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manner. Gautama looked upon them and conceived a disgust for a worldly life. On this day, and at this very hour,' he said, 'I will retire into a solitary place. He called his servant, Go to the stable and saddle the swiftest of my horses, Kantika,' he commanded. And Kantika knew whereof he was required, and he neighed with delight. Then he addressed his horse, · Help me, O Kantika ; to your swiftness do I trust. I must become a Buddha.' In a moment he was on his back. Channa, his servant, held on to its tail, and the four guardians of the world held lotus flowers, one under each of the horse's feet.

“ Then the king of the Maras, the Evil One, determined to prevent him. Descending from his abode in the highest Dewa heavens, and floating in the air, he cried, Go not forth to adopt a religious life. In seven days thou shalt become an emperor of the world, ruling over the four great continents.' 'Avaunt! Get thee away far from me,' said Gautama.

“ Just before daybreak he arrived at the river Anoma. In five hours he had rode two hundred miles. Crossing the river at a single bound, he dismounted, took off his ornaments, and cut off his long hair with his own sword. This, with his royal vestments he threw upwards, and they were caught by the great Brahma Kathtikara, and placed in a great relic temple in the Brahma heavens as an object of adoration for all the Brahma angels. His horse, Kantika, he ordered Channa to take back to his father. Kantika heard the command, and he wept bitterly; and when he had gone a short distance from his master, he turned to look back; but his heart could no longer contain itself; he staggered, shuddered, and fell dead. But the faithful horse was immediately re-born in the Davadungsa heavens as the angel Kanthaka, to live in a golden palace with a thousand lovely houries to attend on him.

Gautama soon located himself in the Uruwela forest, where he applied himself to the practice of the severest ascetism. For six years he endured extreme mortification ; the angels preserving his life by insinuating food through the pores of his skin. Here he was assailed by the Evil One, Mara, with an immense host, but he remained steadfast. Mara sent his three daughters to entice him, but their charms were disregarded. He expanded his form to a height of thirty miles, but it failed to intimidate. He caused a rain of all kinds of missiles to pour from the skies, he made a wind to blow of such exceeding force that mountain peaks fell before it; he caused a rain of burning ashes to fall, but the ashes were

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changed into wreaths of flowers ; he hurled at him the awful Chakkra, which split mountains in its course, and he threw enormous rocks at his head; but the Grand Being was unmoved.

“ Then Gautama invoked the earth, and the angel of the earth came forth in the form of a lovely woman. 0 Being, more excellent than men or angels,' she said, ' when you performed your great works, you ever poured water on my hair. And then she wrung her long hair, and a flood of waters gushed forth from it. Against the host of Mara it rushed. His generals were overturned, his elephant swept away, and his army fled in utter terror, amid the roarings of a terrific earthquake, and peals of thunder crashing through the skies. Shortly thereafter Gautama became the Buddha. Forthwith, leaving the forest, he began to preach and collect disciples.?"


“ After his baptism Jesus returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, being forty days tempted of the devil. In those days he did eat nothing; and when they were ended he was an hungered. And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. Jesus answered, It is written that man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God. Then the devil taketh him to the holy city, and sitteth him upon a pinnacle of the temple, and said, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence ; for it is written that He shall give bis angels charge concerning thee, and in their hands they shall bear thee up. Jesus said, It is written, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. Then the devil taketh him to an exceeding high mountain, and showed him the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them, and said, All these will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. Jesus said unto him, Get thee hence, Satan. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. Then the devil departed from him for a season.'

7 Bigandet. Alabaster. Wassiljew thinks it more probable that Gautama was led to view existence as the cause of pain and sorrow in consequence of a war in which tho Sakya tribe was defeated, and that this was the cause of his wandering about, and not his disgust with a sensual life, nor his seeing four objects mentioned in the legond, Der Buddhismus, p. 12.


“ Accompanied by a thousand followers, Buddha ascended a mountain, and addressed them as follows: The eyes are a burning flame. What are the causes of such burning ? Concupiscence, anger, birth, death, old age, and anxiety. The ear is a burning flame; and the burning is caused by concupiscence, anger, birth, death, anxiety, tears, affliction and trouble. The sense of smelling is a burning flame, fed by concupiscence, anger, sorrow, ignorance, birth, old age, death. The taste is a burning flame, and the fire is kept up by concupiscence, anger, sorrow, ignorance, anxiety, birth, old age, and death. The sense of feeling is a burning flame; the pleasure and pain caused by the heart are a burning flame, kept up by the fire of concupiscence, anger, ignorance, birth, death, old age, disquietude, affliction, and sorrow. Beloved Bickus, they who understand the doctrine 1 have preached, and see through it, are full of wisdom, and deserve to be called my disciples. They want no more guidance of the sixteen laws, for they have reached far beyond them."


“ And seeing a multitude he went up into a mountain, and his disciples came unto him; and he taught them, saying: Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven. Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted. Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy, Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are they that arə persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye when, men shall revile you and say all manner of evil against you, falsely, for my sake. Rejoice and be exceeding glad, for great is your reward in heaven. · Be ye perfect as your Father in leaven is perfect.”.


“ At the age of ten he threw an elephant to a considerable distance, and shot an arrow so deep into the ground that it

8 Bigandet. Chapter VII.

laid bare a fountain of water which possessed miraculous healing power. After he had become Buddha, he washed his hands over the stone of a mango, and on a sudden a beautiful white mango tree sprang up fifty cubits high. He caused a stream of water to issue from the upper part of his body, and flames from the lower part, and on a sudden the reverse to take place. Fire issued from his right eye, and streams of water from his left eye; and so on from his nostrils, ears, right and left, in front and behind. With one step he reached the mountain Ugando, a distance of 160,000 youdzanas. He transported himself and his disciples across the Ganges by merely lifting his arms. He split a large log of wood into 500 pieces in an instant, and in another instant kindled with the pieces 500 fires. An elephant much advanced in inerits, ministered to his wants for three months, with the affection of a devoted disciple. Having no one to converse with, he created a personage who appeared to walk and talk with him. Barren women

bore children at his desire. Neither wicked men nur beasts had power to injure him.”9


These were not numerous nor trival. They consisted in healing the sick, making the blind to see, the deaf to hear, the lame to walk, and raising the dead.


This was caused by a dysentery, brought on by eating pork. The Pali account of his decease is as follows: "He accepted his last meal from Chundo, a goldsmith. Chundo, he said, if any pork is to be dressed by thee, with it only serve me. Serve to the priests from any other food. Chundo replied, Lord, be it so.' Buddah called him again, saying, Chundo, if any pork prepared by thee should be left, bury it in a hole, for I see not any one in this universe, angels, ascetics, or men, who could digest it, if he ate at the same, excepting only myself. From this meal followed the predestined attack of dysentery."'10 Buddha referring to this meal, after the commencement of the disease that took him off, said, “That is the last food I will ever take until I attain the state of Nirvana."11 9 Bigandet's Legends.

10 Wheel of the Law. p. 234. 11 Bigandet. Vol. II, p. 43.


“And when they had come to the place called Calvary, there they crucified him. And the soldiers, mocking him, offered him vinegar mingled with gall. And when he had cried with a loud voice, he gave up the ghost. And one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side."

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“ Beloved Bickus, the principle of existence, and mutability carries along with it the principle of destruction. Never for get this ; let your minds be filled with this truth ; to make it known to you I have assembled you.” These are the last words Buddha ever uttered. 12


" Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do! Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit. It is finished !"

Such is the exact parallel between these two extraordinary lives, and we are free to say that, at first sight, it is startling. The question is forced upon us, Was one story suggested by the other ? Did Buddhists copy from the Christians, or did the Christians copy from the Buddhists? or did each party make up its story independently, and without any knowledge of the other? We know of but two Orientalists who have looked these questions squarely in the face, and ventured to answer them ; namely, Dr. Ernest J. Eitel, of HongKong, and Prof. M. C. Schoebel, of Paris. Orientalists like Müller, Alabaster, St. Hilaire, and Monier Williams, notice the parellel, but make no attempt to account for it. Possibly the time for a satisfactory statement of the whole case has not yet come, inasmuch as the date of the Soutras, on which the legendary life of Buddha is founded, has not yet been accurately determined. Undoudtedly the ultimate result depends on the established date of the Soutras that contain the legends. Meanwhile the question is not, Are the

13 Bigandet. Vol. II, p. 68.

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