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which the diplomatic corps at Tangier intervened to assure the execution of that Act.

The governments of the countries represented at Morocco have received with satisfaction the spontaneous declaration of Mulai Hafid, which merits their approval.

But in order to avoid in the future all erroneous interpretation of the extent of his words, they believe they should state exactly the meaning and expressly deduce therefrom the results, in the interest of the relations of friendship and confidence which they wish to maintain with the sovereign authority of the shereefian empire.

They consider that in accepting the treaties concluded by his predecéssors with the different powers, Mulai Hafid adheres to all the provisions of the Algeciras Act as well as to all the regulations of application provided by this Act and established or approved by the diplomatic corps at Tangier, to the commissions instituted in virtue of these regulations, to the shereefian decisions and measures of whatever character, made upon this cubject, to the engagements and obligations of every kind resulting from arrangements with the diplomatic corps at Tangier, or from regular contracts with individuals.

Mulai Hafid assumes consequently the responsibility for the debts contracted by Abd el Aziz up to the day when the latter, in view of his renunciation of the throne, began negotiations through the medium of Menebbhi. However, debts which would have been signed for the benefit of individuals shall be submitted to a verification the conditions of which shall be determined later on the basis of the Act of Algeciras.

One of the principal conditions of the maintenance of order is the agreement in relation to the shereefian police in ports and the order which, with the approval of the other powers, has been given temporarily to France and Spain to oversee maritime contraband traffic in arms. It is understood that no reflection shall be cast upon the shereefian authority by these guarantees.

On the other hand, Abd el Aziz having provoked the meeting at Casablanca of an international commission charged with regulating the indemnities due by the Moroccan government on account of damages caused by the troubles which have arisen in that region, and this measure having received the consent of the powers which have sent their delegates, it is necessary that the commission begin again within the shortest possible time, and with the same powers as formerly, its work which has been momentarily interrupted.

Another consequence of the acceptance of the treaties is the obligation of the sultan to do whatever is necessary in order to bring security to his subjects and the foreign colonies in all the regions of the empire. It is proper, consequently, to proceed in harmony with the Act of Algeciras, to take all indispensable measures to guarantee the safety and liberty of communications, in such a manner as to permit of the establishment of a stable government, which shall be proper to the interest of all. It is proper also that Mulai Hafid should make this known to the people of Morocco in an official manner, telling them at the same time that his desire is to maintain with all countries and their nationals relations in accordance with the law of nations, such as should exist between friendly countries which mutually respect one another.

These questions are those which interest all the powers. There are others which concern only certain of them. In recognizing a new sultan, no power renounces its right to take up with him the regulation of the questions which concern exclusively each individual power.

In this way France and Spain have declared that they reserve the right to take up directly with the Makhzen reimbursement for the expenses which they have made to assure peace in certain regions of Morocco by means of necessary military expeditions. France and Spain, as well as other powers which find themselves in the same position, will of course treat with the Makhzen concerning the question of indemnities due for the murder of their nationals.

If, as the powers have all understood upon reading the letter of Mulai Hafid, these explanations agree exactly with his idea, they ask him to inform them thereof in express terms, so that they may recognize him as the legitimate sultan of Morocco. They beg him to transmit this reply through the dean of the diplomatic corps at Tangier.

They do not doubt that he understands that he owes to his brother Abd el Aziz the means of living as becomes a prince who concerns him so closely and who has occupied the imperial throne of his ancestors. They trust, too, that he will treat fairly the officials who have joined with the Makhzen Abd el Aziz.

Final note of recognition of Mulai Ilafid, December 17, 1908.

The governments signatory to the Act of Algeciras have received the letter of the fourth of Ramadan one thousand three hundred and twentysix which Mulai Hafid sent them through the dean of the diplomatic corps at Tangier, in reply to their communication of November 18. which the diplomatic corps at Tangier intervened to assure the execution of that Act.

The governments of the countries represented at Morocco have received with satisfaction the spontaneous declaration of Mulai Hafid, which merits their approval.

But in order to avoid in the future all erroneous interpretation of the extent of his words, they believe they should state exactly the meaning and expressly deduce therefrom the results, in the interest of the relations of friendship and confidence which they wish to maintain with the sovereign authority of the shereefian empire.

They consider that in accepting the treaties concluded by his predecéssors with the different powers, Mulai Hafid adheres to all the provisions of the Algeciras Act as well as to all the regulations of application provided by this Act and established or approved by the diplomatic corps at Tangier, to the commissions instituted in virtue of these regulations, to the shereefian decisions and measures of whatever character, made upon this cubject, to the engagements and obligations of every kind resulting from arrangements with the diplomatic corps at Tangier, or from regular contracts with individuals.

Mulai Hafid assumes consequently the responsibility for the debts contracted by Abd el Aziz up to the day when the latter, in view of his renunciation of the throne, began negotiations through the medium of Menebbhi. However, debts which would have been signed for the benefit of individuals shall be submitted to a verification the conditions of which shall be determined later on the basis of the Act of Algeciras.

One of the principal conditions of the maintenance of order is the agreement in relation to the shereefian police in ports and the order which, with the approval of the other powers, has been given temporarily to France and Spain to oversee maritime contraband traffic in arms. It is understood that no reflection shall be cast upon the shereefian authority by these guarantees.

On the other hand, Abd el Aziz having provoked the meeting at Casablanca of an international commission charged with regulating the indemnities due by the Moroccan government on account of damages caused by the troubles which have arisen in that region, and this measure having received the consent of the powers which have sent their delegates, it is necessary that the commission begin again within the shortest possible time, and with the same powers as formerly, its work which has been momentarily interrupted.

Another consequence of the acceptance of the treaties is the obligation of the sultan to do whatever is necessary in order to bring security to his subjects and the foreign colonies in all the regions of the empire. It is proper, consequently, to proceed in harmony with the Act of Algeciras, to take all indispensable measures to guarantee the safety and liberty of communications, in such a manner as to permit of the establishment of a stable government, which shall be proper to the interest of all. It is proper also that Mulai Hafid should make this known to the people of Morocco in an official manner, telling them at the same time that his desire is to maintain with all countries and their nationals relations in accordance with the law of nations, such as should exist between friendly countries which mutually respect one another.

These questions are those which interest all the powers. There are others which concern only certain of them. In recognizing a new sultan, no power renounces its right to take up with him the regulation of the questions which concern exclusively each individual power.

In this way France and Spain have declared that they reserve the right to take up directly with the Makhzen reimbursement for the expenses which they have made to assure peace in certain regions of Morocco by means of necessary military expeditions. France and Spain, as well as other powers which find themselves in the same position, will of course treat with the Makhzen *concerning the question of indemnities due for the murder of their nationals.

If, as the powers have all understood upon reading the letter of Mulai Hafid, these explanations agree exactly with his idea, they ask him to inform them thereof in express terms, so that they may recognize him as the legitimate sultan of Morocco. They beg him to transmit this reply through the dean of the diplomatic corps at Tangier.

They do not doubt that he understands that he owes to his brother Abd el Aziz the means of living as becomes a prince who concerns him so closely and who has occupied the imperial throne of his ancestors. They trust, too, that he will treat fairly the officials who have joined with the Makhzen Abd el Aziz.

Final note of recognition of Mulai Ilafid, December 17, 1908. The governments signatory to the Act of Algeciras have received the letter of the fourth of Ramadan one thousand three hundred and twentysix which Mulai Hafid sent them through the dean of the diplomatic corps at Tangier, in reply to their communication of November 18. The governments of the countries represented in Morocco have received that reply with satisfaction. They have found in it evidence that the conditions they had formulated in their note of November 18 in the interest of the relations of friendship and confidence they wish to maintain with the Sovereign Authority of the Shereefian Empire meet Mulai Hafid's sentiments exactly. In consequence the powers signatory to the Act of Algeciras have decided to recognize Mulai Hafid as the lawful Sultan of Morocco and have charged the dean of the diplomatic corps at Tangier to notify this recognition to the representative of His Majesty the Sultan in the said city.

CONVENTION BETWEEN AUSTRIA, FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN, PRUSSIA AND

RUSSIA, FOR THE NEUTRALIZATION OF SWITZERLAND.

November 20, 1815. The accession of Switzerland to the declaration published at Vienna the 20th March 1815, by the powers who signed the Treaty of Paris, having been duly notified to the ministers of the imperial and royal courts, by the Act of the Helvetic Diet on the 27th of the month of May following, there remained nothing to prevent the act of acknowledgment and guarantee of the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland, from being made conformably to the above-mentioned declaration. But the powers deemed it expedient to suspend till this day, the signature of that act, in consequence of the changes which the events of war, and the arrangements, which might result from it, might possibly occasion in the limits of Switzerland, and in respect also to the modifications resulting therefrom, in the arrangements relative to the federated territory, for the benefit of the Helvetic Body.

These changes being fixed by the stipulations of the Treaty of Paris signed this day, the Powers who signed the declaration of Vienna of the 20th March declare, by this present act, their formal and authentic acknowledgment of the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland; and they guarantee to that country the integrity and inviolability of its territory in its new limits, such as they are fixed, as well by the act of the Congress of Vienna, as by the Treaty of Paris of this day, and such as they will be hereafter; conformably to the arrangement of the protocol of the 3d November,' extract of which is hereto annexed, which stipulates in favour of the Jelretic Body a new increase of territory,

1 This protocol defined the territory to be added.

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