies are specified as may hereafter have a very different flavor the variety to be used. There are great differ- and character from Tincture of Ginger, beences in capsicums, and the varieties which
cause any one or all of the six recognized may be best for condiments are not best for varieties may be employed in making it, while medicinal use. The African chillies are usually
only Jamaica Ginger can be used for Tincture.
only Jamaica Ginger can more pungent than the Japanese, and are more
Tincture of Ginger also has special tests of desirable as therapeutic agents.
identity and purity appended. It has thus beCardamom is now Cardamom Semen. That
come a very distinctive tincture, for none is, the seed only is now used, and in smaller
others, except the assayed alkaloidal tinctures, amounts in most preparations. Compound
are thus discriminated.
Infusion of Digitalis now contains no alcoTincture of Cardamom therefore calls for a
hol. It is not assayed, but should be made smaller amount of cardamom seed than it did
from an assayed drug. for cardamom, but the flavor and strength are
Ipecac. The Rio and Cartagena varieties not materially changed.
are separately described, but neither is given Extracts. Only a few of the extracts are
the preference in preparations. By some now exempt from a standard of some kind.
curious twist (or was it oversight?) Ipecac is The alkaloidal extracts are, as before, stand
required to yield "not less than 1.75 per cent ardized for alkaloids, and now a number of
of ether-soluble alkaloids,” but the fluidextract non-alkaloidal extracts are made to relate defi
must yield not less than 1.8 per cent nor more nitely to the drug. Thus Extract of Cascara
ra than 2.2 per cent. The fluidextract thus repis to be three times the drug strength, Extracts
resents about 113 per cent of the drug. of Cimicifuga, Colocynth, and Gelsemium, Jalap and its preparations are now standfour times the drug strength, Extract of ardized for chloroform-alcohol soluble resin Viburnum Pruni folium five times the drug only. The ether-soluble estimation has been strength, and Extract of Ox Gall, which now omitted. The standard has been reduced to replaces the Purified Ox Gall, is eight times "not less than 7 per cent of total resins.” the drug strength.
Liquors. There are no very marked changes For soft extracts glucose is directed as a in the Liquors, and old stocks will conform diluting agent, and in the powdered extracts sufficiently close to the new standards. The magnesium oxide is used in part. The latter economic need for using sodium salts in is necessary to overcome the hygroscopic tend- place of potassium is shown in Liquor Cresolis ency of some of these extracts. It is used even Compositus where sodium hydroxide may be in alkaloidal extracts, where it may liberate used in place of potassium hydroxide, and in the alkaloid, but in the dry or pilular form this Liquor Magnesii Citratis where sodium bicarwill make little or no difference in practical bonate may be substituted for Potassium results.
Bicarbonate—in equivalent proportions. The Emplastruin Belladonnæ is now frankly the latter solution also has an assay method and a commercial Belladonna Plaster which is made standard for magnesium content. with a rubber base—the latter also being rec- Magma Bismuthi (Milk of Bismuth) and ognized as Emplastrum Elasticum. No form- Magma Magnesiæ are two new preparations in ulas are given, because these can only be pre- the Pharmacopoeia, though both are familiar commercial preparations. The former is re- under the Harrison Law, in order to avoid quired to yield 5.6 per cent to 6.2 per cent of misunderstandings. bismuth oxide, which corresponds to an equiv- Pancreatin is now standardized for its alent of about 35 grains of Bismuth subnitrate starch-converting power, as well as for milk per fluidounce, and the latter is required to peptonization. It is required to convert 25 yield 6.5 per cent to 7.5 per cent of magnesium times its weight of starch. hydroxide, which corresponds to about 32 Podophyllum is required to yield not less grains per fluidounce. Some of the commer- than 3 per cent of resin—which does not apcial products correspond to these standards, pear to be a very high standard. Yields of 5 and some do not. Pharmacists should make per cent and more are not infrequent. The sure that their stock is in accord with the Pharmacopæia still refuses to recognize Podostandards—or is sold as non-official.
phyllum emodi, though it is recognized in the Methyl Salicylate is now officially Oil of British Pharmacopæia, and such evidence as Wintergreen, Oil of Sweet Birch, Oil of Tea- is now available makes it appear as medicinally berry, or an artificial oil, but “the label must superior to the official variety. Under Resin indicate whether the methyl salicylate has been of Podophyllum the Indian variety is distinctly made synthetically or distilled from either” excluded. This is a case of needed investigaGaultheria procumbens, or Betula lenta. There tion beyond what the U. S: P. Revision Comis now only one title which recognizes all these mittee has time to make, to remove an old products, the label to make the distinction. prejudice and give due credit to a now discredThe main advantage is that now one can prop- ited drug. Both medicinally and economically erly label a product as “Oil of Wintergreen, the Indian Podophyllum appears to be the betTrue," or "Oil of Wintergreen, from Sweet ter variety, yet the U. S. P. excludes it. Birch,” or “Oil of Wintergreen, Synthetic," as Scammony is required to yield not less than the case may be.
8 per cent of resin by alcohol extraction, and Mucilage of Acacia has dropped the lime Resin of Scammony is directed to be made by water, and is now made according to the old- a process similar to that for obtaining podofashioned method, by dissolving acacia in phyllum and jalap resins. water.
Sarsaparilla. Three varieties are described Oils, Volatile. Oil of Bitter Almond is re- - Mexican, Honduras, and Jamaica—all quired to contain not less than 2 per cent nor equally acceptable in preparations. . more than 4 per cent of hydrocyanic acid, and Soft Soap is now made from cottonseed oil must not be employed for flavoring foods. and potassium hydroxide. It must give a The same statement-for medicinal use only, clear solution in alcohol or hot water, be applies to the Spirit of Bitter Almond. slightly alkaline, and not lose more than 52
The synthetic oil of bitter almond is still per cent of its weight on drying. Cottonseed official under the title of “Benzaldehydum," oil soap is a little firmer and not as easily soluand this can be employed for flavoring pur- ble as linseed oil soap, but otherwise is very poses, since it contains no hydrocyanic acid. satisfactory.
Oil of Anise recognizes both the true anise Soap has a moisture restriction of 36 per oil and that of star anise, but requires that the cent for the cake soap and 10 per cent for the label shall specify which is sold. Thirteen of powdered soap. This is expected to give more the official volatile oils have assay processes uniform results in Soap Liniment and Soap for estimating the percentage of active princi- Plaster. The chemical tests for soap are more ples, and limit-standards are therefore set for stringent, and will serve to exclude all but an these. The chemical restrictions on volatile olive oil soap. oils are growing more stringent.
Sodium Glycerophosphate is now official in Opium and preparations have been men- two forms, viz., as Sodii Glycerophosphas, a tioned before, but it may not be amiss to re crystalline salt containing 68 per cent of anhypeat that the new standards are lower than the drous glycerophosphate, and as Liquor Sodii old, and all preparations of opium of the Glycerophosphatis, which is the liquid or pasty U. S. P. VIII can be diluted to make them form such as has been in use for several years, conform to the new standards. This further and which is required to contain not less than suggests the question whether the revenue 50 per cent of the anhydrous salt. This will officers should be notified of the new stocks, correspond to about 74 per cent of the crystalline salt, and hence is the same as has been sold maintained their place because of the vinous as “75 per cent Sodium Glycerophosphate.” odor and flavor. They have no advantages This is the most familiar form of the salt, and over the corresponding tinctures, and are graduntil within a very few years the crystalline ually passing into history. It is doubtful if variety was not obtainable.
any of these will be revived, as far as the Syrups show few changes, and those are Pharmacopoeia is concerned. mostly in the line of simplicity in compound The New Articles. This revision shows ing. The change in strength of Syrup of fewer additions than preceding ones, there Hydriodic Acid has already been mentioned, being but 67 in all. A significant fact about and is important. Syrup of Ipecac can now these is that approximately a quarter of the be made extemporaneously because a change number pertain to hypodermic medication, and in the method and menstruum for making include sterilized distilled water and PhysioFluidextract of Ipecac has made this directly logical Salt Solution as vehicles, some of the miscible with syrup, but the subcommittee on alkaloidal compounds which are employed Syrups apparently forgot that and has con- hypodermically to a large extent, as Caffeine tinued directions for clarifying, which are not
Sodio-Benzoate, Emetine Hydrochloride, now necessary. Compound Syrup of Sarsa
Betaeucaine Hydrochloride, Quinine Dihydroparilla is also made without filtration by the
chloride, Quinine and Urea Hydrochloride, aid of a little alcohol. The flavor and compo
and five Biological serums. Vaccine is endersition are otherwise the same, and syrup is
matic, but also a surgical form of medication. used instead of sugar and water. This can
The Pharmacopæia has also taken the first now be made extemporaneously in a few min
step in simplifying the nomenclature of the
alkaloidal salts, and has made it quite proper utes. Syrup of Wild Cherry has again had the
to refer to “quinine bromide," "emetine chlo
ride," etc. This seems to us sensible as well glycerin reduced, but it is used in the menstruum so that the present syrup is more deeply
as desirable, and we can well spare the prefix colored than that of the eighth revision. Phar
“hydro" from the alkaloidal salts.
Two gases have been introduced, nitrogen macists will appreciate this return to a deep reddish syrup.
monoxide, and oxygen, presumably for the
purpose of establishing standards of purity for Tinctures show little change as a class. The
their use in medicine. few changes in strength of the assayed tinc
Several of the semi-synthetic alkaloidal remtures have already been described, and the use
edies have won a place in the U. S. P., as of cardamom seed in place of cardamom is to
Aethylmorphine Hydrochloride (familiar as be noted. Tincture of iodine will be more
Dionine), Betaeucaine Hydrochloride, Diaeasily made because of the small amount of
cetylmorphine (familiar as Heroin), and water now directed, hence there will be less
Theobromine Sodio-Salicylate (familiar as excuse for weakness in this tincture. .
Diuretin). Five Troches remain—cui bono? Few
One addition which will interest pharmadruggists will recognize them, by sight. The
cists is Corrosive Sublimate Tablets under the Ointments show few changes, either in num
title Toxitabellæ Hydrargyri Chloridi Corrober or composition. Boric Acid Ointment con
sivi. These are required to be of an angular tains less paraffin, so is less firm; Belladonna
shape (not discoid), each having the word Ointment contains more wool-fat (but stra
“POISON” and the skull and cross-bones design monium ointment does not) ; Diluted Mercury
distinctly stamped upon it. Each tablet must Ointment—"Blue Ointment”—contains a lit- contain not less than 0.45 Gm. (7 grains) nor tle less mercury—about 30 per cent instead of more than 0.55 Gm. (8.5 grains) of mercuric 33 per cent—and Phenol Ointment is reduced
chloride, the remainder to consist chiefly of in strength from 3 per cent to 2.25 per cent. sodium chloride and sufficient sodium indigoNo new ointments have been added, and four tinsulphonate to color the tablets blue. have been dropped. The changes which ap- Most of the other additions are familiar to pear are mostly in reductions in strength or pharmacists as remedies-except perhaps composition—which are not of serious import. Phenylcinchonic Acid—and we don't know
The Wines have all disappeared. These are why that was added. Perhaps the future will the forerunners of the tinctures and have disclose its importance.