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your boss were a crank and an ingrate, I would still urge you to do your level best just the same. Why? Because after all you are doing it more for your own sake than for his, and because you are the chief beneficiary. Do you doubt this? Listen: a man's chief duty is to develop himself and his powers, and to make himself as fit an instrument as possible for the race of life. There is only one method by which this can be accomplished, and that is by exercise. You can't make yourself an athlete without training-you know that. Neither can you make yourself a crack professional or business man without an equal degree of constant self-improvement.


The more you use your strength, the more it develops. The more you employ your brain, the better it serves your purpose. The faster you put your ideas into practice, the more rapidly other ideas throng in and take their places. Capacity grows by what it feeds upon. If a man wants to develop, if he wants to stretch and measure up to bigger things, there is positively only one way he can do it, and that is by performing every duty the very best he knows how, keeping his eyes peeled for opportunities, seizing upon them with hungry eagerness, using his brains constantly, conceiving and executing new plans, endeavoring always to effect improvements, thinking, working, striving all the time.. Men grow by using their strength. Nothing develops power but the constant exercise of it.

If you develop your capacities, if you make yourself bigger than the place you occupy, if you more than fill your job, another place will be opened unto you-somewhere, somehow. Do not doubt this for an instant. If your present employer doesn't know a good thing when he sees it, there are plenty of other people who will.

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he has to crack, lies in the difficulty of getting suitable understudies for every important position in the house.

These things are true, and I know they are true. I know that employers in every line are constantly on the hunt for crack men. Don't listen to the croakers. Don't take the advice of the failures in life. There never was a time in the history of this country when opportunities for the young man were so good. We hear much about the "good old days," but they are good in retrospect only. This is the best year in the world's history, and this is the best minute in the year. If money is your ambition, you can make more now than your father was able to make 50 years ago. If business success is your ideal, you can build up a bigger store, and a larger group of stores, than was ever possible before. If professional pharmacy is your goal, the present size of our cities makes it possible, as it never was before, to establish a few strictly professional shops in each large town. If you become a salaried man, it is the simple truth that never was there a time when keen men were in such demand, and when, if they were able to deliver the goods, they could obtain so large an income. A salaried man today, in almost any line of business, can earn far more money than the proprietor of the business himself was able to make in the good old days which some people love to talk about.



But I fear I have talked too long. I have talked much longer than I intended to. of all I have said, however, I would like if possible to force home these truths: the next five, or ten, or fifteen years, gentlemen, are going to be your critical years: they will determine absolutely what you are to be throughout the remainder of your lives. It is during these years that you will be maturing your powers, developing your character, and making yourself an instrument fit for the successful struggle of life. How shall you use these years in a business way to the best advantage? By more than filling your job-by giving your best always and everywhere-by seizing upon every opportunity and making the most of it— by proving yourself bigger than your position.

If do these things there will be no doubt. whatever about your future and about your standing among the ranks of men. My one wish to-night is that you will all deserve success, for if you deserve it you will get it.

Miscellaneous Changes in the U. S. P.


This is the third and final article of a series in which Mr. Scoville has discussed the changes in the new Pharmacopoeia of particular interest to pharmacists. The two previous articles have been concerned with general and classified changes-this one takes up some miscellaneous items which are worth noting.

Acid Hydrocyanic, Diluted. This now contains a little hydrochloric acid—not more than 0.1 per cent-which tends to make the acid more stable. Since the limit of hydrocyanic acid now is not less than 1.9 per cent nor more than 2.1 per cent there is need for a stabilizing agent, and the small quantity of hydrochloric acid allowed will help but will not make it indefinitely "safe."

Lactic Acid. At last the Pharmacopœia has recognized the lactide in this preparation and has made the standard 85 to 90 per cent of total acidity instead of 75 per cent of free acid. By the assay method now official the lactide is changed into lactic acid and is estimated as such, so that acids formerly standardized at 75 per cent will usually come up to the 85 to 90 per cent standard by the new assay. The latter standard more truly represents the acidity of lactic acid as sold.

Acid Sulphuric has been raised a little in strength-not less than 93 per cent nor more than 95 per cent. The formulas in which this acid is used show the change.

Aether. Ether for anesthesia is now specially recognized, and is directed to be used from freshly-opened, full containers. The tendency of ether to oxidize in partiallyopened containers is thus noted, and original packages are required for anesthetic purposes.

Aloes. The Latin title Aloe (nom. sing.) is still translated plural English, "Aloes." We are still wondering why it should be wrong to say "Syrup of Squills" but right to say "Tincture of Aloes." This and Cantharides are the only plural drugs left—if our scrutiny is complete. Even the familiar "cloves" is now "clove," and in keeping with most of the nomenclature. Three varieties of "aloes" are separately described, Socotrine, Curacao and Cape, but no variety is specified for the preparations.

Alum. Ammonium Alum is again recognized after a long absence from the Pharmacopoeia. Potassium alum is still official, but economy permits the use of the other-while the war lasts—we hope.

Aqua Ammonia, Stronger. Perhaps it is fortunate that the pharmacist seldom or never has a call for this article on prescriptions or for medicinal use, because it is almost impossible to preserve it at 27 to 29 per cent under ordinary circumstances. Agitation as well as a very moderate degree of heat soon reduces it to 25 per cent or less. In manufacturing it can be used in proportion.

Aqua. The aromatic waters are now all directed to be made from "recently boiled distilled water," to insure sterility. Aqua Destillata Sterilisata or Sterile Distilled Water is now official, and is directed to be made by boiling freshly distilled water in a clean flask plugged with cotton. It is intended for use in preparing hypodermic solutions, and even the dead bacteria which would be found in an old sample of distilled water after sterilization are objectionable. Liquor Sodii Chloridi Physiologicus or Physiological Salt Solution is another new sterile solution which must not be kept in stock for dispensing more than 48 hours after it is made.

Asafoetida is required to contain not less than 60 per cent of alcohol-soluble material unless powdered, when 50 per cent will suffice. Since there is but one title, it appears that there are two standards recognized for one article.

Benzoin. Both Sumatra and Siam Benzoin are separately described, but neither is specified in the preparations. Either can be used as Benzoin.

Camphor. The natural camphor only is recognized, and several of the camphor preparations have assay methods included. Since the camphor is estimated by its rotation, and artificial camphor has no rotatory power, this alone will rule out the latter. Whether artificial camphor has the same value as a medicine as natural is not yet thoroughly established, though most of the evidence points that way.

Cannabis. As before stated either American or Indian Cannabis can be used, but its value must be proved by a biological assay.

Another "purity rubric," also adopted for

most of the vegetable drugs in the Pharmacopœia, is a statement which limits the amount of stems "or other foreign matter" which can be allowed, and also places a limit on the yield of ash. This is designed to secure cleaner as well as purer drugs.

Cantharides are standardized to contain not less than 0.6 per cent of cantharidin, but none of the preparations are standardized. This is mainly because the extraction of cantharides has been shown to be extremely difficult, and standards cannot be maintained on imperfect methods.

Capsicum. African chillies are specified as the variety to be used. There are great differences in capsicums, and the varieties which may be best for condiments are not best for medicinal use. The African chillies are usually more pungent than the Japanese, and are more desirable as therapeutic agents.

Cardamom is now Cardamom Semen. That is, the seed only is now used, and in smaller amounts in most preparations. Compound Tincture of Cardamom therefore calls for a smaller amount of cardamom seed than it did for cardamom, but the flavor and strength are not materially changed.

Extracts. Only a few of the extracts are now exempt from a standard of some kind. The alkaloidal extracts are, as before, standardized for alkaloids, and now a number of non-alkaloidal extracts are made to relate definitely to the drug. Thus Extract of Cascara is to be three times the drug strength, Extracts of Cimicifuga, Colocynth, and Gelsemium, four times the drug strength, Extract of Viburnum Prunifolium five times the drug strength, and Extract of Ox Gall, which now replaces the Purified Ox Gall, is eight times the drug strength.

For soft extracts glucose is directed as a diluting agent, and in the powdered extracts magnesium oxide is used in part. The latter is necessary to overcome the hygroscopic tendency of some of these extracts. It is used even in alkaloidal extracts, where it may liberate the alkaloid, but in the dry or pilular form this will make little or no difference in practical results.

Emplastrum Belladonna is now frankly the commercial Belladonna Plaster which is made with a rubber base-the latter also being recognized as Emplastrum Elasticum. No formulas are given, because these can only be pre

pared by special machinery and skill, but the strength is specified.

The old title Charta Sinapis has also succumbed to public custom and been rechristened Emplastrum Sinapis. So that "Mustard Plaster" now comes under the official description and standards.

Ginger. The Pharmacopoeia separately describes six varieties of Ginger, viz., Jamaica, African, Calcutta, Calient, Cochin and Japanese, but requires that all preparations, except the oleoresin, shall be made from Jamaica Ginger. This means that Oleoresin of Ginger may hereafter have a very different flavor and character from Tincture of Ginger, because any one or all of the six recognized varieties may be employed in making it, while only Jamaica Ginger can be used for Tincture.

Tincture of Ginger also has special tests of identity and purity appended. It has thus become a very distinctive tincture, for none. others, except the assayed alkaloidal tinctures, are thus discriminated.

Infusion of Digitalis now contains no alcohol. It is not assayed, but should be made from an assayed drug.

Ipecac. The Rio and Cartagena varieties are separately described, but neither is given the preference in preparations. By some curious twist (or was it oversight?) Ipecac is required to yield "not less than 1.75 per cent of ether-soluble alkaloids," but the fluidextract must yield not less than 1.8 per cent nor more than 2.2 per cent. The fluidextract thus represents about 113 per cent of the drug.

Jalap and its preparations are now standardized for chloroform-alcohol soluble resin only. The ether-soluble estimation has been omitted. The standard has been reduced to "not less than 7 per cent of total resins."

Liquors. There are no very marked changes in the Liquors, and old stocks will conform sufficiently close to the new standards. The economic need for using sodium salts in place of potassium is shown in Liquor Cresolis Compositus where sodium hydroxide may be used in place of potassium hydroxide, and in Liquor Magnesii Citratis where sodium bicarbonate may be substituted for Potassium Bicarbonate-in equivalent proportions. The latter solution also has an assay method and a standard for magnesium content.

Magma Bismuthi (Milk of Bismuth) and Magma Magnesia are two new preparations in the Pharmacopoeia, though both are familiar

commercial preparations. The former is required to yield 5.6 per cent to 6.2 per cent of bismuth oxide, which corresponds to an equivalent of about 35 grains of Bismuth subnitrate per fluidounce, and the latter is required to yield 6.5 per cent to 7.5 per cent of magnesium hydroxide, which corresponds to about 32 grains per fluidounce. Some of the commercial products correspond to these standards, and some do not. Pharmacists should make sure that their stock is in accord with the standards-or is sold as non-official.

Methyl Salicylate is now officially Oil of Wintergreen, Oil of Sweet Birch, Oil of Teaberry, or an artificial oil, but "the label must indicate whether the methyl salicylate has been made synthetically or distilled from either" Gaultheria procumbens, or Betula lenta. There is now only one title which recognizes all these products, the label to make the distinction. The main advantage is that now one can properly label a product as "Oil of Wintergreen, True," or "Oil of Wintergreen, from Sweet Birch," or "Oil of Wintergreen, Synthetic," as the case may be.

Mucilage of Acacia has dropped the lime water, and is now made according to the oldfashioned method, by dissolving acacia in


Oils, Volatile. Oil of Bitter Almond is required to contain not less than 2 per cent nor more than 4 per cent of hydrocyanic acid, and must not be employed for flavoring foods. The same statement-for medicinal use onlyapplies to the Spirit of Bitter Almond.

The synthetic oil of bitter almond is still official under the title of "Benzaldehydum," and this can be employed for flavoring purposes, since it contains no hydrocyanic acid.

Oil of Anise recognizes both the true anise oil and that of star anise, but requires that the label shall specify which is sold. Thirteen of the official volatile oils have assay processes for estimating the percentage of active principles, and limit-standards are therefore set for these. The chemical restrictions on volatile oils are growing more stringent.

Opium and preparations have been mentioned before, but it may not be amiss to repeat that the new standards are lower than the old, and all preparations of opium of the U. S. P. VIII can be diluted to make them conform to the new standards. This further suggests the question whether the revenue officers should be notified of the new stocks,

under the Harrison Law, in order to avoid misunderstandings.

Pancreatin is now standardized for its starch-converting power, as well as for milk peptonization. It is required to convert 25 times its weight of starch.

Podophyllum is required to yield not less than 3 per cent of resin-which does not appear to be a very high standard. Yields of 5 per cent and more are not infrequent. The Pharmacopoeia still refuses to recognize Podophyllum emodi, though it is recognized in the British Pharmacopoeia, and such evidence as is now available makes it appear as medicinally superior to the official variety. Under Resin of Podophyllum the Indian variety is distinctly excluded. This is a case of needed investigation beyond what the U. S. P. Revision Committee has time to make, to remove an old prejudice and give due credit to a now discredited drug. Both medicinally and economically the Indian Podophyllum appears to be the better variety, yet the U. S. P. excludes it.

Scammony is required to yield not less than 8 per cent of resin by alcohol extraction, and Resin of Scammony is directed to be made by a process similar to that for obtaining podophyllum and jalap resins.

Sarsaparilla. Three varieties are described -Mexican, Honduras, and Jamaica-all equally acceptable in preparations.

Soft Soap is now made from cottonseed oil and potassium hydroxide. It must give a clear solution in alcohol or hot water, be slightly alkaline, and not lose more than 52 per cent of its weight on drying. Cottonseed oil soap is a little firmer and not as easily soluble as linseed oil soap, but otherwise is very satisfactory.

Soap has a moisture restriction of 36 per cent for the cake soap and 10 per cent for the powdered soap. This is expected to give more uniform results in Soap Liniment and Soap. Plaster. The chemical tests for soap are more stringent, and will serve to exclude all but an olive oil soap.

Sodium Glycerophosphate is now official in two forms, viz., as Sodii Glycerophosphas, a crystalline salt containing 68 per cent of anhydrous glycerophosphate, and as Liquor Sodii Glycerophosphatis, which is the liquid or pasty form such as has been in use for several years, and which is required to contain not less than 50 per cent of the anhydrous salt. This will correspond to about 74 per cent of the crystal

line salt, and hence is the same as has been sold as "75 per cent Sodium Glycerophosphate." This is the most familiar form of the salt, and until within a very few years the crystalline variety was not obtainable.

Syrups show few changes, and those are mostly in the line of simplicity in compounding. The change in strength of Syrup of Hydriodic Acid has already been mentioned, and is important. Syrup of Ipecac can now be made extemporaneously because a change in the method and menstruum for making Fluidextract of Ipecac has made this directly miscible with syrup, but the subcommittee on Syrups apparently forgot that and has continued directions for clarifying, which are not now necessary. Compound Syrup of Sarsaparilla is also made without filtration by the aid of a little alcohol. The flavor and composition are otherwise the same, and syrup is used instead of sugar and water. This can now be made extemporaneously in a few min


Syrup of Wild Cherry has again had the glycerin reduced, but it is used in the menstruum so that the present syrup is more deeply colored than that of the eighth revision. Pharmacists will appreciate this return to a deep reddish syrup.

Tinctures show little change as a class. The few changes in strength of the assayed tinctures have already been described, and the use of cardamom seed in place of cardamom is to be noted. Tincture of iodine will be more easily made because of the small amount of water now directed, hence there will be less excuse for weakness in this tincture.

Five Troches remain-cui bono? Few druggists will recognize them, by sight. The Ointments show few changes, either in number or composition. Boric Acid Ointment contains less paraffin, so is less firm; Belladonna Ointment contains more wool-fat (but stramonium ointment does not); Diluted Mercury Ointment-"Blue Ointment"-contains a little less mercury-about 30 per cent instead of 33 per cent and Phenol Ointment is reduced in strength from 3 per cent to 2.25 per cent. No new ointments have been added, and four have been dropped. The changes which appear are mostly in reductions in strength or composition-which are not of serious import.

The Wines have all disappeared. These are the forerunners of the tinctures and have

maintained their place because of the vinous odor and flavor. odor and flavor. They have no advantages over the corresponding tinctures, and are gradually passing into history. It is doubtful if any of these will be revived, as far as the Pharmacopoeia is concerned.

The New Articles. This revision shows fewer additions than preceding ones, there being but 67 in all. A significant fact about these is that approximately a quarter of the number pertain to hypodermic medication, and include sterilized distilled water and Physiological Salt Solution as vehicles, some of the alkaloidal compounds which are employed hypodermically to a large extent, as Caffeine Sodio-Benzoate, Emetine Hydrochloride, Betaeucaine Hydrochloride, Quinine Dihydrochloride, Quinine and Urea Hydrochloride, and five Biological serums. Vaccine is endermatic, but also a surgical form of medication.

The Pharmacopoeia has also taken the first. step in simplifying the nomenclature of the alkaloidal salts, and has made it quite proper to refer to "quinine bromide," "emetine chloride," etc. This seems to us sensible as well as desirable, and we can well spare the prefix "hydro" from the alkaloidal salts.

Two gases have been introduced, nitrogen monoxide, and oxygen, presumably for the purpose of establishing standards of purity for their use in medicine.

Several of the semi-synthetic alkaloidal remedies have won a place in the U. S. P., as Aethylmorphine Hydrochloride (familiar as Dionine), Betaeucaine Hydrochloride, Diacetylmorphine (familiar as Heroin), and Theobromine Sodio-Salicylate (familiar as Diuretin).

One addition which will interest pharmacists is Corrosive Sublimate Tablets under the title Toxitabellæ Hydrargyri Chloridi Corrosivi. These are required to be of an angular shape (not discoid), each having the word "POISON" and the skull and cross-bones design distinctly stamped upon it. Each tablet must contain not less than 0.45 Gm. (7 grains) nor more than 0.55 Gm. (8.5 grains) of mercuric chloride, the remainder to consist chiefly of sodium chloride and sufficient sodium indigotinsulphonate to color the tablets blue.

Most of the other additions are familiar to pharmacists as remedies--except perhaps Phenylcinchonic Acid-and we don't know why that was added. Perhaps the future will disclose its importance.

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