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success.

The inroads of these giants of commerce- only one quality is possible, we offer just as the mail-order houses—may make us enlarge low, and in some instances lower, prices than the variety of our stock, if we wish to cater to do the mail-order houses. And in so doing we all classes. But there is no reason why we call special attention to the fact that most mershould not—and every reason why we should chandise can be obtained just as cheaply at sell anything we can, provided it yields us a home as it can in a distant city. proper profit.

An intelligent examination of any mailWe must be courteous to our customers. order catalogue will show that the firm is not Our clerks must be neat and obliging. These selling all its merchandise at cost—any more are personal services which out-of-town houses than is our other big competition, the cut-rate cannot render. In proportion to their devel- drug store of the large cities. It is true that opment depends our harvest in the field of

the concerns have their at-cost "leaders,". but

if a customer makes his purchases from the en: To modern druggists it is hardly necessary tire line, he is not saving so much as he thinks. to say that a good grade of merchandise is es- We always bear down on these points when sential in order to beat mail-order competition. talking with customers who are susceptible to As venders of such we can guarantee quality common-sense reasoning. and assure the customer of the merits of our

COMMUNITY SPIRIT. products. We can acquire a name for reliability that will mean more to the public than

If the customer is at all public-spirited, we the few cents that might possibly be saved by point out to him that it is the local merchant trading with a mail-order house.

and not the mail-order magnate who pays the I do not believe that mail-order competition

taxes of the town; it is the local dealer who will make us suffer much. It should only buys tickets for the entertainments given by make us more alert and eager to keep our

the numerous social and charitable organizastores at the highest point of efficiency.

tions; it is through his efforts that most of the local improvements materialize.

If the customer is made to see the local BY DEMONSTRATING THE ADVANTAGES

dealer's true position in the community, he OF HOME BUYING.

quite often reciprocates-price conditions beBY WILLIAM J. RICHARDS.

ing equal—by turning over to the dealer much We always keep at hand copies of the cata- of the business that had been going out of logues issued by the large mail-order houses town. Then when a customer tells us of a low price With those customers to whom civic pride quoted by one of the Chicago firms we can means little or nothing, we adopt different taceasily check him up.

tics. We try to show them that buying out of Quite often we can show the customer that town does not result in the saving of much he is comparing an inferior article with the

money. product for which we ask a slightly higher We tell them that in ordering by mail there price.

is always the cost of the stamp and money With many of the advertised articles, where order, an expenditure of from 5 to 10 cents:

QUESTIONS FOR THE NEXT CONTEST. This department is in the hands of the big family of BULLETIN readers, and the heartiest co-operation is earnestly urged. The following questions are announced for the next contest :

1. What is your ideal of a drug business ? Submitted by Clifford H. Rudes, Utica, N. Y.

2. Does it pay to distribute calendars or other tokens at Christmas, and how can such practices be put on a paying basis? Submitted by Harry G. Cheesman, Wiarton, Ont.

For the best answer to either of these questions we shall award a prize of $5.00. Other answers, if printed, will be paid for at regular space rates. Every answer should be at least 500 words long and in our hands by November 10.

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the cost of the freight or express, usually 25

house will not take back the excess; we charge cents or more; and the cost of cartage from the customer only for what he actually uses. the freight house, which in most cases amounts In addition, we trim all wall-papers leaving to at least 25 cents—a total of nearly 75 cents. our store free of charge; mail-order paper has

to be trimmed by the purchaser. MAIL SERVICE IS SLOW.

There is any number of arguments that may To overcome this expense the order sent

be advanced to convince our customers of the must amount to at least $5.00, perhaps $10.00. wisdom of buying at home—in practice, we In addition to having to buy such a large quan- have found that comparatively few suffice. tity, the customer must pay in advance and then wait a week or more before receiving the goods.

BY GETTING IN INTIMATE TOUCH WITH

CUSTOMERS. When we have explained some of the mani

BY HARRY E. CASSADY. fest disadvantages of mail-order buying we next attempt to show why it is better to patron- Living in one of the localities—a small town ize the home-town merchant. We point out

—where mail-order trade is solicited puts us that when goods are purchased from the local in an excellent position to compete with the dealer there are no freight, express or cartage large concerns which are endeavoring to get charges, and that no advance payment is re- the business of the community. We are right quired.

on the ground and can get results by personal In some instances, when the customer main- efforts while our big competitors have to detains that he can get a better price from Chi- pend upon letters and catalogues for their cago or New York, we make this proposition: business. if he will give us as large an order as he would

One of the successful methods we use for the mail-order house, and pay us in advance holding our share of the trade is to distribute for it, we will meet the catalogue prices on the

a "household case" which consists of a pastesame grade of goods and, in addition, deliver board box containing twelve commonly-used the merchandise immediately.

articles, each one of which bears our own label Still another argument that we have used

and nets us a long profit. successfully is the one relating to the exchange A case is placed with each reliable family in of merchandise. When a customer makes a town and collection made for the articles used purchase from us he is not buying “sight un- at the end of each month, at which time, also, seen" but has the privilege of inspection and, the contents of the case is replenished. Such a in event of the goods not proving suitable, he plan keeps out many mail-order preparations, can exchange them with little difficulty. There

advertises the store at a small expense, and is no correspondence, no additional freight creates a repeat business that means many charges, and no delay of a week or more, as is liberal-profit sales. the case when goods are returned for exchange

The household cases are also sent out by to the mail-order establishments.

parcel post with a letter of explanation to rep

utable rural patrons. Payment for articles used A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE.

is collected at the end of every three months Wall-paper is an article frequently bought and the cases are refilled at the same time. through mail-order establishments, but a little This miniature mail-order business enables us conversation with a prospective buyer usually to become better acquainted with our rural convinces him that he can make a much better trade while adding surprisingly to our volume deal at home.

of business. If the paper ordered from away does not

THE USE OF PREMIUMS. cover all the wall space there is a delay of a week or more, while the house is all torn up, Another plan which we use to combat the during which the extra paper is in transit. If, inroads of mail-order houses is to issue a catahowever, the paper is purchased from a local logue containing illustrations, prices and other store, additional supplies may be secured with- information concerning a line of preparations out delay.

which nets us a wide margin of profit. The If too much paper is ordered, the mail-order catalogue also illustrates and describes a numher of well-known and worth-obtaining pre- It is true that people should patronize home miums.

industry, but that argument alone won't bring Every purchase at our store entitles the

much money into the cash-drawer.

To conbuyer to a coupon showing the amount of the vert mail-order buyers to a local store the sale, and these. coupons apply as cash on the owner of that store must show the people why purchase of the premiums listed in the cata- it is to their financial advantage to deal with logue. Double coupons are given on sales of him. all articles in the long-profit line illustrated in Meeting cut prices of course reduces profits the catalogue.

on a few things, but the object of the cut is to We also find the use of newspaper space to get the people coming. Any sensible plan that acquaint the public with the fact that we meet brings patrons into a store is bound to pay in the cut-prices offered by mail-order houses the long run. produces very good results, indirectly.

It pays better to make a profit of one cent Sampling is a direct trade promoter; we can on each of ten sales than to make ten cents on easily get our goods into many '

homes by that one sale; in the first instance ten people are inethod. Once in the homes, we need not brought into the store as against only one in worry that the merchandise will be displaced

the second. At least five of those ten can be by the mail-order firms, for those concerns can

interested in other things and will buy, pronot furnish our particular line of preparations.

vided the dealer and his clerks show the proper An exclusive line, or an "own-make" one, is kind of salesmanship. therefore a great asset in keeping out the cata- The fact that a store is meeting the prices logue houses.

of mail-order houses should be advertised conBy conducting our business on honest prin- spicuously by means of window displays with ciples, by advertising in the most effective price cards attached, and by displays on the inways, and by coming in personal contact with side of the store. our customers we are able to meet mail-order It should be made plain in the advertising competition successfully and, many times, to that customers can buy at lowest prices from go it one better.

the local store and, in addition, can save the postage and express charges incidental to a

mail-order transaction. The slight loss occaBY FIGHTING FIRE WITH FIRE.

sioned by a few reduced-price sales is not nearBy John McComas.

ly so much as is frequently spent in newspaper Mail-order houses have but one advantage advertising that does not begin to bring such over the average dealer: they quote what ap- good results. pear to be low prices. It is squarely up to the By careful buying the cost price of the varidealer, therefore, to meet the competition on a ous articles which have to be sold at cut prices dollars-and-cents basis.

can be reduced materially. Joining buying If the druggist will take a catalogue from a clubs or going in with one or two other retailmail-order house and go through its hundreds ers will mean much lower costs. of pages, he will be surprised at the compara- The one big advantage, however, that the tively small number of articles offered that local dealer possesses is that he can serve his really compete with him. On those particular trade in person. He is right on the spot and items, however, he must meet the catalogue can give the intelligent service that cannot be prices and, what is more important, he must secured from the leaves of a mail-order catalet the public know he is doing so.

logue.

a

4. Describe eugenol and state its source. BOARD QUESTIONS ANSWERED Eugenol is an unsaturated aromatic phenol

obtained from oil of cloves and other sources,

It is a colorless, or pale yellow, thin liquid, havAN IOWA EXAMINATION.

ing a strongly aromatic odor of cloves, and a (Continued from the September BULLETIN.)

pungent and spicy taste. Exposure to air

causes it to become thicker and darker. Its 14. Give the meanings of the following specific gravity is 1.066 to 1.068 at 25° C. Latin terms used in prescriptions: (a) Aq. 5. What is eugenol used as a substitute for? ferv., (b) chart. cerat., (c) coch. parv., (d) Eugenol may be used for the same purposes hor. som., (e) non. rep., (f) post. cib., (9) as oil of cloves. s. a., (h) ut. dict.

6. Give the common name, botanical name, (a) Warm water, (b) waxed paper, (c) a part used, medicinal action, and dose of eupateaspoonful, (d) at bed-time, (c) do not re- torium. peat, (f) after eating, (g) according to art, Eupatorium, commonly known as boneset, (h) as directed.

or thoroughwort, consists of the dried leaves 15. Give the approximate number of drops and flowering tops of Eupatorium perfoliatum in one fluidrachm of each of the following: Linné (Fam. Composite). (a) alcohol, (b) chloroform, (c) tincture of

Eupatorium is tonic, diaphoretic, and in opium, (d) tincture of iodine, (e) glycerin, large doses emetic and aperient, and was at one (f) liquid carbolic acid.

time employed as an anti-periodic. The aver(a) 185, (b) 370, (c) 185, (d) 246, (e)

age dose is 2 grammes (30 grains). 123, (f) 148.

7. State the habitat of the following drugs:

(u) cascara sagrada, (b) saffron, (c) acacia. MATERIA MEDICA.

(d) aloes. 1. Give the source and description of ar- (a) Northern California, Oregon and Washsenic trioxide.

ington. Arsenic trioxide is obtained chiefly as a by- (b) Saffron is a native of Greece and Asia product in the roasting of tin, cobalt, and nickel Minor. It is cultivated for market in Spain, ores, and is subsequently purified by sublima- France, and other temperate countries of Eution.

rope; it is also cultivated in the southeastern It is a heavy solid occurring either as an counties of Pennsylvania. opaque, white powder, or in irregular masses (c) The acacia tree forms dense scrubby forof two varieties: one, amorphous, transparent, ests in the sandy regions watered by the Seneand colorless, like glass; the other, crystalline, gal, and in Abyssinia and Kordofan. opaque, and white, resembling porcelain. Fre- (d) The Island of Socotra in the Strait of quently the same piece has an opaque, white, Bab-el-Mandeb; Barbadoes; Cape of Good outer crust enclosing the glassy variety. Con- Hope, etc. tact with moist air gradually changes the 8. Give the average adult dose of each of glassy into the white, opaque variety. Both the following: (a) rhubarb, (b) copper sulare odorless and tasteless.

phate, (c) Basham's mixture, (d) guaiacol. 2. State the dose and medicinal uses of

(e) alum. arsenic trioxide.

(a) 15 grains; (b) as an astringent 1/5 The average dose of arsenic trioxide is 2

grain, as an emetic 4 grains; (c) 4 fluidrachms; inilligrammes (1/30 grain). Medicinally, ar- (d) 8 minims; (c) 71/2 grains. senic trioxide is used for its alterative and tonic 9. Name 5 drugs having both expectorant effects. When properly administered it affects

and emetic properties. in some unknown way the nutrition, especially Ipecac, antimony and potassium tartrate. of the nervous system.

apomorphine hydrochloride, ammonium car3. State the official antidote for arsenic tri

bonate, senega. oxide.

10. Name the ingredients of Blaud's pills. Four fluidounces of ferric hydroxide with Granulated ferrous sulphate, potassium carmagnesium hydroxide is the usual antidote for bonate, sugar, tragacanth, althæa, glycerin, and arsenical poisoning.

water.

11. What is the medicinal action of Blaud's (a) 772 grains, (b) 1/160 grain, (c) lá pills?

grains, (d) 1 grain, (e) 15 grains. Blaud's pills constitute an excellent chaly- 15. What part of the plant is used of the beate tonic. They are extensively used as a following drugs: (a) manna, (b) ergot, (c) tonic in debility of the digestive organs, espe- squill, (d) nux vomica, (e) jalap? cially when attended with derangement of the (a) The concrete saccharine exudation. menstrual function.

(b) The sclerotium of Claviceps purpurea, 12. What are the medicinal uses of the fol- replacing the grain of rye. lowing: (a) Monsel's solution, (b) zinc stea- (c) The bulb of Urginea maritima deprived rate, (c) sodium hypophosphite, (d) ammo- of its dry, membranaceous outer scales, cut nium chloride, (e) lobelia ?

into thin slices and carefully dried, the central (a) Monsel's solution is useful as a styptic, portions being rejected. either applied externally or taken internally in (d) The dried ripe seed. proper dilution.

(e) The dried tuberous root. (6) Zinc stearate is employed in eczema, 16. Name a drug having (a) an anodyne acne and other cutaneous diseases, in the form effect, (6) carminative, (c) diaphoretic, (d) of powder, or made into an ointment.

mydriatic, (e) sialagogue. (c) Hypophosphites are recommended in (a) Opium, (b) oil of peppermint, (c) the treatment of phthisis and in diseases at- nitrous ether, (d) atropine, (e) pilocarpus. tended with loss of nerve power, and in many 17. (a) Give official Latin name of tartar of the diseases of infancy connected with the emetic. (b) Give its dose as an emetic. (c) scrofulous diathesis and defect in the osseous Give its dose as an expectorant. (d) Of what system. Their value, however, is problemat- official preparations is tartar emetic an ingreical.

dient? (d) Ammonium chloride has the stimulant (a) Antimonii et Potassii Tartras. properties of ammonia and is quite commonly (b) 1/2 grain. used as a stimulant expectorant in bronchitis (c) 1/10 grain. and catarrhal affections. It is also recom- (d) Compound syrup of squill and wine of mended in nervous affections and neuralgic antimony (U. S. P. VIII). disorders.

18. (a) Name a drug used as a diuretic. (e) Lobelia is employed as an antispas

an antispas- (b) as a styptic, (c) as an astringent, (d) as modic. It has also been used in catarrh, croup, an anthelmintic, (c) as an oxytocic. pertussis and other laryngeal and pectoral af- (a) Potassium acetate, (b) alum, (c) tanfections, but is chiefly valuable where there is nic acid, (d) castor oil, (e) ergot.

e bronchial spasm; it must always be employed 19. (a) Give the official Latin title of foxwith caution.

glove. (b) State the part used. (c) Name 13. Name five official preparations of mer- the active ingredients. (d) State the dose of cury .

the fluidextract. Ammoniated mercury, mercury with chalk, (a) Digitalis. vellow mercuric oxide, mild mercurous chlo- (b) The dried leaves collected from plants ride, and red mercuric iodide.

of the second year's growth, at the commence14. Give the average adult dose of each of ment of flowering. the following: (a) ammonium valerianate, (c) Digitonin, digitoxin, digitalin, and digi(b) atropine sulphate, (c) chloral hydrate, talein. (d) cerium oxalate, (e) trional.

(d) 1 minim

(End of Iowa examination.)

NotE.It is now the understanding that the new revision of the Pharmacopæia and of the National Formulary will not go into effect until January 1, 1917.

In consideration of this we deen it best to announce that all answers to Board Questions will be based on the U. S. P. VIII and the N. F. I11the old editionsup to and including our December number.—THE EDITORS.

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