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throughout the various islands as at home. A big asset is the predilection of the colored Having no medical colleges there, the big ma- person for medicine. The average native of jority of the physicians are graduates of Eng- the tropics is swallowing something in the medlish or Scotch universities. An American or ical line three or four times a day and every Canadian college graduate, who wishes to prac- day, and he never becomes well. He is always tice medicine on a British West Indian island, hunting for a cure for his ills, real and
There are several cities of from 30,000 to 65,000 population in my itinerary, possessing drug stores that compare very favorably with our modern American stores, as far as fixtures and the carrying of good stocks are concerned. A $20,000 assortment of goods is not unusual.
These stores have splendid prescription departments, several of them running from 40 to 50 prescriptions a day:
HUSTLING IN THE HEAT. One of the great drawbacks in covering this territory is the heat. It is at all times terrific and, until one becomes accustomed to it, almost unendurable. Many a man of the North, full of energy and with a desire to teach the lazy South how to do business, has gone down to the tropics and rushed around for a few days or a few weeks, then his friends back North have received a cablegram that the energetic gentleman was on his way home by the
next steamer—in a box. Going to market.
He rushed around until he did not feel quite must cross over to England and obtain an Eng
right and a million tropical bugs were waiting lish degree. This keeps the standard high.
for the white gentleman to do just as he did.
One of them stuck his nozzle into the white PHYSICIANS AND DRUG STORES.
man's skin and his friends were notified. Unfortunately, however, many of the phy- Typhoid fever and malaria are usually prevsicians cannot practice their profession as they would like to, on account of the poverty of the masses, due to the cheapness of labor. The dispensing physician in particular, especially if he be a District Medical Officer of the Government, must be careful in the selection of his drugs, for John Bull limits him to a maximum charge of 50 cents per individual, and he must supply medicine. About one-third of the doctors are subsidized by the Government, receiving from $1000 to $3000 yearly, depending on length of service, for doing necessary work such as vaccinations, post-mortems, attending to the poor of the district, etc.
Grenada, a typical city. With a few exceptions, West Indian physi- alent. Of course, being immunized, one can cians make good money and live well. Most of forget the former; but the possibility of a them have motors and this in a land where siege of malaria is ever present. When one the laboring man receives an average of 30 reflects that it is estimated 90 per cent of the cents a day and a woman about half that people living in the tropics have hookworm amount.
(an affectionate little beast) and over 80 per
cent are syphilitic, not forgetting the period- After his coffee and toast and a morning ical visitations of smallpox, yellow fever and dip, the druggist opens his store, usually before plague that occasionally ravage all hot coun- 7 A.M., and most of the business is transacted tries, the fear of a hasty exit while covering the in the early morning before the day has become job is not without some foundation,
hot. From 11 A.M. to 1 P.M. is breakfast time, Men of various nationalities are in the drug business among the many islands. colony, containing four good-sized stores, English, French, Scotch and Portuguese are represented, while on other islands we find East Indians, Chinese, Spanish, and native drug merchants.
But whatever the nationality the druggists are a uniformly well-educated lot of men. The educational requirement for a pharmacist is high, and the men know their work. They are also good business men, and seldom purchase goods that their more or less restricted market cannot absorb. With true West Indian cour
A sugar factory, Jamaica. tesy, a stranger in their country is always when every one partakes of a big creole meal. given a hearty welcome and made to feel that
In quantity of food consumed this breakfast has got a good hearty dinner beaten to a frazzle.
All business places close at 4 P.M. for the day, and men go to their clubs or homes. The afternoon tea is an institution among all classes, served on the veranda or out in the garden. Business men often invite their traveling friends up for the evening, which means that one is expected to arrive about 4:30 and have tea, cake, etc., under the palm trees at the man's home, leaving for the hotel about 6:30. If
your friend wants you for dinner, he will distinctly mention the fact, and it is then a case of a Tuxedo and an 8 P.M. appearance.
WOMEN WORKERS. In all islands there are splendid roads of coral or volcanic rock, mostly made by the slave labor of generations ago, and kept up by the women workers. It is a common sight
along the highway to see a native woman, scanWest Indian Dan Patch.
tily clad, a-straddle a pile of stones, swinging
a hammer and smoking a pipe of native tothe best their hospitality can offer is at his dis
bacco. She earns about a shilling a day. posal.
When she feels hungry it is easy to make a EARLY IN THE MORNING.
fire and roast some bread-fruit, which is then The West Indian is an early riser, as a rule rubbed on about a penny's worth of salt fish getting up soon after daylight. The inevitable she has bought at the Chinaman's shop in the cup of strong black coffee and a piece of toast early morning. The lady looks satisfied and is disposed of, usually in the bedroom, before happy, and is probably just as much so as the rising, brought in by one of the many servants blonde along Broadway or the baby doll at that constitute the household; and, by way, a Rector's. 'real good servant earns as much as three shil- As a rule, the man of the peasantry class is lings (72 cents) a week.
a drone, and he makes the female member of his family shift for herself, and often for him Without question one who goes on an exas well. As a result of this lack of desire to tended trip among the many islands undergoes work on the part of the native, the large em- real hardships, physical and mental. The inployers of labor, such as sugar estate owners, tense heat, the absence from friends, newsmany years ago imported indentured coolies
papers, and recreations are severely felt. from India, and now there are probably a But, on the other hand, there are compenquarter of a million of these interesting people sations. One is seemingly in another world, in the various colonies, principally Demerara, distinctly different from the commercialized, Trinidad, and Jamaica.
cold blooded, and money-mad North. On every The labor question brought over the Chinese island there are many sights of historic interest also, but John no longer is a laborer but a antedating by a century or more anything in prosperous storekeeper.
There are many
this country, and your customer-host takes wealthy Chinamen throughout the islands, and great pleasure in showing you around. The they are considered good and desirable citizens. islands that produced Alexander Hamilton,
In fact, I doubt if there is a more cos- Empress Josephine, Dumas the elder, where mopolitan place in the wide world than the Nelson married the Nevis widow, and where average West Indian port. Descendants of for centuries the European nations were batDutch, French, Spanish and Portuguese ances- tling for supremacy on land and water, will tors are very common, and the population is always be interesting to a browser among also tinctured with a sprinkling of South things historical, and there are relics innumerAmericans.
able as milestones of the past.
ON THE SUBJECT OF TURNOVER. TO THE EDITORS:
I was glad to see your editorial in the September Bulletin on the subject of stock turnovers. I had seen the argument that all one had to do to make more money was to turn over his stock about two or three times as fast as ordinary and thereby increase the profits many hundred per cent.
I received a very nice little booklet a year or so ago from a certain patent medicine concern, in which was set forth the argument that there was a much greater profit to the dealer selling Blank's Pills, which cost the dealer $4.50 a dozen, than there was to sell a slow-mover which cost the dealer less.
The argument sounded plausible, but I knew that there was "a nigger in the fence” somewhere, because I either had to have more volume of business or less expense or I would have no profit at the end of the year. In fact, if my entire stock consisted of Blank's Pills and my sales remained the same as they were, I knew exactly that my gross profits would be only 25 per cent.
Then again the argument in the little booklet named above assumed that I bought the fast sellers and the slow sellers in the same proportion.
If I am selling 1 dozen Blank's Pills each month and also 1/12 dozen of some other pill, do I buy a dozen of each kind in the beginning and turn over one kind once a month and the other once a year?
I buy as nearly as possible in the proportion in which the two articles are selling, and in that way keep down the amount of investment.
If I buy right, my proportionate rate of interest on so-called slow-movers is no greater than on the fastest sellers, although this, of course, would not hold true where an article moves so slowly that one has it on the shelf year after year.
Your article has cleared the matter up to my entire satisfaction, and I am glad to see such points made plain.
VAN I. WITT.
Three Papers on Salesmanship.
A number of months ago we solicited articles on this broad subject. The first group of papers appeared in our July issue; this is the second group selected from the same mass of material. We let each author speak for himself; his views are distinctly his own and as such should be extended the courtesy of consideration.
AS I VIEW IT.
much nearer the nut school than I was when
I braced myself and began the perusal.
But if there is such a thing as salesmanship Salesmanship—what is it?
—and there surely must be—we ought to be I wish I knew!
able to get down to bedrock merely by the exerDoes anybody know? If there is a man on cise of what brains the good Lord gave us. earth who does, he is keeping awful still about
Let us see. it.
First of all there must be something to sell. I have listened to two sales-masters, so- Then there must be the possessor who desires called. They were fine speakers, both, and one to sell. And then along comesof them has the happy faculty of turning out What? nice, smooth phrases which will ring like new
The buyer? No, not yet; he isn't the buyer coins, fresh from the mint. You've heard of
until he has bought. him.
Let us call him the “possible buyer.” It It cost car-fare to hear these speakers—
may be that he has his mind all made up, and twenty cents that I never got back.
may be that he has never thought of such a I took in a whole course of lectures on sales- thing. manship one winter, at an expense of $25. If he has come to get the article, calls for it, Three or four of those who read papers- pays for it and goes away, no salesmanship that's what the course consisted of, for the
has been brought into play. A slot machine most part—were captains of finance. They could have done what the man who waited on were really big men; heads of corporations. him did. They told how they did business, with heavy
But suppose the man hasn't his mind made emphasis on the upright pronoun. When they up—ah, there is where we approach deep let up on this they sank to the level of merest water! commonplaces. Most of the other speakers were efficiency
AN ENCYCLOPEDIA. experts, college professors, and writers of the It may be that he doesn't know exactly what hack variety.
the article is and seeks information. The posI lost $25.
sessor must then become an encyclopedia. But, you argue, the principles of salesman- It may be that he has two or more articles ship are the same, whether they are enumer
of a similar character in mind and is see-sawated by a corporation head, a college head, or ing in uncertainty. The possessor must detail a fat-head.
the good points of his article and must also
learn the state of mind of the prospect, or posWHAT ARE THEY?
sible buyer. What are the principles of salesmanship It may be that the possible buyer wants the answer me that! For if we could arrive at an article, but knows of a similar article that suits understanding of the principles, the remainder him and that he merely seeks enlightenment on would fall out of its own weight. But did you price before he arrives at a choice. Here again ever hear anybody make a statement of the the possessor must ascertain the state of the fundamentals of salesmanship?
prospect's mind. Not if you have depended on the hack Or it may be that the possible purchaser writers. There are books, too, in which the without “malice aforethought" just happens subject is taken up at what is supposed to be along. His state of mind is neutral, not to the beginning, but these books are not popular say fallow. numbers at a circulating library. I have read
A few lines back we said that "the possessor three of them, and came out of the ordeal must then become an encyclopedia.” There is
another way of expressing this same thought, men are confused? There isn't a cub in a but it is so hackneyed that we shall avoid it. single drug store in the United States that Concise, definite information, logically ex- doesn't want to become a salesman, for he realpressed—isn't that what an encyclopedia con- izes that it's salesmen who draw down the big tains ?
money nowadays. He is honestly in earnest. A man can't be a salesman whose mind is
He wants help. He wants to be told how to loose and flabby, like a hound's ears. He can't equip himself. He seeks facts and tangible even be a near-salesman. But his deficiency guidance. may be made up to a degree if a set speech de- He calls for bread and we give him a stone. scribing a particular article is put into his We pass out something about service and courmouth. Book agents memorize such songs. tesy and psychology.
As before stated, after the article is shown, But don't worry, young man. Rome wasn't and described if a description is called for, it burnt in a minute, and salesmen are made, not then becomes necessary to learn in so far as born. Don't get discouraged because you can't possible what is going on under the prospect's understand. I'm forty-three years old and thatch. The possessor now gets shrewd and have been a druggist half that time and I calculating
don't understand. I've made some wonderful How is he to learn this state of mind ?
sales, though! Through conversation.
Don't misunderstand me. I do not mean to A salesman, then, must be a clever conversa- say that all the salesmanship literature, etc., is tionalist. This doesn't mean that he must valueless. I mean to point out that no man outdo Balaam's ass. Some of the best conver- can become a salesman by reading it. I go a sationalists that the world has ever known
I claim that no man can find have had the knack of saying very little. Gey- out what salesmanship is, even, by reading it. sers belong in parks and gushers in the oil The field is as illimitable as heaven's blue dome districts.
—and in some of its phases just as remote.
A man can become a salesman by developing DEFT MASTER-STROKES.
himself. Nothing just grows except Topsies, And now we come to the real test. The
weeds, and incompetents. Self-improvement is salesman grasps the situation as best he can
one of the first duties of every human being, and bases action on quick judgment. With
and the young man who earnestly strives to deft master-strokes he convinces the prospect that his article is the article that he, the pros
augment his intelligence will at the same time
be taking long strides in the general direction pect, wants.
of becoming a proficient salesman. How does he do this? As I said at the beginning, I wish I knew.. Notice how I have slid around the crucial
LEARNING FROM OTHERS. issue, the point of real importance in this dis
By Alex. F. PETERSON, MISSOULA, MONT. cussion. "With deft master-strokes," etc.: note the words. A mere subterfuge, a writer's
Observing the methods of other salesmen trick. Most of 'em do it.
and copying or trying to improve on them is Why have I done it? Because I had to. really the best school in salesmanship. WhenIt is just as impossible to tabulate the “master- ever I do any shopping I remember every little strokes” of a salesman as it is to paint a word or act that particularly pleases, and also chromo of the wind. There is no set formula, anything that is distasteful to me. no rule of thumb, no x + y q. Each case I then try to do a little better with my own is a law unto itself, and all the learned dis- customers, scrupulously avoiding the things sertations that I have ever seen teach so little which have seemed objectionable to me. that a man turns from them in disgust.
Sometimes, upon entering a store, I am asMost of our literature on this subject that is
sailed with "What can I do for you?" of real value consists of a multiplicity of com- I invariably want to say: “Nothing!” I mandments what not to do. Such advice has have found that it is best to greet a customer its place, but a certain percentage of it is in- with a pleasant "Good-day" and let him be the fantile.
first to mention business. Is it any wonder, therefore, that our young When a customer has made known his