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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING THE CONGO.

DECLARATION BY THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THE CONGO.

April 22, 1884. The International Association of the Congo, hereby declares that by Treaties with the legitimate sovereigns in the basins of the Congo and of the Niadi-Kiahm and in adjacent territories upon the Atlantic, there has been ceded to it, territory for the use and benefit of free States established and being established under the care and supervision of the said Association in said basins and adjacent territories, to which cession the said free States of right succeed.

That the said International Association has adopted for itself and for the said Free States, as their standard, the flag of the International African Association, being a blue flag with a golden star in the center.

That the said Association and the said States have resolved to levy no Custom-House duties upon goods or articles of merchandise imported into their territories or brought by the route which has been constructed around the Congo cataracts; this they have done with a view of enabling commerce to penetrate into Equatorial Africa.

That they guarantee to foreigners settling in their territories the right to purchase, sell or lease, lands and buildings situated therein, to establish commercial houses and to there carry on trade upon the sole condition that they shall obey the laws. They pledge themselves, moreover, never to grant to the citizens of one nation any advantages without immediately extending the same to the citizens of all other nations, and to do all in their power to prevent the Slave trade.

In testimony whereof, Henry S. Sanford, duly empowered therefor, by the said Association, acting for itself and for the said Free States, has hereunto set his hand and affixed his seal, this 22d day of April, 1884, in the city of Washington. [SEAL.]

H. S. SANFORD.

RECOGNITION OF THE FLAG OF THE KONGO FREE STATE BY THE UNITED

STATES.

April 22, 1884. Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, Secretary of State, duly empowered therefor by the President of the United States of America, and pursuant to the advice and consent of the Senate, heretofore given, acknowledges the receipt of the foregoing notification from the International Association of the Kongo, and declares that, in harmony with the traditional policy of the United States, which enjoins a proper regard for the commercial interests of their citizens while, at the same time, avoiding interference with controversies between other powers as well as alliances with foreign nations, the Government of the United States announces its sympathy with, and approval of, the humane and benevolent purposes of the International Association of the Kongo, administering, as it does, the interests of the Free States there established, and will order the officers of the United States, both on land and sea, to recognize the flag of the International African Association, as the flag of a friendly Government.

In testimony whereof, he has hereunto set his hand and affixed his seal, this twenty-second day of April, A. D. 1884, in the city of Washington. [SEAL.]

FREDK. T. FRELINGHUYSEN.

M. STRAUCH, PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THE

CONGO, TO M. JULES FERRY, PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL, MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

BRUSSELS, April 23, 1884. MR. MINISTER: The International Association of the Congo, in the name of the stations and free lands which it has founded in the Congo and the valley of the Niadi-Quillou, formerly declares that it will not cede them to any power, under the reservation of special conventions which might intervene between France and the association to fix the limits and the conditions of their respective actions.

However, the association, desiring to give another proof of its friendly sentiment toward France, agrees to give to it the right of preference if, from unforeseen circumstances, the association should be led some day to alienate its possessions.

(S.) STRAUCH.

M. JULES FERRY, PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL, MINISTER OF FOREIGN

AFFAIRS OF FRANCE, TO M. STRAUCH, PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THE CONGO.

PARIS, April 24, 1884. Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 23d instant, by which, in your position as president of the International Association of the Congo, you transmit to me assurances and

guaranties intended to strengthen our cordial and neighborly relations in the region of the Congo.

I note these declarations with great satisfaction, and in return I have the honor to inform you that the French Government undertakes to respect the stations and free territories of the association and not to place any obstacle in the way of the exercise of its rights.

(S.) JULES FERRY.

GENERAL AOT OF THE CONFERENCE OF BERLIN CONCERNING THE CONGO.

Signed at Berlin, February 26, 1885.

In the name of Almighty God:

The President of the United States of America, His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia, His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia etc, and Apostolic King of Hungary, His Majesty the King of the Belgians, His Majesty the King of Denmark, His Majesty the King of Spain, the President of the French Republic, Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of the Indies, His Majesty the King of Italy, His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, His Majesty the King of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc. etc. etc. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway etc. etc., and His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans,

Wishing to regulate in a spirit of good mutual understanding the conditions most favorable to the development of commerce and of civilization in certain regions of Africa, and to assure to all peoples the advantages of free navigation upon the two principal African rivers which empty into the Atlantic ocean; desirous on the other hand to prevent misunderstandings and contentions to which the taking of new possessions on the coast of Africa may in the future give rise, and at the same time preoccupied with the means of increasing the moral and material well being of the indigenous populations, have resolved, upon the invitation which has been addressed to them by the Imperial Government of Germany in accord with the Government of the French Republic, to assemble for this object a Conference at Berlin and have named for their Plenipotentiaries, as follows:

receipt of the foregoing notification from the International Association of the Kongo, and declares that, in harmony with the traditional policy of the United States, which enjoins a proper regard for the commercial interests of their citizens while, at the same time, avoiding interference with controversies between other powers as well as alliances with foreign nations, the Government of the United States announces its sympathy with, and approval of, the humane and benevolent purposes of the International Association of the Kongo, administering, as it does, the interests of the Free States there established, and will order the officers of the United States, both on land and sea, to recognize the flag of the International African Association, as the flag of a friendly Government.

In testimony whereof, he has hereunto set his hand and affixed his seal, this twenty-second day of April, A. D. 1884, in the city of Washington. [SEAL.]

FREDK. T. FRELINGHUYSEN.

M. STRAUCH, PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THE

CONGO, TO M. JULES FERRY, PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL, MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

BRUSSELS, April 23, 1884. MR. MINISTER: The International Association of the Congo, in the name of the stations and free lands which it has founded in the Congo and the valley of the Niadi-Quillou, formerly declares that it will not cede them to any power, under the reservation of special conventions which might intervene between France and the association to fix the limits and the conditions of their respective actions.

However, the association, desiring to give another proof of its friendly sentiment toward France, agrees to give to it the right of preference if, from unforeseen circumstances, the association should be led some day to alienate its possessions.

(S.) STRAUCH.

M. JULES FERRY, PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL, MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF FRANCE, TO M. STRAUCH, PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THE CONGO.

PARIS, April 24, 1884. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 23d instant, by which, in your position as president of the International Association of the Congo, you transmit to me assurances and guaranties intended to strengthen our cordial and neighborly relations in the region of the Congo.

I note these declarations with great satisfaction, and in return I have the honor to inform you that the French Government undertakes to respect the stations and free territories of the association and not to place any obstacle in the way of the exercise of its rights.

(S.) JULES FERRY.

GENERAL ACT OF THE CONFERENCE OF BERLIN CONCERNING THE CONGO.

Signed at Berlin, February 26, 1885.

In the name of Almighty God:

The President of the United States of America, His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia, His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia etc, and Apostolic King of Hungary, His Majesty the King of the Belgians, His Majesty the King of Denmark, His Majesty the King of Spain, the President of the French Republic, Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of the Indies, His Majesty the King of Italy, His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, His Majesty the King of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc. etc. etc. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway etc. etc., and His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans,

Wishing to regulate in a spirit of good mutual understanding the conditions most favorable to the development of commerce and of civilization in certain regions of Africa, and to assure to all peoples the advantages of free navigation upon the two principal African rivers which empty into the Atlantic ocean; desirous on the other hand to prevent misunderstandings and contentions to which the taking of new possessions on the coast of Africa may in the future give rise, and at the same time preoccupied with the means of increasing the moral and material well being of the indigenous populations, have resolved, upon the invitation which has been addressed to them by the Imperial Government of Germany in accord with the Government of the French Republic, to assemble for this object a Conference at Berlin and have named for their Plenipotentiaries, as follows:

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