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and harmonize the characters and claims of the several occupants of the Greek Pantheon, and to develope' mytbology into something like order and unity of thought and design.
We have not much faith, however, in the theory that the gods of Paganism grew up in scientific order, or, in natural succession and relations to each other. They seem rather to have been invented from time to time to meet the exigences of human needs, or to explain the phenomena of nature.
4. Gleanings from a Literary Life: 1838–1880. By Francis Bowen, LL.D. Alford Professor of Philosophy iu Harvard College. Charles Scribner's Sons. $3.00.
As will be seen in the figures of the title, the contents of this handsome volume are gleaned from a field covered by more than forty years of study and writing. The papers treat a great variety of topics in Theology, Philosophy and Science, and truly are representative of the careful and independent thinking, sound criticism, and breadth of view which characterize most of Professor Bowen's productions. This is specially apparent in the articles on “ The Latest Form of the Development Theory,” “Buckle's History of Civilization," and "Malthusianism, Darwinism and Pessimism." Though some of the reviews were written twenty and thirtv years ago, the questions discussed are still at the front, as the titles given show, and they occupy the minds of all thoughtful persons, and are debated among the multitude, more earnestly than ever before. Prof. Bowen's treatment of them is fresh and vigorous, and stimulates inquiry and thought on the part of the reader, which is the result of all good writing, and should be the object aimed at by all who seek the instruction of mankind. His style is simple, clear and strong, and we always know what he means to say, whether we believe it, or not.
The papers are classified under the following heads : “ Education,” " Philosophy," and "Political Economy." "The Psychical Effects of Etherization” is the only sketch we should leave out as having little claim to a place bere. The article on “ 'The Human and the Brute Mind," from the Princeton Review of 1880, is one which ought to provoke thought and criticism. It can hardly fail to start some questions which have more than one side to them. That op “ Buckle's History of Civilization " is a very concise exposé of some of the fallacies, errors and false reasonings of that remarkable book ; while he renders equally good and needed service in trimming down to their just proportions the Brobdignag conclusions of certain Evolutionists, Malthusians and Pessimists drawn from very Liliputian premises.
We welcome such volumes as this showing that the College Professor is interested in the live questions of the day, and fills up some of his leisure time in studies which may reflect light upon the outside world, and help, instruct and strengthen the many untrained, doubting and bewildered minds beyond the college walls.
5. New School Physiology. Richard J. Dunglison, A M., M.D. Illustrated with one hundred and seventeen Engravings. Porter & Coates. $1.00.
There is a multitude of books on Physiology, but, so far as our acquaintance with them goes, this is the best
- not as a
chool book merely, but as a book for the family, and for every individual who wishes to know how, and of what, he is made up; to look into himself as a physical being ; and as an intelligent being to know how to keep the machinery of his bodily structure in good running order. Its descriptive text is lacid, compact, and intelligible to ignorance itself; and its illustrations are more finished and beautiful than anything we have seen even in books for the profession. We shall make it our reference book on this subject, and keep it always within reach.
6. The Eden Tableau, or Bible Object-Teaching. A Study, by Charles Beecher. Lee & Shepherd. $1.00.
The word “ Tableau ” of this title is a key to the character and aims of the book. The author treats the garden, its inmates, its contents, and all the occurrences connected with it, as a series of historical-symbolic tableaux, a kind of object-teaching, by means of which God instructs us concerning the past and the future. His theory is based on the doctrine of a celestial pre-existence, which he thinks, with Keil, was the original faith of the Hebrew race. Adam and the serpent represent two races, or parties, in Heaven, far back in the dim past. Christ, who is symbolized by the tree of life, is the head of the first race, and Satan the leader of the last. The author then preceeds to show that the Eden tableaux typify various events in the history of these pre-existent races; and his ingenuity in this parallelism is remarkable and amusing. Adam, according to his exegesis, was not a criminal, but a hero who generously took a bite of the fatal apple, not because he was deceived, but for the magnanimous purpose of sharing in Mrs. Adam's unhappy doom. But this view is necessary in order to make him a fitting parallel with Christ wbo, though sinless, resolved to identify himself
with our sinful race and share their fate, whatever the cost of suffering to him, in order that he might at last save them, and restore them to their lost privileges and blessings.
Thoug as said, the author shows patient study of verbal parallel isms in the Scriptures, and great skill in running his fanciful analogies of thought and expression through all the particulars of the Eden allegory, the whole argument regarding the two opposing political parties in heaven, on which it all depends, is purely a matter of assumption and speculation; and having no knowledge of the parties or politics of this pre-existent state, and no means of obtaining it except through this book, we are unfortunately in no condition to enlarge upon the subject.
7. Uncle Remus, his Songs and Sayings - The Folk-Lore of the Old Plantation. By Joel Chandler Harris. With Illustrations by Frederick S. Church and James H. Moses. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50.
The object of this book seems to be to preserve the many curious
legends current among the Plantation negroes, and the quaint dialect in which they are told by the ancient darkies, of whom Uncle Remus is made the type. The folk-lore of these strange peoples is of unknown origin, but finds its near kindred in the legends of other races in distant portions of the earth, and therefore suggests the question, which party borrowed ? and, in either case, the farther question is started, When, Where, How? Prof. Powell, of the Smithsonian Institute, finds that some of these stories are identical with those found among the North American Indians; and Herbert Smith, author of “ Brazil and the Amazons,” says some of them are told by the Indians of the Amazon valley, and other portions of South America, where a negro is seldom if ever seen. Uncle Remus's story of how the Rabbit robbed the Fox has its parallel in one from Upper Egypt in which the Fox robs the countryman, in exactly the same way; while it is found again repeated exactly in an Amazonian legend. Another turns up as far east as India and Siam. Mr. Smith is very confident that they originated in Africa, but whether among the Arabs or the Egyptians he does not decide. Perhaps some Max Muller, or Fiske, or Cox, will one day track them back to the old Sanscrit, and locate them among the Aryan sun myths, in a style which is burlesqued in the following solar myth of “Sing a Song of Sixpence”:
" Obviously the four-and-twenty blackbirds are the four-and-twenty hours, and the pie that holds them is the underlying earth covered with the overarching sky. How true a touch of Nature it is that when the pie is opened, that is, when day breaks, the birds begin to sing! The king is the sun, and his counting out his money is pouring out the sunshine, the golden treasure of Danae. The queen is the moon, and her transparent honey the moonlight. The maid is the rosy-fingured dawn who rises before the sun, her master, and hangs out the clouds — her clothes across the sky. The particular blackbird, who so tragically ends the tale by snapping off her nose, is the hour of sunrise.”
8. From Death unto Life; or Twenty Years of my Ministry. By Rev. W. Haslam, late Incumbent of Curzon Chapel. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50.
The work is a narrative of ministerial experiences in a mining district in England, among a rude and ignorant people. At the outset of his career, Mr. Haslam produced very little effect by his preaching, but in course of time a change came over him, in other words, he was converted ; and then he entered upon a course of revivalism which was followed by the wildest sort of excitement, and gathered in crowds of frightened converts. Of course such a meteor bursting among the clergy of the Established Church startled them for the moment from their solemn formalism, and showed them the need of some religious culture among the working classes. The book is chiefly valuable as showing what a man in earnest can accomplish, even when he starts from false premises, and preaches a pseudo gospel.
9. The Creation and the Early Developments of Society. By James H. Chapin, Ph. D., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, St. Lawrence University. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50.
We welcome this book as a witness to the reading world that there is a St. Lawrence University among us, and as a specimen of the kind of work which is being done under the direction of the Professor of Geology. We are glad to know that all the professors in our educational institutions are not so terribly overworked that they have neither time nor strength for a spoken word nor a written line in the interests of science or general literature. We do not forget, in say, ing this, the valuable contributions of Prof. Dolbear to science, and the honor he has thereby reflected upon Tufts College; but we wish that more of our able professors and scholars would, from time to time, step outside the college, and make themselves heard and felt in the great world of science, literature and general educational culture.
In the book named above, Prof. Chapin has gone outside the classroom, and spoken to the large audience beyond the college walls, an audience as deeply interested in the scientific subjects he discusses as those inside, giving to them as much thought, probably, and as eager to learn the latest phases and results of investigation. Everybody does not go to College, but we may depend upon it that in these days everybody thinks, talks and asks questions regarding the themes treated in this book, and the author does well in furnishing what he can toward answering them. He has done this in a modest, unpretentious way. He does not assume to be omniscient, nor claim to have been present in the beginning, when God created the heavens and the earth. He admits there are some things he does not know. He has decided opinions, but does not dogmatize. He states the facts as verified by latest investigation, and allows his readers the privilege of differing from him, if they must - as some doubtless will on certain points. His style is compact and clear, and he has the rare faculty of saying a great deal in very few words ; and some of his statements of scientific questions and their answers are transparent, and perfectly intelligible to the uninstructed reader.
And this is the chief merit of the book, that it sets out in popular form, without sacrificing scientific exactness, the various geological problems regarding the creation of earth, animals and man, showing how these are harmonized with the account in Genesis. He is thoroughly furnished for the work, and is well read in the best literature of the subject. We have read with special satisfaction the chap
“ Primeval Chaos,” “ Light” (excepting one or two paragraphs), “Origin of Man," “ The Geological Record,” “Diversity of Tongues," and " Antiquity of Man.” The last chapter on “ Ancient Civilization in America seems not exactly in the line of argument, but comes in rather as an Appendix. The publishers have done their part liberally and faithfully. We trust that our people will secure this volume, both because it contains much needed information on important subjects related to Bible interpretation, and because it honors the scholarship of our educational institutions.
11. Salvation by Jesus Christ: Its Agencies and Conditions, its Extent and Certainty. By B. C. Denham and Thomas Abbott. Published at the Star and Covenant Office, Chicago.
This pamphlet of 107 pages aims to show that God, on His part, does for man that which he cannot do for himself; that man has an agency in his own salvation, and is responsible to the extent of his ability ; that God does not do for man that which he can do for himself, because it is better that man should help himself than that God should do all, and leave man an idle drone. After answering the question, “ What is Salvation ? " the authors proceed to discuss the agencies of salvation, among which are included both present and future punishments ; the conditions of salvation; the reasons that man should have opportunity for salvation in the future world ; the absence in that world of all incentives to sin, on the one hand, and the presence of saving influences on the other; and finally, the proofs that all the conditions of salvation will be fulfilled, and the world restored to obedience and holiness. This little work would make a very efficient missionary among unbelievers and enemies of the truth.
12. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, Translated by Benjamin Davis, LL.D., from Rödiger's Edition. Thoroughly revised and enlarged on the basis of the latest edition of Prof. E. Kautzsch, D.D., and from other recent Authorities, by Edward C. Mitchell, D.D. With full Subject, Scripture, and Hebrew Indexes. W. F. Draper, Andover. $3.00.
Not having time for a study of this work, and, if we had, not feeling competent to pass a critical judgment upon its merits as a class book, we shall content ourselves in giving a statement, condensed from the preface, of its aim and characteristic features. The grammar of Gesenius has held a high position in educational institutions for fifty years in Europe and in America. Its pre-eminence has been largely due to the thoroughness with which it treats the forms of the language and the phenomena of their changes. At the same time teachers have felt that improvements were needed in the way of adapting the work to elementary instruction, and rendering its copious materials more accessible to beginners. Accordingly, Dr. Mitchell has aimed to combine the excellencies of Gesenius with a more lucid and practical arrangement, availing himself freely of all the improvements of Prof. Kautzsch in his editorial revision of the work. In this way he has made radical changes in the treatment of important topics, uniting a logical and perspicuous method with a full treatment of the difficulties of the language. Among these new matters are an entire reconstruction of the Noun, a new discussion of the Accent and the Metheg, the Dagesh euphonic, and the Pause, translated from Kautzsch.
The Introduction treats of Semitic Languages in General, gives a Historical Survey of the Hebrew language, and discusses the Grammatical treatment of it. These are as interesting as they are instructive reading. The Hebrew Index will be found very useful in explaining difficult forms, and smoothing the way of the student.