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to be taken from Savoy, in order to disengage from Enclaves, and complete the circle of the canton of Geneva.

The powers acknowledge likewise and guarantee the neutrality of those parts of Savoy, designated by the act of the Congress of Vienna of the 20th May 1815, and by the Treaty of Paris signed this day, the same being entitled to participate in the neutrality of Switzerland, equally as if they belonged to that country.

The powers who signed the declaration of the 20th of March acknowledge, in the most formal manner, by the present act, that the neutrality and inviolability of Switzerland, and her independence of all foreign influence, enter into the true interests of the policy of the whole of Europe.

They declare that no consequence unfavourable to the rights of Switzerland with respect to its neutrality, and the inviolability of its territory, can or ought to be drawn from the events, which led to the passage of the allied troops across a part of the Helvetic States. This passage, freely consented to by the cantons in the Convention of the 20th May, was the necessary result of the free adherence of Switzerland to the principles manifested by the powers who signed the Treaty of Alliance of the 25th March.

The powers acknowledged with satisfaction that the conduct of Switzerland, under these trying circumstances, has shown that she knew how to make great sacrifices to the general good, and to the support of a cause, which all the powers of Europe defended, and that in fine Switzerland has deserved the advantages which have been secured to her, whether by the arrangements of the Congress of Vienna, by the Treaty of Paris, of this day, or by the present act, to which all the powers in Europe are invited to accede.

In faith of which, the present declaration has been concluded, and signed at Paris the 20th day of November 1815. The signatures following the alphabetical order of the courts. AUSTRIA :

THE PRINCE DE METTERNICH

LE BARON DE WESSENBERG
FRANCE:

RICHELIEU
GREAT BRITAIN: CASTLEREAGH

WELLINGTON
PRUSSIA:

THE PRINCE DE HARDENBERG

THE BARON DE HUMBOLDT
RUSSIA :

THE PRINCE DE RASOUMOFFSKI
The Count CAPO D'ISTRIA

The governments of the countries represented in Morocco have received that reply with satisfaction. They have found in it evidence that the conditions they had formulated in their note of November 18 in the interest of the relations of friendship and confidence they wish to maintain with the Sovereign Authority of the Shereefian Empire meet Mulai Hafid's sentiments exactly. In consequence the powers signatory to the Act of Algeciras have decided to recognize Mulai Hafid as the lawful Sultan of Morocco and have charged the dean of the diplomatic corps at Tangier to notify this recognition to the representative of His Majesty the Sultan in the said city.

CONVENTION BETWEEN AUSTRIA, FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN, PRUSSIA AND

RUSSIA, FOR THE NEUTRALIZATION OF SWITZERLAND.

November 20, 1815.

The accession of Switzerland to the declaration published at Vienna the 20th March 1815, by the powers who signed the Treaty of Paris, having been duly notified to the ministers of the imperial and royal courts, by the Act of the Helvetic Diet on the 27th of the month of May following, there remained nothing to prevent the act of acknowledgment and guarantee of the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland, from being made conformably to the above-mentioned declaration. But the powers deemed it expedient to suspend till this day, the signature of that act, in consequence of the changes which the events of war, and the arrangements, which might result from it, might possibly occasion in the limits of Switzerland, and in respect also to the modifications resulting therefrom, in the arrangements relative to the federated territory, for the benefit of the Helvetic Body.

These changes being fixed by the stipulations of the Treaty of Paris signed this day, the Powers who signed the declaration of Vienna of the 20th March declare, by this present act, their formal and authentic acknowledgment of the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland; and they guarantee to that country the integrity and inviolability of its territory in its new limits, such as they are fixed, as well by the act of the Congress of Vienna, as by the Treaty of Paris of this day, and such as they will be hereafter; conformably to the arrangement of the protocol of the 3d November,' extract of which is hereto annexed, which stipulates in favour of the IIelvetic Body a new increase of territory, to be taken from Savoy, in order to disengage from Enclaves, and complete the circle of the canton of Geneva.

1 This protocol defined the territory to be added.

The powers acknowledge likewise and guarantee the neutrality of those parts of Savoy, designated by the act of the Congress of Vienna of the 20th May 1815, and by the Treaty of Paris signed this day, the same being entitled to participate in the neutrality of Switzerland, equally as if they belonged to that country.

The powers who signed the declaration of the 20th of March acknowledge, in the most formal manner, by the present act, that the neutrality and inviolability of Switzerland, and her independence of all foreign influence, enter into the true interests of the policy of the whole of Europe.

They declare that no consequence unfavourable to the rights of Switzerland with respect to its neutrality, and the inviolability of its territory, can or ought to be drawn from the events, which led to the passage of the allied troops across a part of the Helvetic States. This passage, freely consented to by the cantons in the Convention of the 20th May, was the necessary result of the free adherence of Switzerland to the principles manifested by the powers who signed the Treaty of Alliance of the 25th March.

The powers acknowledged with satisfaction that the conduct of Switzerland, under these trying circumstances, has shown that she knew how to make great sacrifices to the general good, and to the support of a cause, which all the powers of Europe defended, and that in fine Switzerland has deserved the advantages which have been secured to her, whether by the arrangements of the Congress of Vienna, by the Treaty of Paris, of this day, or by the present act, to which all the powers in Europe are invited to accede.

In faith of which, the present declaration has been concluded, and signed at Paris the 20th day of November 1815. The signatures following the alphabetical order of the courts. AUSTRIA :

THE PRINCE DE METTERNICH

LE BARON DE WESSENBERG
FRANCE:

RICHELIEU
GREAT BRITAIN: CASTLEREAGH

WELLINGTON
PRUSSIA :

THE PRINCE DE HARDENBERG

THE BARON DE HUMBOLDT
RUSSIA:

THE PRINCE DE RASOUMOFFSKI
THE COUNT CAPO D'ISTRIA

NEUTRALITY OF BELGIUM. ANNEX TO TREATY BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN,

AUSTRIA, FRANCE, PRUSSIA AND RUSSIA, AND THE NETHERLANDS.

Signed April 19, 1839.

ARTICLE 7. Belgium, within the limits specified in articles 1, 2, and 4, shall form an independent and perpetually neutral state. It shall be bound to observe such neutrality towards all other states.

TREATY OF PEACE, AMITY, NAVIGATION, AND COMMERCE, BETWEEN THE

UNITED STATES AND NEW GRANADA, ESTABLISHING THE NEUTRALIZA

TION OF THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA.

Concluded December 12, 1846.

ARTICLE 35. The United States of America and the Republic of New Granada desiring to make as durable as possible, the relations which are to be established between the two parties by virtue of this treaty, have declared solemnly, and do agree to the following points.

1st. For the better understanding of the preceding articles, it is, and has been stipulated, between the high contracting parties, that the citizens, vessels and merchandise of the United States shall enjoy in the ports of New Granada, including those of the part of the Granadian territory generally denominated Isthmus of Panama, from its southernmost extremity until the boundary of Costa Rica, all the exemptions, privileges and immunities, concerning commerce and navigation, which are now, or may hereafter be enjoyed by Granadian citizens, their vessels and merchandise; and that this equality of favors shall be made

1 This annex containing the same clause forms also part of a treaty between Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, and Russia, and Belgium.

to extend to the passengers, correspondence and merchandise of the United States in their transit across the said territory, from one sea to the other. The government of New Granada guarantees to the government of the United States, that the right of way or transit across the Isthmus of Panama upon any modes of communication that now exist, or that may be, hereafter, constructed, shall be open and free to the government and citizens of the United States, and for the transportation of any articles of produce, manufactures or merchandise, of lawful commerce, belonging to the citizens of the United States ; that no other tolls or charges shall be levied or collected upon the citizens of the United States, or their said merchandise thus passing over any road or canal that may be made by the government of New Granada, or by the authority of the same, than is under like circumstances levied upon and collected from the Granadian citizens; that any lawful produce, manufactures or merchandise belonging to citizens of the United States, thus passing from one sea to the other, in either direction, for the purpose of exportation to any other foreign country, shall not be liable to any import duties whatever; or having paid such duties, they shall be entitled to drawback, upon their exportation: nor shall the citizens of the United States be liable to any duties, tolls, or charges of any kind to which native citizens are not subjected for thus passing the said Isthmus. And, in order to secure to themselves the tranquil and constant enjoyment of these advantages, and as an especial compensation for the said advantages and for the favours they have acquired by the Ath, 5th, and 6th articles of this treaty, the United States guarantee positively and efficaciously to New Granada, by the present stipulation, the perfect neutrality of the beforementioned Isthmus, with the view that the free transit from the one to the other sea, may not be interrupted or embarrassed in any future time while this treaty exists; and in consequence, the United States also guarantee, in the same manner, the rights of sovereignty and property which New Granada has and possesses over the said territory.

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