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15 per cent above cost a legitimate charge for anything supplied to doctors. Perhaps some of our readers who make a practice of selling to physicians will send in a description of the methods used to figure prices for this class of patrons.
Information is given in this department under the following conditions only: (1) No queries are answered by mail; (2) queries must reach us before the 15th of the month to be answered in the BULLETIN of the month following: (3) inquirers must in every instance be regular subscribers; and (4) names and addresses must be affixed to all communications.
Cod-liver Oil Emulsions. The S. Laboratory writes: "We would like to be informed as to the best way to make emulsion of codliver oil. Also can malt extract be made into an emulsion with cod-liver oil? We would further like to know the addresses of manufacturers of emulsion-making machines."
The formula for emulsion of cod-liver oil given on page 129 of the United States Pharmacopeia produces a satisfactory product. Here is the formula:
Cod-liver oil. ....... ..........500 Cc.
Water, q. s. ad...... ............1000 Cc. Rub the acacia with the cod-liver oil in a dry mortar until uniformly mixed, then add at once 250 Cc. of water and tritur. ate rapidly until a thick, homogeneous emulsion is produced; to this add the oil of gaultheria and the syrup, with enough water to make the product measure 1000 Cc., and mix thoroughly.
Half a Dozen, Assorted. C. D. writes: "Here are several questions which I desire to have answered: (1) How many grains of asafetida are used in 6 fluidounces of emulsion of asafetida ? (2) How many grains of potassium iodide are required to make one fluidounce of a saturated solution? (3) Is there a Federal law in regard to the sale of ergot, and is there a Michigan State law concerning it? (4) How is liquid sulphur made? (5) What is the formula for solution of citrate of magnesia ? (6) How much should a physician be charged for 1/2 fluidounce of a 6-per-cent solution of cocaine ?"
1. 109 grains.
2. A troy ounce of potassium iodide dissolved in five fluidrachms of water will measure almost exactly one fluidounce.
3. It is contrary to both Federal and State laws to offer for sale any drug the purpose of which is to produce abortion. If ergot is supplied for this purpose, its sale, of course, is a serious misdemeanor. When ergot is sold for other uses, there must be affixed to the container, under the Michigan State law, a label displaying the name of the drug and the word “poison” distinctly shown, together with the name and place of business of the seller, all printed in red ink.
4. By "liquid sulphur” we assume you mean solution of sulphurated lime. The formula follows:
Additional formulas for cod-liver oil emulsions may be found on pages 46 to 51 of the National Formulary, from which the following for emulsion of cod-liver oil with extract of malt is taken:
Cod-liver oil .........................500 Cc.
Extract of malt (U. S. P.)............375 Cc. To the mucilage of dextrin contained in a suitable bottle, add the extract of malt, and mix thoroughly by agitation. Then gradually add the cod-liver oil, first in small portions, agitating each time until the last-added portion is perfectly incorporated. Mucilage of dextrin is prepared as follows: Dextrin.......
..........335 grammes. Water, q. s. ad..
.....1000 Cc. Mix the dextrin and water in a tared vessel, and heat the mixture, with constant stirring, to near boiling, until the dextrin is dissolved and a limpid liquid results. Then restore any loss of water by evaporation, strain the liquid through muslin, and allow it to cool short of gelatinizing, when it will be ready for immediate use.
For information concerning emulsifying machines write to the Arthur Colton Co., 794 Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, Mich.; the J. H. Day Co., Cincinnati, Ohio; and to the Whitall Tatum Company, 410-416 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
Lime, freshly slaked.............165 grammes.
Water, q. s. ad.................1000 grammes. Mix the slaked lime with the sulphur, and add the mixture gradually to 1750 Cc, of boiling water. Then boil the whole, under constant stirring, until it is reduced to 1000 grammes, strain, and having allowed the solution to become clear by
a well-stoppered bottle, decant the clear brown liquid, and keep it in completely filled and well-stoppered bottles.
5. Solution of citrate of magnesia can be made according to the formula which appears on page 267 of the United States Pharmacopæia. Several formulas embodying suggested improvements for making this preparation have appeared from time to time in back numbers of the BULLETIN. We suggest that you consult the annual indexes which appear in the December issue each year if you wish to experiment with different methods of manufacture.
6. The question of the proper price to charge a physician for preparations intended for his own use is one that cannot be settled arbitrarily. Much depends on the druggist's relations with the particular physician. In all cases, of course, the cost of materials and labor should be charged for, and, if desired, a satisfactory profit added. There are some druggists who consider
Anti-freeze Mixture. E. H. W. asks: "Can you recommend an anti-freeze mixture for automobile radiators that I can sell for 50 cents a gallon and still make a profit? I want a preparation that contains no glycerin. I have seen such a product advertised which was guaranteed not to freeze at 14° F.”.
There are several chemical preparations intended for use in automobile radiators, but we hardly care to recommend them, as their continued use sometimes causes injury to the metal parts of the radiator or to the rubber connections.
Wood alcohol has been greatly favored for this line of work. In the presence of heat and oxygen, however, wood alcohol has a slight tendency to form formic acid, which might in time corrode the parts. It boils at a best be accomplished by replacing a portion of the water with distilled extract of witch-hazel, rose-water, or orange-flower water, or by adding the necessary perfume, spirit, or essential oils to suit the individual taste or need. A satisfactory odor might be secured by adding the mixture of essential oils used as the flavoring ingredients of the alkaline antiseptic of the N. F. or the liquid antiseptic of the U. S. P.
lower temperature than denatured alcohol, and consequently less of the latter is required, and as the tendency to evaporate is materially reduced, denatured alcohol is much cheaper to use for the purpose.
Alcohol (denatured) has absolutely no corrosive action on any of the metals with which it comes in contact, and its ability to withstand cold is indicated by the fact that it freezes at about -160° F. Its conposition is necessarily uniform, because it is manufactured in accordance with a formula prescribed by and under the supervision of government chemists. It contains no solid matter, thus making it unnecessary to filter before using and eliminating all danger of its clogging the radiator.
20-per-cent solution freezes at about 10° above zero. 30-per-cent solution freezes at about 5° below zero. 40-per-cent solution freezes at about 20° below zero. 50-per-cent solution freezes at about 35° below zero.
In solutions above 40 per cent in strength, however, the alcohol evaporates too readily to make a really practical mixture. In mild weather, too, this mixture boils very quickly.
The radiator should be carefully cleaned out before filling with the alcohol solution, and not filled too full, to allow for expansion when heated. If the car is out of use for more than a few days at a time, it is better to empty the radiator while warm and let it drain dry, taking care, however, to refill it before starting up the engine.
If offered in diluted form, ready for use, you can sell denatured alcohol for 50 cents a gallon at a satisfactory profit.
Guaranty Statements and Patent Laws. W. A. K. asks: “Will you kindly tell me to whom I must apply for information and instructions concerning the guaranty and registration of preparations under the pure food and drug law? I also have a private formula, and would like to know if it is necessary to get it patented before placing it on the market."
It is not necessary at all, under the Federal Food and Drugs Act, to guarantee any of your preparations. When a manufacturer does guarantee a product it is merely for the purpose of satisfying his distributors, protecting them against legal trouble, and thus earning their good-will. If you do decide to guarantee a product, however, you can no longer get a serial number issued at Washington, and print that serial number on your packages. That method was withdrawn by the government a year or two ago, and the only way now you can issue a guaranty to your dealer is to attach it to each bill of goods. We suggest that you consult your local lawyer about the phraseology of the guaranty. This whole question was discussed at some length on page 307 of the BULLETIN for July, 1914.
It is not necessary, in fact it is not possible, to "patent” a proprietary preparation. The name of such a preparation, however, may be copyrighted, or a trademark for the article may be registered. Full information concerning patents, copyrights, and trade-mark registration may be obtained, free of charge, upon application to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.
Emulsion of American Mineral Oil with
Hypophosphites. H. G. C. writes: "I wish to make an emulsion of American mineral oil (liquid petrolatum), containing some solution of hypophosphites. Can you furnish a formula for a 16-ounce mixture?"
Try the following:
Liquid Soap. G. & F. ask: "Will you publish a formula for liquid soap to be used in soap dispensers—something that can be made for less than $1.00 a gallon?"
The following formula suggested by M. I. Wilbert some years ago makes a satisfactory product, the cost of which is well within the limit you set : Sodium hydrate ...
.....40 G Potassium hydrate ..
....40 Gi Cottonseed oil ..
............500 Cc. Alcohol ....
.......250 Cc. Distilled water, a sufficient quantity to
...2500 Cc. In a suitable container, preferably a glass-stoppered bottle, dissolve the potassium hydrate and the sodium hydrate in 250 Cc. of distilled water, add the alcohol, and then add the cottonseed oil in three or four portions, shaking vigorously after each addition. Continue to agitate the mixture occasionally, until saponification has been completed. Then add the remaining portion of distilled water and mix.
The only precautions that are at all necessary are to use the U. S. P. grade of ingredients, and to be sure that saponification is complete before adding the remaining portions of the distilled water. The water used must be absolutely free from soluble salts of the alkaline earths or the heavy metals, and for this reason should be preferably freshly distilled.
The resulting preparation not being official, the pharmacist is at liberty to modify the formula to suit his own individual taste or the preference of his customers. The soap can, of course, be readily made more alkaline, and it can also be made with an appreciably smaller quantity of the alkali.
For general use as a toilet soap it would of course be necessary to give it some distinctive odor. This can
..... 12 grain.
....16 grains. Alcohol ..
....16 fluidounces. Melt the yellow petrolatum with the oils, allow the mixture to cool, and then mix thoroughly with the acacia in a dry mortar. Next add four fluidounces of water, all at once, and triturate until a homogeneous emulsion is produced. Dissolve the saccharin in the desired amount of solution of hypophosphites, and add it, with sufficient water to make one pint, to the primary emulsion. Lastly, add the benzoic acid dissolved in the alcohol.
The foregoing formula is intended for a preparation to be used as a tonic. If it is desired to employ the mineral oil for its laxative properties, an emulsion containing from 50 to 75 per cent of oil should be used. We will print a formula for such a preparation upon request.
is in our querist's State, New Jersey, we cannot under-take to say. Viewed broadly, we would not advise that a preparation be put out under the name "Sun Cholera Mixture" unless it is made in accordance with the N. F. formula; and if made in accordance with the N. F. formula it cannot escape the restrictions imposed by the Harrison act.
Camphorated Phenol and Camphorated Naphthol.
O. D. writes: “I have a prescription, written by a French doctor, which calls for camphorated phenol and camphorated naphthol. Please tell me how to make the two preparations.”
Camphor and crystalline carbolic acid (phenol), when triturated together, form an oily-appearing liquid (camphorated phenol) which does not possess the caustic properties of phenol. The mixture is made ordinarily with 3 parts of camphor to 1 of phenol by weight.
The Standard Formulary gives the name, “phenolated camphor,” to the following:
Paregoric Under the Harrison Law. F. R. S.--The revenue authorities have ruled that paregoric is exempt from the operations of the Harrison act. It does not contain a sufficient percentage of opium to bring it within the purview of the law. This and many other important points concerning the Harrison act will be found clearly set forth in a new booklet entitled "Observing the Harrison Law," recently prepared by the BULLETIN OF PHARMACY for the benefit of druggists generally. A copy will be sent post-paid for 25 cents. Order of E. G. Swift, P. O. Box 484, Detroit, Mich.
Camphor, in coarse powder..........10 ounces.
.....1 fluidounce. Triturate the ingredients together until an oily liquid is ob tained, or mix them in a bottle and agitate freely until solution occurs.
Camphorated naphthol is said to be a syrupy liquid prepared by fusing together one part of betanaphthol with two parts of camphor.
Applications for Lice. W. W. & Son write: "Will you tell us of several preparations that may be sold as 'Trench' powders or ointments for the destruction of lice?"
Mercurial ointment is a favorite application for the destruction of both head and body lice. A more "elegant” ointment which is said to be quite efficacious is made according to the following formula:
Ammonia and Resorcin in a Hair Tonic. A. De K. writes: "Here is a hair tonic which we are asked frequently to compound : Resorcin .......
..........2 drachms. Ammonia water..
...1 fluidounce. Castor oil......
.....1 fluidrachm. Alcohol, q. s. ad........
......8 fluidounces. "Dispensed according to this formula the mixture assumes a dark-brown color. If four drachms of resorcin are used the color is a green. What causes the color change?"
Ammonia (or any other alkali) decomposes resorcin, destroying its value in a compound like the foregoing. The ammonia water should be left out of the prescription. Even if this is done, however, the solution will darken gradually owing to the action of the light on the resorcin.
.......................4 drachms. White wax
.....112 drachms. Olive oil ....
.....ää 10 minims. Melt the wax and petrolatum together, add the olive oil, and then incorporate the naphthalin. When nearly cool incorporate the essential oils.
Insect powder, powdered sabadilla seed, powdered sulphur, and sulphur ointment are additional substances which are frequently used to kill lice.
To remove the "nits," the application of dilute acetic acid, dilute alcohol, or a mild alkaline solution is recommended.
Dyeing Broom Corn. H. D. A. writes: "Please tell me what is used to dye or stain broom corn. We wish to get a purple color preferably."
Aniline dyes are ordinarily used for this purpose. Information concerning the proper ones to use should be obtainable from any of the larger wholesalers or from the Badische Co., Chicago, Ill. ; the National Aniline & Chemical Co., New York City; or Heller & Merz Co., Newark, N. J.
Between Two Fires. J. P. requests: "Kindly publish a revised formula for Sun Cholera Mixture to comply with the Harrison act."
Sun Cholera Mixture is an N. F. preparation, and should its opium content be reduced to 2 grains to the ounce, or less, thus relieving it from pressure from the Harrison act, or should its formula be changed in any other manner, the change made must be made known on the label. These are the conditions imposed by the Federal food and drugs act. State laws differ, some of them, we believe, imposing restrictions which cannot be overcome in the manner indicated. Just what the law
"PRINCIPLES OF GENERAL PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY.”
This is the title of a series of pamphlets, Charles J. P. Fennel, Ph.G., Pharm.D., Professor of Theoretical and Applied Chemistry, Cincinnati College of Pharmacy, being the author. Parts 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been issued. It seems to be the intention to amplify the set, a book eventually being the result. The field is very thoroughly and comprehensively covered.
THE MONTH'S HISTORY.
Clerks vs. Automobiles. By Eugene
ness. By Selden 0. Martin.............
By Harold Whitehead. ..................
(Illustrated). By Arthur A. Haas....... 65
By Wm A. Brann......................
By W. W. Morris...................... 67
PRACTICAL PHARMACY. Formaldehyzed Capsules................... 76 Tinctures from Fluidextracts ............ 76 Extemporaneous Preparation of Camphor Liniment..........
........... 77 A True Benzoin, Glycerin, and Rose-water. 77 Care in Order of Mixing Required.......... 77
CAPSULES OF SCIENCE.
BOARD QUESTIONS ANSWERED.
hazel Hair Tonic......................... 81 Earache Remedies.......................... 81 Strontium Bromide and Potassium Citrate
CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES. Qualities of Importance in a Clerk:
Prize Article: The Prime Essentials.
By Fred Borth....................... 55 Co-operation Between Clerk and Pro
prietor. By F. T. Bogworth.......... 55 Seven Qualifications Necessary. By
Stanley M. Sorley.................... 56
Five ................... .......... 75